About the project

To reach the climate targets in the Paris Agreement, i.e. preventing a temperature rise that exceeds two degrees Celcius, the global emissions of greenhouse gases need to be radically reduced before 2050. This is a big challenge for the energy system, and specifically for the transport sector, today dominated by fossil fuels.

Compared to 2006, estimations show that CO2 emissions from global aviation may have increased five times by the year 2050. The marine transport sector could potentially increase its CO2 emissions with as much as 270 percent between 2007 and 2050. In order to meet future climate targets, aviation and shipping as well as road transport need to reduce their climate impact. Implementing energy efficiency measures, both technological and operative, are steps in the right direction, but they are not enough. The amount of renewable fuels needs to increase in all sectors.

Biomass-based fuels, electrification, hydrogen and so-called electrofuels are being developed for different parts of the transport sector. Most likely, a combination of different transportation fuels will be needed also in the future.  But which fuels and propulsion technologies will be the most cost-effective for aviation and shipping in the future, seen in a global energy system context given strict carbon reduction requirements? And what is the influence on the development of other parts of the transport sector? Is there enough biomass to contribute to a substantial reduction of CO2 emissions in the aviation and shipping sectors, and what else has an impact on the prerequisits for different options in these sectors?

This project aims to study this, focusing on aviation and marine transport. Up until today, most related studies have focused on competition for biomass in the road transport sector and the electricity/heat sector. The project also aims to contribute to method development for assessing the climate and environmental impact of electrofuels with life cycle assessment (LCA) which is needed in order to to understand their potential role as fuel for aviation, shipping and road transport.

Enhanced knowledge about alternative aviation and marine fuels, as well as increased collaboration and consensus among stakeholders within different parts of the transports sector, could contribute to industry and society actively finding solutions that have large-scale potential to be sustainable long-term, both from a resource and a cost perspective.


Julia Hansson, IVL


Erik Fridell, IVL // Selma Brynolf and Maria Grahn, Chalmers

Time plan
August 2019 - August 2021

Total project cost
1 990 000 SEK

The Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners and Chalmers.

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program

The project has a stakeholder reference group with members from the most relevant authorities and business companies in the concerned sectors.