Search Publications

The majority of project reports are written in English, with a Swedish summary.

Sorting of publications

How can alcohols contribute to a fossil-independent non-road machinery fleet?

Working vehicles such as tractors and wheel loaders use 13.9 TWh of fossil fuel annually. There are many alternatives to…

Read more »

Working vehicles such as tractors and wheel loaders use 13.9 TWh of fossil fuel annually. There are many alternatives to fossil fuels. These vary in technology maturity, as well as in emission reduction potential, taking into account e.g. the fuel production. In order for the potential to be realized, well-functioning business models for all stakeholders that handle and use the fuel are neccessary. Regarding biogas and biodiesel, a relatively large amount of studies have been performed, but for alcohols, the number is limited.

The purpose of the project is to supplement existing studies by evaluating the consequences of introducing alcohols as fuel for working vehicles, as well as to study driving forces and restrictions on the way towards broader establishment. This is done by analyzing different types of cases in terms of economic, environmental and practical consequences under different conditions.

Facts

Manager
Gunnar Larsson, SLU

Contact
gunnar.larsson@slu.se

Participants
Per-Ove Persson, Per-Ove Persson F.N.B.

Time plan
January - Dedember 2019

Total project cost
973 135 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, SLU and Per-Ove Persson F.N.B.

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
46986-1

Project Manager: Gunnar Larsson

Collaborative research program  | Ongoing

Synthesizing LCA reports on transport fuels for heavy duty trucks

Road freight vehicles are key economy enablers, they are employed for the movements of goods, such as food, electronics or…

Read more »

Road freight vehicles are key economy enablers, they are employed for the movements of goods, such as food, electronics or raw material. Today’s road freight vehicles are mainly fuelled with die­sel and use a significant fraction of the global fossil oil production. Without further policy efforts, oil demand from road freight vehicles is projected to increase considerably. Measures to lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from road freight vehicles include the use of renewable fuels, electrifica­tion and the use of fuel cells. All of these alternatives seem viable for medium size distribution trucks, but for heavy duty long-haul trucks the possible alternatives to diesel are less clear.

Life cycle assessment (LCA) can be an important tool to guide policymakers and the direction of technology development. However, from the studies examined in this work, it was recognized that available LCA studies on road freight vehicles do not sufficiently support decision making. Most studies are limited, and therefore, results from different studies are difficult to compare and lead to different recommendations. Problems identified in present studies are the following:

  1. there is only a limited number of available reports on trucks
  2. the definition of the vehicle is unclear
  3. different ap­proaches and system boundaries are applied
  4. studies are focusing on the present situation and do not include future considerations.

Furthermore, available studies are typically limited by not includ­ing equipment life cycle, end of life, analysis of resource depletion and cost.

Since there is no simple solution to lower GHG emissions from heavy duty transport it seems obvious that more LCA studies should focus on this sector. Such studies should be complete and well-defined LCAs also including equipment life cycle and end of life. In addition, it is suggested that the analysis include availability of resources as well as incorporate costs. Finally, to bet­ter support decision making, also future developments of technologies and society needs to be con­sidered. Building long-term scenarios with zero net GHG emissions and where all material is recycled is particularly important to obtain fully sustainable heavy duty transport solutions.

Facts

Manager
Ingemar Magnusson, Volvo GTT

Contact
ingemar.magnusson@volvo.com

Participants
Isabel Cañete Vela and Henrik Thunman, Chalmers // Per Hanarp, Volvo GTT

Time plan
May - November 2017

Total project cost
250 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners and Volvo

Project Manager: Ingemar Magnusson

f3 Project  | Finished | 2018-09-29

Actor networks, local policy instruments, and public procurement that supports biogas development

Municipalities and counties are important users of transport services and play a central role for biogas development. These actors can…

Read more »

Municipalities and counties are important users of transport services and play a central role for biogas development. These actors can affect hinders and incentives along the value chain for locally produced transport fuels, e.g. through green public procurement. The municipality/county may also play an active role in actor networks that actively bring together different stakeholders.

The establishment of strong actor networks is crucial for the emergence of biogas systems, which requires that heterogeneous actors with complementing competences and resources cooperate. This project aims at delivering decision support for the design of local policy instruments and public procurement as well as recommendations for municipalities and counties in their role as network leaders. The project includes three case studies – Luleå, Gotland, and Gothenburg – that represent different regional contexts. An active network including a large number of municipalities is associated with the project.

Facts

Manager
Tomas Lönnqvist, IVL

Contact
tomas.lonnqvist@ivl.se

Participants
Julia Hansson, Anders Hjort and Sven-Olof Ryding, IVL // Robert Lundmark and Patrik Söderholm, Bio4Energy (LTU)

Time plan
September 2018 - December 2019

Total project cost
1 600 000 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, IVL, Bio4Energy (LTU), Luleå Municipality, Dalsland Environment and Energy Federation, Energigas Sverige AB, Biogas Öst AB, Energy Agency for Southeast Sweden, Västra Götaland County Council, Region Gotland and Fyrbodals Municipal Association

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
46979-1

Project Manager: Tomas Lönnqvist

Collaborative research program  | Ongoing

Sustainable HVO production potential and environmental impact

Hydrogenated vegetable oil, HVO, is today the most important biofuel in Sweden. Despite Sweden’s rich assets on biomass, HVO is…

Read more »

Hydrogenated vegetable oil, HVO, is today the most important biofuel in Sweden. Despite Sweden’s rich assets on biomass, HVO is today produced from imported biomass mainly. This project helps to identify raw materials and estimate the potential of domestic and Nordic raw materials. The project aims to increase the knowledge about alternative sustainable raw materials and technologies for HVO production, with estimates of potentials. The project will also, together with the industry, identify the most promising raw materials and technologies and perform environmental systems analysis and techno-economic assessments of these.

Climate performance is calculated using the method in the EU Renewable Energy Directive (RED) and a broader method to show the significance of changes in the method of climate calculations in the regulatory framework.

The focus will be on raw materials that are present or can be produced in Nordic conditions.

Facts

Manager
Hanna Karlsson, SLU

Contact
hanna.e.karlsson@slu.se

Participants
Torun Hammar, SLU // Sofia Poulikidou, Chalmers // , Neste // , Preem AB

Time plan
January 2019 - June 2020

Total project cost
1 303 628

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, SLU, Chalmers, Neste and Preem AB

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
46980-1

Project Manager: Hanna Karlsson

Collaborative research program  | Ongoing

Drop-in fuels from black liquor part streams – bridging the gap between short and long-term technology tracks

In this project we investigate possibilities to produce drop-in biofuels from a partial stream of the total black liquor (BL)…

Read more »

In this project we investigate possibilities to produce drop-in biofuels from a partial stream of the total black liquor (BL) in kraft pulp mills. Focus is on petrol components, which today has fewer options than renewable diesel, and can thus contribute to the transport system transition on relatively short term and within the reduction obligation system.

Different technology tracks are studied based on lignin liquefaction/hydrotreatment, and BL gasification/synthesis via methanol-to-gasoline. By using only a share of all BL, pulp mills with limited recovery capacity can increase the pulp production. We evaluate both the biofuel production (costs, greenhouse gases (GHG), production potential, technology maturity) and effects on the pulp production from debottlenecking the recovery boiler. Favourable results may increase the drivers for investment in pulp mill integrated production of biofuels with high GHG performance.

The project involves participants from both pulp and refinery industry.

Facts

Manager
Elisabeth Wetterlund, Bio4Energy (LTU)

Contact
elisabeth.wetterlund@ltu.se

Participants
Yawer Jafri and Fredrik Granberg, Bio4Energy (LTU) // Erik Furusjö, Johanna Mossberg and Karin Lindgren, RISE // Christian Hulteberg, SunCarbon AB // Klaas va der Vlist and Bo Johansson, Smurfit Kappa Kraftliner // Henrik Rådberg, Preem // Henric Dennergård, Södra

Time plan
September 2018 - December 2019

Total project cost
2 034 427 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, Bio4Energy (LTU), Preem AB, Smurfit Kappa, SunCarbon and Södra skogsägarna ekonomisk förening

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
46982-1

Project Manager: Elisabeth Wetterlund

Collaborative research program  | Ongoing

SunAlfa – System-oriented analysis of processes for renewable fuels form forest raw material

SunAlfa is a project aimed at quantifying key factors for the development and commercialization of production chains for biofuels from…

Read more »

SunAlfa is a project aimed at quantifying key factors for the development and commercialization of production chains for biofuels from forest raw materials based on hydrothermal wood liquefaction (bark, sawdust, GROT, etc.). Two systems for processing wood raw material into finished renewable automotive fuels will be analysed:

  1. Catalytic hydroprocessing (refinery mode or stand-alone)
  2. Gasification in suspension bed gasifier and synthesis gas upgrading to methanol/DME or Fischer Tropsch liquids

The project is focused on analysing the current processes at the system level from raw material to final product and aims to highlight environmental and sustainability aspects and techno-economic conditions for commercialization.

Facts

Manager
Lars Stigsson, Kiram AB

Contact
l.stigsson@telia.com

Participants
Christian Stigsson, Pål Börjesson, Ola Wallberg and Christian Hulteberg, Lund University // Erik Furusjl, RISE

Time plan
Septe,ber 2018 - December 2020

Total project cost
3 600 000 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, Kiram AB, Lund University and RISE

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
46969-1

Project Manager: Lars Stigsson

Collaborative research program  | Ongoing

Long-term sustainability evaluation of fossil free fuels production concepts

The development of fossil free fuels will take place in a situation with successively, probably radical, changing conditions regarding surrounding…

Read more »

The development of fossil free fuels will take place in a situation with successively, probably radical, changing conditions regarding surrounding energy system, energy prices and policy instruments. This means that the conditions economically and environmentally for fossil free fuel concepts will not be the same as today. There is therefore a strong need for methods dealing with economic and environmental consequences for new bio-based fuel concepts in different future scenarios.

In this project, ongoing developments generally in this area and especially in three Swedish research groups from LTU, LU and Chalmers are analyzed and compared and possible combinations of methods identified. In addition to the project report, the project will result in a review paper with the aim to be an important contribution to the need for a firm knowledge base for decision-making about biofuel developments in industry as well as in policy-making.

Facts

Manager
Simon Harvey, Chalmers

Contact
simon.harvey@chalmers.se

Participants
Åsa Kastensson and Joakim Lundgren, Bio4Energy (LTU) // Pål Börjesson, Lund University // Matty Janssen, Chalmers

Time plan
September 2016 - March 2018

Total project cost
1 200 923 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, Chalmers, Luleå University of Technology and Lund University

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
42402-1

Project Manager: Simon Harvey

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2018-08-21

Sustainable biofuels – critical review of current views and case studies using extended systems analysis providing new perspectives and positive examples

The project is a further development of ongoing research on sustainable bioenergy systems at the departments of Fysisk Resursteori (FRT,…

Read more »

The project is a further development of ongoing research on sustainable bioenergy systems at the departments of Fysisk Resursteori (FRT, Physical Resource Theory) and Miljö- och Energisystem (AMES, Environment and Energy Systems). The aim is to broaden and further develop systems research on biofuels and add new perspectives, as well as to critically examine and propose alternatives to the approaches, analyses and policy instruments that have shaped the bioenergy development in recent years. The focus is on sustainable land use and efficient use of primary biomass as well as waste and residue streams used as feedstock for biofuels and other high-value bioproducts.

The project also focuses on the increased integration of energy systems with other systems. Case studies are carried out in order to clarify positive opportunities associated with biofuels development, as well as to demonstrate how the conclusions of the systems studies may depend on choices of method and parameter assumptions that may be disputed.

The project has high ambitions regarding scientific publishing and also regarding communication with the business community and the political system, where the IEA Bioenergy and other networks are used for effective dissemination.

Facts

Manager
Göran Berndes, Chalmers

Contact
goran.berndes@chalmers.se

Participants
Pål Börjesson, Lund University // Oskar Englund and Olivia Cintas, Chalmers // , IEA Bioenergy Task 43 - Biomass Feedstocks for Energy Markets

Time plan
September 2015 - November 2017

Total project cost
1 903 133 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, Chalmers and Lund University

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
40774-1

Project Manager: Göran Berndes

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2018-06-21

Prospects for renewable marine fuels

In order to reduce the environmental and climate impact of shipping, in the short and long term, the introduction of…

Read more »

In order to reduce the environmental and climate impact of shipping, in the short and long term, the introduction of alternative fuels is required. There is a need for more knowledge on alternative marine fuels. The overall aim of this project has been to assess the role of renewable fuels in the shipping sector and to contribute with scientifically based decision support for the choice of renewable fuels to industry, policy makers and other actors.

The project includes (i) a synthesis of knowledge on alternative marine fuels and the current activities by different actors, (ii) an assessment of factors influencing the choice of marine fuel, and (iii) a multi-criteria analysis of selected alternative marine fuels that consider technical, environmental and economic aspects.

Facts

Manager
Julia Hansson, IVL

Contact
julia.hansson@ivl.se

Participants
Stina Månsson and Erik Fridell, IVL // Selma Brynolf, Karin Andersson and Maria Grahn, Chalmers

Time plan
September 2016 - December 2017

Total project cost
1 385 000 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, IVL and Chalmers

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
42403-1

Project Manager: Julia Hansson

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2018-06-18

Prospects for renewable LBG in Sweden in 2030

The interest for renewable liquid methane as a fuel for heavy duty road and marine transports has risen in Sweden…

Read more »

The interest for renewable liquid methane as a fuel for heavy duty road and marine transports has risen in Sweden as well as in the EU as a whole, referring to its’ tehnology readiness level, and the relatively large climate benefits and high energy density. One example of this is the discussion on possibilities of replacing liquid natural gas (LNG) with liquid biogas (LBG) in a longer time perspective.

This project aims at studying the possibilities with LBG in Sweden, focusing on the year 2030. The project will map the possibilities for LBG production in Sweden and compare them with scenarios regarding the predicted demand. Creating a better understanding of the conditions for LBG as an alternative fuel for heavy duty vehicles and ships, the project aims to answer the quesion of what a realistic level of contribution of LBG in Sweden in 2030 is.

The project complements an earlier project that broadly studied the prospects for renewable transportation fuels in Sweden, but without any specific focus on LBG, whish is the focis of this new project. There are also connections to several projects within the f3 and Swedish Energy Agency collaborative research program Renewable transportion fuels and systems:

  • Metdriv
  • Utsikt för förnybara sjöfartsbränslen
  • Biogas i transportsektorn
  • How can forest-derived methane…

Facts

Manager
Anders Hjort, IVL

Contact
anders.hjort@ivl.se

Participants
Julia Hansson and Tomas Lönnqvist, IVL

Time plan
June 2018 - May 2019

Total project cost
250 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners and IVL

Project Manager: Anders Hjort

f3 Project  | Ongoing

An innovation policy framework and policy options for the development of biorefineries

This project investigates how different policy instruments contribute to the commercialization of future biorefineries and the production of renewable transport…

Read more »

This project investigates how different policy instruments contribute to the commercialization of future biorefineries and the production of renewable transport fuels in combination with other products. The project goals include: (i) a synthesis of existing international knowledge on policy instruments targeting innovation, up-scaling and deployment of new technology with a focus on biorefinery technologies and renewable transport fuels; (ii) the development of an innovation policy framework that can be used to analyze how different types of policy instruments contribute to R&D, up-scaling and the diffusion of mature technologies; and (iii) an assessment of potential policy options from a Swedish perspective. To promote innovation and industrial capacity all three above-mentioned phases of technological development need to be stimulated. In Sweden, there is a lack of policy instruments for scaling up innovative technology and for the further diffusion of more mature technology.

Facts

Manager
Hans Hellsmark, Chalmers

Contact
hans.hellsmark@chalmers.se

Participants
Julia Hansson and Tomas Lönnqvist, IVL // Patrik Söderholm, Bio4Energy (LTU)

Time plan
September 2016 - December 2017

Total project cost
1 529 350 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, IVL, LTU, Perstorp, Preem, Göteborg Energi AB and Lantmännen

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
42394-1

Project Manager: Hans Hellsmark

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2018-05-14

Electrolysis and electro-fuels in the Swedish chemical and biofuel industry: a comparison of costs and climate benefits

To reach the national goals of a fossil-independent vehicle fleet by 2030, a 100 % renewable power production by 2040…

Read more »

To reach the national goals of a fossil-independent vehicle fleet by 2030, a 100 % renewable power production by 2040 and a climate neutral society by 2045, it is essential that the production of renewa­ble fuels, the de-fossilisation of Swedish industry at large scale and the development of a more flexible electrical system including large-scale storage now gain momentum. One way that could contribute partly to an electrical system in balance and partly to an increased production of renewable substances, is to utilise the increasing access of renewable, low cost electricity for electrolysing water into hydrogen – so-called electro-hydrogen – and oxygen.

Renewable electro-hydrogen can be used as energy storage or as fuel in for example fuel cell vehicles, but may have its outmost potential in processes that replace fossil feedstock and/or energy carriers in various industrial processes such as steel, chemical and biofuel production. Furthermore, the electro-hydrogen can be used to bind larger CO2 emissions from e.g. biogas plants, steel or cement industry and via so-called electro-fuel processes (sometimes also called power-to-gas or power-to-fuel) generate valuable products such as methane and methanol in a circular economy. The different applications have different degrees of maturity, but are generally still far from a broad commercial penetration.

The aim of this project has been to provide a public, easily accessible summary of the conditions re­quired for electro-hydrogen to be considered as a viable alternative for de-fossilising various industrial sectors in Sweden. The analysis is based on a number of case studies focused on the Swe­dish chemical and biofuel industry and having the Swedish cement and steel industry as references for comparison of the demand for electro-hydrogen.

Facts

Manager
Anna-Karin Jannasch, RISE

Contact
anna-karin.jannasch@ri.se

Participants
Maria Grahn, Chalmers // Mattias Backmark and Linda Werner, Preem // Anna Berggren, Perstorp // Charlotte Lorentzen, Ecobränsle // Magnus Lundqvist, Swerea Mefos // Mikael Nordlander, Vattenfall // Mathias Thorén and Jonas Larsson, SSAB // Bodil Wilhelmsson, Cementa

Time plan
May - November 2017

Total project cost
250 000 SEK

Funding
RISE and Chalmers. The project has received external funding from the Chalmers and Preem Industrial Collaboration.

Project Manager: Anna-Karin Jannasch

f3 Project  | Finished | 2018-05-08

Transportation fuels from lignocellulose in a process combination

The continuous evaluation of business opportunities for Agroetanol has identified a patented pro­cess combination for the production of second-generation transportation…

Read more »

The continuous evaluation of business opportunities for Agroetanol has identified a patented pro­cess combination for the production of second-generation transportation fuels. According to previ­ous evaluations, this combination could produce such fuels from wood and straw at cost levels comparable to the present costs for first-generation fuels.

The overall process combines existing techniques and no basic R&D is required. Together with the dedicated production of transportation fuels without by-products and a minimum of waste product handling, this has prompted a joint study with the patent holder. The objective of the study is to evaluate the possibilities for the establishment of a demonstration unit at Agroetanol’s ethanol plant at Händelö.

Facts

Manager
Anders Holmbom, Lantmännen

Contact
anders.holmbom@lantmannen.com

Participants
Anders Östman, Cellolose Fuels

Time plan
June - September 2017

Total project cost
247 500 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners, Lantmännen and Cellulose Fuels

Project Manager: Anders Holmbom

f3 Project  | Finished | 2018-05-07

Gasification-based biofuels – Greenhouse gas emissions and profitability analysis with general and sector-specific policy instruments

Gasification-based biofuel production systems have a large potential to contribute to climate change mitigation in the transport sector. The commercial…

Read more »

Gasification-based biofuel production systems have a large potential to contribute to climate change mitigation in the transport sector. The commercial feasibility of renewable energy technol­ogies is affected by fossil fuel prices, the price of biomass and policy instruments, for example a cost for carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e).

The aim of this project has been to analyze and quantify the level of a sector specific greenhouse gas (GHG) emission cost (per CO2e) in transport required for making gasification-based biofuel pro­duction systems profitable under different future energy market scenarios. The analysis of the gasification-based systems builds upon the earlier work by the project participants and includes production systems of synthetic natural gas (SNG), methanol and Fischer-Tropsch fuels. The future energy market scenarios are based on the fossil fuel prices in the ”New Policy Scenario” and ”450 ppmv Scenario” presented in World Energy Outlook 2016. The project analysis also includes a comparison of the profitability and GHG emission re­duction potential from the gasification-based systems to systems where the same amount of bio­mass is used in conventional conversion technologies to produce electricity and where the electrici­ty is used in battery electric vehicles.

The results show that the level of the sector specific CO2e cost required to make the gasification-based systems profitable is not higher than the current level of CO2 tax in Swedish transport sector. Also, the results show that the systems where the biomass is used for electricity production and in BEV have higher profitability than the gasification-based systems. However, the electricity-based systems have a stronger dependency on heat sinks and a high price for delivered heat.

Facts

Manager
Kristina Holmgren, earlier at IVL

Contact
kristina.holmgren@vti.se

Participants
Tomas Lönnqvist, IVL // Thore Berntsson, Chalmers

Time plan
May 2016 - November 2017

Total project cost
250 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners and IVL. Additional funding has been provided by Göteborg Energi foundation for research and development.

Project Manager: Kristina Holmgren

f3 Project  | Finished | 2018-04-19

Techno-economics of long and short term technology pathways for renewable transportation fuel production

Sweden has the ambition to have a fossil-free vehicle fleet by 2030. From a short-term perspective, biofuels are needed that…

Read more »

Sweden has the ambition to have a fossil-free vehicle fleet by 2030. From a short-term perspective, biofuels are needed that can be used in existing vehicles and infrastructure (identical to gasoline or diesel; drop-in fuels). The Swedish Energy Agency has in particular highlighted lignin based biofuels as a strategically prioritized area. From a longer time perspective focus is on high-blend or pure biofuels, due to energy and resource availability reasons. Examples are cellulose-based ethanol, or methane, methanol and DME produced via biomass gasification.

In this project, short and long-term technology tracks for integrated biofuel production are evaluated regarding techno-economic performance and technology readiness level. The analysis is made based on existing knowledge and on targets for production costs under given scenarios, from which acceptable investment costs and yields will be calculated. The results can be used to guide future R&D efforts.

The project has delivered a concluding report (in Swedish), linked below. Publication of a detailed report in English, including analysis from all project scenarios, is postponed due to the procedure of scientific publication of a manuscript submitted in April 2018.

Facts

Manager
Erik Furusjö, IVL

Contact
erik.furusjo@ivl.se

Participants
Elisabeth Wetterlund and Yawer Jafri, Bio4Energy (LTU) // Marie Anheden, Ida Kulander och Johan Wallinder, RISE Bioeconomy

Time plan
August 2016 - December 2017

Total project cost
1 488 868 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, IVL, LTU, RISE and Preem

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
42406-1

Project Manager: Erik Furusjö

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2018-04-18

Integrated assessment of vehicle fuels with sustainability LCA – Social and environmental impacts in a life cycle perspective

The sustainability of biofuels for transport is often expressed as their possibility to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions compared to…

Read more »

The sustainability of biofuels for transport is often expressed as their possibility to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions compared to conventional fossil fuels. But the production and use of transport fuel s also result in other environmental impact and social/socioeconomic consequences.

This project has aimed at a Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA) for transport fuels based on different life cycle methods. An LCSA integrates environmental, social and economic aspects in one analysis. The project is a continuation of a previous project.

The targets of this new project have been to

  • deepen the analysis of social impact for the 3-4 fuel chains with high risks in the earlier project
  • try to integrate positive and negative social aspects
  • further develop the LCSA methodology and apply this on transport fuels
  • discuss the importance for policy development in the area.

Facts

Manager
Elisabeth Ekener, KTH

Contact
elisabeth.ekener@abe.kth.se

Participants
Julia Hansson, Mathias Gustavsson, Jacob Lindberg, Felipe Oliveira and Jonathan Wranne, IVL // Philip Peck, Lund University (IIIEE) // Aron Larsson, Stockholm University

Time plan
September 2014 - September 2016

Total project cost
1 997 500 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, KTH, IVL and Lund University

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
39120-1

Project Manager: Elisabeth Ekener

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2018-03-14

Vehicles and infrastructure for heavy long-haul transports fueled by electricity and hydrogen

A lot of research, development and demonstration efforts are directed towards electric roads and fuel cell vehicles and two of…

Read more »

A lot of research, development and demonstration efforts are directed towards electric roads and fuel cell vehicles and two of the major demonstration projects worldwide are situated in Sweden: Sandviken and Arlanda. This projects provides an updated view of the technical and economic devel­opment for long-haul road transports fuelled by electricity and hydrogen in a Swedish context. Several main actors involved in the electric road system technologies in the Swedish projects have been interviewed, as well as heavy vehicle manufacturers and hydrogen fuel suppliers.

Three different types of electric road systems – overhead conductive, rail conductive and dynamic inductive – have been studied together with fuel cells. Estimates for the present and future energy, vehicle and infrastructure costs have been derived from literature sources. Some adaptations and assumptions have been made for possible comparisons to the costs of conventional long-haul diesel lorries.

In the beginning of the considered time period (2017 to 2030), the vehicle costs of the new technol­ogies, especially for the fuel cell vehicles, were found to be much higher than for conventional diesel vehicles. Towards the end of this period, the differences were not as significant according to the cost projections. The infrastructure costs of the electric road systems were found to be high and the costs of the dynamic inductive solutions were the highest.

Facts

Manager
Stefan Grönkvist, KTH

Contact
stefangr@kth.se

Participants
Francesca Sartini, University of Pisa // Magnus Fröberg, Scania

Time plan
May 2016 - November 2017

Total project cost
233 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners, KTH and Scania

Project Manager: Stefan Grönkvist

f3 Project  | Finished | 2018-03-12

Knowledge synthesis on new value chains by thermochemical conversion of digestate for increased biofuel production in Sweden

To be able to replace fossil fuels with second-generation biofuels and reach the goal of a fossil-fuel independent vehicle fleet…

Read more »

To be able to replace fossil fuels with second-generation biofuels and reach the goal of a fossil-fuel independent vehicle fleet in 2030, it is important to utilize the raw material that today is digested more efficiently. The purpose of this project has been to investigate if residuals from biochemical conversion can be used as raw material, in a techno-economical way, for gasification for the production of biofuels, and if there are gaps in knowledge on this issue.

The value chain covered by the project includes the sub-steps digestate-digestate treatment-gasification-handling of ashes. The project’s aim has been to provide Swedish industry and government with a basis for evaluating if digestate from biogas production can be gasified and which values the suggested value chain can result in, compared to how the digestate and its corresponding value chain looks like today.

Photo: freeimages.com/Mihai Caliseriu

Facts

Manager
Anna-Karin Jannasch, RISE

Contact
anna-karin.jannasch@ri.se

Participants
Kent Davidsson and Sudhansu Pawar, RISE // Mikael Lantz, Lund University

Time plan
January - December 2017

Total project cost
500 000 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, RISE and Lund University

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
43682-1

Project Manager: Anna-Karin Jannasch

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2018-02-27

Marine feedstock based biofuels and ecosystem services

Climate change mitigation is prioritized in numerous national and international policy decisions and action plans, particularly in relation to the…

Read more »

Climate change mitigation is prioritized in numerous national and international policy decisions and action plans, particularly in relation to the transportation sector. Renewable energy sources are considered sustainable alternatives to the use of fossil fuels. Marine feedstocks like algae and sea squirts are depicted as interesting alternatives to more traditional biofuels produced from forest residues or agricultural crops; not competing with food and requiring less land area. However, prior to full-scale production, an all-embracing sustainability assessment is needed, screening possible impacts of marine-based biofuel production. For this, there is a need to identify the different ecosystem services affected.

This project has aimed at identifying and describing ecosystem services and appropriate indicators that are affected by production of marine feedstock based biofuels in Sweden.

Facts

Manager
Karin Hansen, earlier at IVL

Contact
karin.hansen@naturvardsverket.se

Participants
Karin Hansen, Roman Hackl, Anna-Sara Krång and Julia Hansson, IVL // Susanne Ekendahl och Johan Engelbrektsson, RISE

Time plan
January - December 2017

Total project cost
517 975 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, f3 partners, IVL and RISE

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
43679-1

Project Manager: Karin Hansen

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2018-02-27

Methanol production via black liquor gasification with expanded raw material base

Effective utilization of by-products of biochemical fuel production is crucial for its development and there is a need to expand…

Read more »

Effective utilization of by-products of biochemical fuel production is crucial for its development and there is a need to expand the raw material base for black liquor gasification. These are the reasons for this projects’ aims to environmentally and techno-economically evaluate co-gasification of black liquor and by-products of biochemical fuel production (glycerol and fermentation residues) and pyrolysis of forest residues for the production of bio-methanol. The Swedish technical production potential of two different grades of methanol (crude methanol and grade AA) via the production chains will also be assessed.

The project complements two currently ongoing research projects at Luleå University of Technology where experimental studies regarding blending of the above materials in black liquor are carried out.

Facts

Manager
Joakim Lundgren, Bio4Energy (LTU)

Contact
joakim.lundgren@ltu.se

Participants
Lara Carvalho and Elisabeth Wetterlund, Bio4Energy (LTU) // Erik Furusjö, IVL and Bio4Energy (LTU) // Johanna Olofsson and Pål Börjesson, Lund University // Golnar Azimi, Perstorp Bioproducts AB

Time plan
August 2015 - October 2017

Total project cost
1 387 000 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, Bio4Energy, Lund University and Perstorp

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
40759-1

Project Manager: Joakim Lundgren

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2018-02-13

Phosphorus recovery in algae-based biofuels

Replacing fossil fuels with sustainable fuel from biomass requires both innovative technological solutions and a feedstock that does not put…

Read more »

Replacing fossil fuels with sustainable fuel from biomass requires both innovative technological solutions and a feedstock that does not put too much strain on food production and land use. Hy­drothermal liquefaction, HTL, is a technology for producing biofuels that has been gathering increasing interest, and by using seaweed (macroalgae) as a feedstock it is a promising option that fulfils both previously mentioned criteria. Using macroalgae has the added benefit of remediating eutrophic coastal waters since the macroalgae during marine cultivation absorb some of the excess nutrients from the surroundings.

The main culprit in eutrophication is phosphorus, which is primarily used in fertilizers and ends up in the environment from agricultural runoff. After the HTL of the macroalgae, the phosphorus can be recovered and used to produce struvite, a natural fertilizer that can replace the conventional mineral fertilizer.

The purpose of this study has been iden­tify profitable and environmentally friendly technological solutions connecting phosphorous recov­ery with macroalgae processed with HTL and at the same time diver­sify the products outcome of biofuel production.

The project consisted of a comprehensive analysis of available phosphorus recovery technologies through a literature review and citation network analysis as well as modelling of one phosphorus recovery technology. Three different options of the chosen phosphorus recovery were assessed where the economic performance was evaluated by comparing the operating cost for the different options and the environmental im­pact was evaluated by comparing cumulative energy demand (CED), global warming potential (GWP) and eco-indicator99 (EI99).

Facts

Manager
Stavros Papadokonstantakis, Chalmers

Contact
stavros.papakonstantakis@chalmers.se

Participants
Andrea Gambardella, Johan Askmar and Yiyu Ding, Chalmers

Time plan
May - November 2017

Total project cost
250 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners and Chalmers

Project Manager: Stavros Papadokonstantakis

f3 Project  | Finished | 2018-02-05

Determination of potential improvements in bio-oil production (ImprOil)

An important route for renewable transportation fuels is to produce bio-oil from forest raw material through e.g. fast pyrolysis, which…

Read more »

An important route for renewable transportation fuels is to produce bio-oil from forest raw material through e.g. fast pyrolysis, which is then upgraded to fuel at an existing refinery. The oxygen content of the produced crude bio-oil determins the hydrogen demand to reduce the oxygen content to the required level from a refinery perspective and for use in engines. The H2 demand affects, in turn, the cost and the associated CO2 emissions of the bio-oil, as they are, to a large degree a result of the production route for hydrogen. This has been shown in an earlier project, Value chains with biofuel intermediates.

The purpose of this project has been to investigate alternative technologies that result in a lower oxygen content of the produced crude bio-oil, and alternative routes for production of hydrogen with a lower climate impact than hydrogen from natural gas. The different combined production routes is compared with respect to total cost, CO2-footprint, conversion yield and energy efficiency.

Facts

Manager
Marie Anheden, Formerly RISE

Contact
ida.kulander@ri.se

Participants
Ida Kulander, Karin Pettersson and Johan Wallinder, RISE // Lennart Wamling, Chalmers // Carl-Johan Hjerpe and Malin Fugelsang, ÅF Industri AB // Åsa Håkansson, Preem AB

Time plan
September 2016 - December 2017

Total project cost
1 405 000

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, Åf Industri AB and Preem

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
39587-2

Project Manager: Marie Anheden

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2018-01-26

Biofuels from biomass from agricultural land – land use change from a Swedish perspective

An international debate is taking place on indirect land use change (iLUC) triggered by biofuels, which could lead to large…

Read more »

An international debate is taking place on indirect land use change (iLUC) triggered by biofuels, which could lead to large emissions of greenhouse gases. The EU is expected to shortly decide about future subsidies and restrictions on the use of crops that, according to EU, can cause iLUC. Studies of iLUC caused by Swedish biofuel production are, however, lacking.

The purpose of this project has been to investigate how Swedish biofuels affect the use of land and also to study measures to minimize the risk of iLUC and trade-offs to sustainability in biomass production. The project was implemented in five parts:

  1. Literature review of iLUC models
  2. Analysis of land use statistics in Sweden
  3. Development of future scenarios for biofuels with a low risk of iLUC
  4. Case studies for the production of biofuels
  5. Development of advice to decision makers.

A summary in Swedish of background facts and conclusions based on two scientific articles (one published, the other forthcoming) has been published by Lund University in October 2017.

Facts

Manager
Serina Ahlgren, earlier at SLU

Contact
serina.ahlgren@ri.se

Participants
Lovisa Björnsson and Mikael Lantz, Lund University // Thomas Prade, SLU

Time plan
September 2015 - August 2017

Total project cost
2 619 607 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, SLU, Lund University, E.on, Lantmännen, Swedish Biogas International, Energigas Sverige, Partnership Alnarp and LRF (The Federation of Swedish Farmers)

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
40584-1

Project Manager: Serina Ahlgren

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2018-01-17

Comparison of diesel and gas distribution trucks – a life cycle assessment case study

This work presents a life cycle assessment (LCA) of a distribution truck for urban applications, with either a diesel or…

Read more »

This work presents a life cycle assessment (LCA) of a distribution truck for urban applications, with either a diesel or otto engine using different fossil and bio-based fuels. Impact of electrifica­tion is also briefly discussed. The impact assessment is done with both CO2-equivalent emissions and envi­ronmental damage cost assessment, using the Environmental Priority Strategy methodology (EPS) to provide impact on different perspectives and times when it comes to sustainability evaluation. This somewhat broader perspective, compared to conventional well-to-wheel analyses, can give better understanding of different environmental risks in technology development choices.

Facts

Manager
Per Hanarp, Volvo GTT

Contact
per.hanarp@volvo.com

Participants
Mia Romare, Volvo GTT

Time plan
September - December 2017

Total project cost
174 000 SEK

Funding
Volvo GTT

Project Manager: Per Hanarp

f3 Project  | Finished | 2018-01-10

Evaluation of biofuel production costs in relation to the new reduction obligation quota system

In the year 2017, the Swedish government proposed to introduce a reduction obligation for trans­portation fuel distributors. This would imply…

Read more »

In the year 2017, the Swedish government proposed to introduce a reduction obligation for trans­portation fuel distributors. This would imply an obligation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from fossil petrol and diesel through a gradual increased share of biofuels. The aim is to create im­proved conditions for phasing out fossil fuels through an increased proportion of biofuels with good greenhouse gas performance in a lifecycle perspective. The reduction obligation also means that not only production cost determines the overall economic performance of a biofuel production route, but also the greenhouse gas emissions. This is due to that biofuels with low greenhouse gas emissions can be blended in lower volumes than biofuels with worse greenhouse gas performance.

The main objectives of this work were partly to illustrate how the greenhouse gas performance of different biofuels relates to their economic value in the new reduction obligation system and partly to compare the resulting cost of greenhouse gas reduction for different types of biofuels.

The results show that of the biofuels available on the market today, the lowest reduction costs were obtained for biogas produced via digestion of waste as well as for sugarcane-based ethanol. Bio­diesel based on rapeseed oil results in the highest reduction costs. Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO) is currently produced from a large variety of feedstocks and thus results in a large reduction cost range, mainly due to the cost and greenhouse gas performance of the feedstock.

Emerging biofuels, so-called advanced biofuels, have the potential to achieve lower reduction costs than many of them produced via today’s production chains. This applies primarily to biofuels pro­duced by thermochemical conversion such as pyrolysis followed by refinery-integrated upgrading and gasification-based technology. However, in the cases where hydrogen is required for upgrading of liquids from pyrolysis or lignin polymerization, there are major cost reduction uncertainties, largely due to the origin of the hydrogen.

The project report is written in Swedish.

Facts

Manager
Erik Furusjö, IVL

Contact
erik.furusjo@ivl.se

Participants
Joakim Lundgren, Bio4Energy

Time plan
June - December 2017

Total project cost
230 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners and Bio4Energy (LTU)

Project Manager: Erik Furusjö

f3 Project  | Finished | 2017-12-20

BeWhere – Stake-holder analysis of biofuel production in Sweden

Sweden has set ambitious targets for conversion to a fossil-free transportation sector. Advanced, so-called second generation, biofuels are an important…

Read more »

Sweden has set ambitious targets for conversion to a fossil-free transportation sector. Advanced, so-called second generation, biofuels are an important factor in order to achieve this. Large-scale production of biofuels from, for example, forest biomass involves a number of challenges related to geographical aspects, transportation, and integration with existing industries and energy systems.

In this project, which is a continuation of two previous projects (Optimal localisation of second generation biofuel production in Sweden part I and part II, the geographical location model BeWhere Sweden is used. The objective of the project has been to demonstrate and validate the model’s usefulness for relevant stakeholders, and to use the model to examine barriers and drivers for the implementation of new large-scale biofuel production in Sweden. To provide a more comprehensive representation of the prospects for biofuel production, the model is also complemented with agriculture-based biofuels.

Facts

Manager
Elisabeth Wetterlund, Bio4Energy (LTU)

Contact
elisabeth.wetterlund@ltu.se

Participants
Robert Lundmark och Joakim Lundgren, Bio4Energy (LTU) // Magdalena Fallde, Linköping University // Karin Pettersson and Johan Torén, SP (RISE) // Johanna Olofsson and Pål Börjesson, Lund University // Marie Anheden and Valeria Lundberg, Innventia (RISE) // Dimitris Athanassiadis, Bio4Energy (SLU) // Erik Dotzauer, Fortum // Björn Fredriksson-Möller, E.on // Lars Lind, Perstorp // Marlene Mörtsell, SEKAB

Time plan
September 2014 - October 2017

Total project cost
2 205 000 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, Bio4Energy (LTU + SLU), Linköping University, Lunds University, Chalmers, SP, Innventia, Chemrec, Sekab, Perstorp and E.on

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
39118-1

Project Manager: Elisabeth Wetterlund

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2017-11-08

FOCUS ON: Renewable transportation fuels – from technologic potential to practical use in society

It is beyond doubt that human activity affects the climate. Emissions of greenhouse gases have increased since the beginning of…

Read more »

It is beyond doubt that human activity affects the climate. Emissions of greenhouse gases have increased since the beginning of industrialization, and the atmospheric levels of the most important greenhouse gases, carbon dioxode, methane and nitrous oxide, are higher than ever. In order to halt, and, in the long run, turn the development towards a warmer climate around, greenhouse gas emissions need to decrease drastically. Both a decreased use of energy as well as a transition to renewable energy will be needed.

Facts

This is an excerps from the introduction to the story “Renewable transportation fuels – from technologic potential to practical use in society” that was published in October 2017. The full story is available for download in Swedish.

Focus On  | 

Biogas in the transport sector – An actor and policy analysis

Biogas vehicles have been used for decades but nevertheless the biogas market is small. The aim of this project has…

Read more »

Biogas vehicles have been used for decades but nevertheless the biogas market is small. The aim of this project has been, firstly, to increase the knowledge about how to get actors to increase the transformation of their feedstock to biogas, and increase the use of biogas vehicles. Secondly, the project has aimed at investigating how to design policy instruments to foster such development. The basic question is: What can be done and by whom to foster a more rapid development of supply and use of biogas in the transport sector? Actors, i.e. present and potential feedstock suppliers, biogas producers and users of biogas vehicles, is the first main focus. The second focus is policy instruments, where biogas is one of many biofuels that can/should be supported.

The project is a case study of the Stockholm region and designed in a way that the results should be relevant also on the national level. The biogas market is viewed as a socio-technical system and the approach includes intensive contacts with the actors.

The full and detailed project report is delayed due to the ongoing process of scientific peer review of an article. However, it can be sent by request to the project manager.

Facts

Manager
Stefan Grönkvist, KTH

Contact
stefangr@kth.se

Participants
Tomas Lönnqvist and Thomas Sandberg, KTH // Jonas Ammenberg och Stefan Anderberg, Linköping University // Jürgen Jacoby, Stockholm Gas

Time plan
July 2015 - December 2016

Total project cost
1 927 625 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, KTH and Stockholm Gas

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
39595-1

Project Manager: Stefan Grönkvist

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2017-10-18

Methanol as a renewable fuel – a knowledge synthesis

Methanol use in various applications is on the raise globally and there are several examples on how methanol is used…

Read more »

Methanol use in various applications is on the raise globally and there are several examples on how methanol is used in the transport sector today. The main reasons to go the methanol route are that the production is comparably efficient and cost-ef­fective, and that use of methanol is carried out without noticeable problems. There are also several examples of where methanol as fuel is under advanced testing in various, sometimes novel, types of engines.

This project has aimed at creating a knowledge synthesis with a long-term perspective on the following:

  • earlier and current motivation to use or not to use methanol as an alternative fuel
  • experiences gained from earlier periods of methanol usage
  • reasons to why interest to use methanol as an automo­tive fuel has shifted through the past decades

The goal is to look forward and address methanol’s potential role as energy carrier/motor fuel in Sweden (and elsewhere).

Facts

Manager
Ingvar Landälv, Bio4Energy (LTU)

Contact
ingvar.landalv@ltu.se

Total project cost
250 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners

Project Manager: Ingvar Landälv

f3 Project  | Finished | 2017-09-18

Fresh and stored crops – a new way to organize all-year substrate supply for a biogas plant

Arable crops account for a large proportion of the identified potential for increased biogas production in Sweden. This project can contribute to…

Read more »

Arable crops account for a large proportion of the identified potential for increased biogas production in Sweden. This project can contribute to a better understanding of how crops can be used with lower costs.

The project has investigated if the substrate cost can be reduced by organizing the substrate supply in a new way, using both fresh and ensiled (stored) crops. The project has been conducted in cooperation with the Swedish biogas producer Gasum AB (formerly Swedish Biogas International, SBI) and contains two case studies based on the Gasum AB facilities in Örebro and Jordberga that has analyzed how fresh and stored crops should best be combined to minimize the cost. The analysis has been done by cost calculations and an improved optimization model for substrate supply during different times of the year.

Facts

Manager
Carina Gunnarsson, JTI (SP)

Contact
carina.gunnarsson@ri.se

Participants
Håkan Rosenqvist, JTI (SP) // Anneli Ahlström, Gasum AB // David Ljungberg, Thomas Prade and Sven-Erik Svensson, SLU

Time plan
July 2014 - March 2017

Total project cost
1 686 976 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, JTI (SP), Gasum AB and SLU

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
39122-1

Project Manager: Carina Gunnarsson

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2017-08-30

Industrial symbiosis and biofuels industry: Business value and organisational factors within cases of ethanol and biogas production

Industrial symbiosis involves collaborations among diverse, and predominantly local and re­gional, actors that create additional economic and environmental value through…

Read more »

Industrial symbiosis involves collaborations among diverse, and predominantly local and re­gional, actors that create additional economic and environmental value through by-product ex­changes, utility and service sharing, and joint innovations. While the importance of Industrial symbiosis for the de­velopment of biofuels is commonly recognised hypothetically, this study aims at advancing under­standing of the actual contribution provided in two real life examples–one focusing on grain-based ethanol production and the other focusing on biogas production in a co-digestion unit.

Moreover, this study highlights the importance of organisational factors that help shape, and explain relevant organizational and inter-organizational behaviour relevant for emergence and development of suc­cessful symbiotic partnerships – here referred to as “social determinants”.

Facts

Manager
Murat Mirata, Linköping University

Contact
murat.mirata@liu.se

Participants
Mats Eklund, Linköping University // Andreas Gundberg, Lantmännen Agroetanol AB

Time plan
January - August 2017

Total project cost
150 000 SEK

Funding
Linköping University and Lantmännen

Project Manager: Murat Mirata

f3 Project  | Finished | 2017-08-23

B100 (Biodiesel)

Faktabladet är i dagsläget enbart tillgängligt på engelska. B100 is a diesel fuel consisting of 100% fatty acid methyl esters…

Read more »

Faktabladet är i dagsläget enbart tillgängligt på engelska.

B100 is a diesel fuel consisting of 100% fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). It is a nontoxic, biodegradable fuel that can be produced from a wide array of vegetable oils and fats. The choice of feedstock has impacts on the fuel quality. Since B100 is used as a pure fuel, it replaces use of fossil diesel with a more sustainable option. In Sweden, FAME – including B100 – is the second largest renewable fuel on the market. All B100 on the Swedish market is based on rapeseed methyl ester (RME) to apply with climate related requirements.

Primary area of use

B100 is used as fuel in diesel engine vehicles in the transportation sector. Vehicles that run on B100 must be approved for this by the vehicle manufacturer to ensure compatibility of materials and engine settings. Today, several trucks, buses and light transportation vehicles have been approved for this service. In Sweden, the market for B100 has grown rapidly during the last years, but it is still a quite unknown fuel in the rest of Europe. The European standard for biodiesel, EN 14 214, contains a climate table, regulating the fuels’ cold properties. Different grades are therefore sold depending on the climate zone of the distribution area. In Sweden, most grades allow operation down to -20°C.

B100 is a nontoxic fuel that is biodegradable if spilled into nature. However, the biodegradable properties have a negative impact on the storage time. B100 should therefore be consumed within six months from the production date to avoid problems with oxidation and polymerization that could plug engine filters.

Distribution system

B100 is a liquid fuel and has similar properties to fossil diesel, except that it is nonflammable. This results in fewer demands on the distribution system. Today, the distribution of B100 is primarily limited to direct deliveries to large customers with private filling stations. The number of public filling stations that add pumps for B100 fuel is however continuously increasing.

Feedstock and production

As pure FAME, B100 can be produced from a wide array of oils and fats. Due to the Nordic climate, rapeseed oil is used in Sweden. The balance between mono and polyunsaturated fats affects the fuel properties. Generally, unsaturated fatty acids have low melting points. In turn, a larger share of polyunsaturated fatty acids increases the oxidation tendency and hence shortens the storage time of the fuel. Therefore, climate zone and required filterability, etc., need to be considered when the feedstock or mix of feedstocks is chosen.

B100 is produced through transesterification of fatty acids and methanol. Oil and fat consist of triglycerides that are separated to form FAME and glycerin in a transesterification process by replacing the glycerol-backbone in the triglyceride with an alcohol, typically methanol, under the action of a catalyst (i.e. sodium hydroxide). The triglycerides and methanol then form straightchain methyl esters, which are separated and purified in several steps to meet the fuel specification. The methanol used in the production is typically of fossil origin, but it can also be produced from renewable raw materials. Glycerol is a byproduct from the biodiesel process, and depending on its purity, it is sold into different market segments.

The transesterification reaction for producing B100 (FAME/Biodiesel) from a vegetable oil.

Current production and use as fuel

The consumed FAME in Sweden during 2015 was 425 000 m³, which represented 31% of the liquid renewable fuels on the market (HVO, FAME and bioethanol). Out of this, 247 000 m³ was sold as low blends and 178 000 m³ was sold as B100. To fulfil the demand of the Swedish market, about 70% of the FAME was imported, mainly from Europe.

In Sweden there are two main production sites; Perstorp in Stenungsund, producing roughly 150 000 m³ RME per year and Ecobränsle in Karlshamn with a production capacity of almost 40 000 m³ RME per year. There are also many small Swedish production sites, for example Tolefors Gård in Östergötland, which produces roughly 400 m³ RME per year from used cooking oil.

FAME/biodiesel projects

Unclear political steering systems, land usage discussions and removal of tax incentives in Sweden have raised many concerns for the FAME industry the past years. Nonetheless, the global development of biodiesel continues, and new production plants are being built. Despite the uncertain political situation in EU, several European countries want to increase biodiesel use even more and in August 2015 a new European Standard, EN 16709, was approved, allowing B20 and B30 blends in fossil diesel (14-20% v/v or 24-30% v/v FAME in diesel fuel) for designated vehicles. However, this is not applicable in Sweden today; as the Swedish law for transportation fuels (Drivmedelslag 2011:319) does not allow marketing of diesel fuels containing more than 7% v/v of FAME.

Facts

Fact sheet  | 

Techno-economic analysis of biomethane production with novel upgrading technology

The use of upgraded biogas as vehicle fuel is considered as one of the most efficient means of utilizing renewable energy to…

Read more »

The use of upgraded biogas as vehicle fuel is considered as one of the most efficient means of utilizing renewable energy to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions from the transportation sector. Biogas upgrading using current technologies is energy-intensive (consumes up to 30% of the energy of the gas).

Ionic liquid (IL, a liquid CO2 absorption solvent) has been proposed as a promising absorbent for biogas upgrading with lower energy consumption. Extensive research work has been conducted since 2001. However, there is a need for further techno-economic analysis. In this project, the IL performance for biogas upgrading will be evaluated and techno-economic analysis will be conducted.

During the course of the project, Yujiao Xie at Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, finished her Doctoral Thesis with the title CO2 separation with ionic liquids – from properties to process simulation. Some parts of the thesis were carried out in connection to the project.

Facts

Manager
Xiaoyan Ji, Bio4Energy (LTU)

Contact
xiaoyan.ji@ltu.se

Participants
Yujiao Xie and Chunyan Ma, Bio4Energy (LTU) // Johanna Björkmalm, Karin Willquist and Johan Yngvesson , SP // Ola Wallberg, Lund University

Time plan
December 2014 - December 2016

Total project cost
1 345 900 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, Bio4Energy (LTU), Sp and Lund University

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
39592-1

Project Manager: Xiaoyan Ji

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2017-08-07

Biofuel stakeholders cooperate in the project series BeWhere Sweden (f3 Stories no. 6)

Det talas idag en hel del om förnybara drivmedel. Regeringen har beslutat att Sveriges energiförsörjning ska vara hållbar, resurseffektiv och…

Read more »

Det talas idag en hel del om förnybara drivmedel. Regeringen har beslutat att Sveriges energiförsörjning ska vara hållbar, resurseffektiv och fri från nettoutsläpp av växt­husgaser år 2045. Som ett steg på vägen ska fordonsflottan vara fossiloberoende redan år 2030. Högt uppsatta mål med andra ord. För att i full skala kunna realisera investeringar i svensk produktion av avancerade biodrivmedel baserade på avfall eller lignocellulosa, är det därför hög tid att angripa frågan på bred front. Projektserien BeWhere Sweden har undersökt vilka faktorer som har störst påverkan på kostnadseffektivitet i produktion av skogsbaserade biodrivmedel. Fokus i projekten har varit geografisk placering av produktionsanläggningarna. f3 har stöttat utvecklingen från start och snart publiceras slutrapporten från projektseriens tredje del, finansierad inom samverkansprogrammet ”Förnybara drivmedel och system”. Modellen lever dock vidare och fortsätter generera insikter, nu med breddad finansiering.

Facts

This is an excerpt of the introduction of the story “Biofuel stakeholders cooperate in the project series BeWhere Sweden” published in June 2017. The full story is available for download in Swedish.

f3 Stories  | 

FAME, Fatty acid methyl esters

Fatty acid methyl ester, FAME, is a nontoxic, biodegradable biodiesel that can be produced from a wide array of vegetable…

Read more »

Fatty acid methyl ester, FAME, is a nontoxic, biodegradable biodiesel that can be produced from a wide array of vegetable oils and fats. It is used both as a blending component in fossil diesel and as a pure fuel. It is then called B100 (see separate fact sheet). FAME, together with Bioethanol, is the leading renewable liquid fuels on a global basis. In Sweden, FAME is the second largest renewable liquid fuel on the market. All FAME on the Swedish market is based on rapeseed methyl ester (RME) to comply with climate related requirements.

Primary area of use

Fatty acid methyl ester, FAME, generally goes under the name biodiesel and is used as fuel in diesel engine vehicles. It is normally used as a blend-in component in fossil diesel to increase the renewable content of the fuel. The current European diesel standard allows up to 7% v/v of FAME in diesel fuel without any modifications in vehicles or the distribution system. FAME is fully miscible with fossil diesel and apart from increasing the renewable content, it improves the lubricating properties. However, FAME is sensitive to cold climate and different grades are therefore sold depending on the climate zone of the distribution area. In Sweden, most grades allow operation down to -20°C.

FAME can also be used as a pure fuel, called B100 (see separate fact sheet). Pure FAME is nontoxic and biodegradable if spilled into nature. However, the biodegradable properties have a negative impact on the storage time, and pure FAME should therefore be consumed within six months to avoid problems with oxidation and polymerization. Vehicles that run on pure FAME must be approved for this by the vehicle manufacturer to ensure compatibility of materials and engine settings. Today, several trucks, busses and light transportation vehicles have been approved for the use of pure FAME. In Sweden the market for B100 has grown rapidly during the last years, but knowledge about the fuel has now quite spread to the rest of Europe.

Distribution system

FAME is a liquid fuel and does not require any modification to the distribution systems when blended into fossil diesel. Nearly all diesel distributed today at filling stations in Sweden contains roughly 5-7 % v/v FAME, depending to some extent on seasonal and geographical conditions.

Feedstock and production

most common feedstock in Europe is rapeseed and sunflower oil. In the US soybean, corn or rapeseed oil are most common, while palm oil is used in Asia. Generally, FAME can be produced from any fatty acid source, meaning that algae, jatropha, animal fats and other waste oils can be used. However, the fatty acid composition of the feedstock determines the properties of the final product. Generally, unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids have low melting points. On the other hand, too much polyunsaturated fatty acids increase the oxidation tendency and hence shortens the storage time of the fuel. Therefore, climate zone, required filterability, etc. must be considered in the choice of feedstock or feedstock mix.

FAME is produced through transesterification of fatty acids and methanol. Oil and fat consist of triglycerides that separate to form FAME and glycerin in a transesterification process by replacing the glycerol-backbone in the triglyceride with an alcohol, typically methanol, under the action of a catalyst (i.e. sodium hydroxide). The triglycerides and methanol then form straight-chain methyl esters that are separated and purified in several steps to meet the fuel specification. The methanol used in the production is typically of fossil origin, but it can also be produced from renewable raw materials. Glycerol is a byproduct from the biodiesel process and depending on its purity, it is sold in different market segments.

The transesterification reaction for producing FAME from a vegetable oil.

In 2013, 293 000 m³ of FAME were consumed in Sweden. Of this 240 000 m³ was sold in low blends and 42 000 m³ was sold as pure FAME, B100. To fulfil the demand of the Swedish market, FAME is also imported. The amount of FAME imported has increased during the last three years. FAME is mainly imported from Lithuania, Germany, the Netherlands, Denmark, Norway and Italy. Svenska Petroleum och Biodrivmedels Institutet, SPBI, has reported that low blend diesel with FAME represented 2,7 % of the the total use of fuel in the Swedish transport sector in 2012 (on energy basis). The corresponding figure for pure FAME, B100, is 0,4 %.

The largest producer of FAME/biodiesel globally is USA with a production of roughly 5 billion liters in 2013, followed by Germany, Brazil and Argentina.

Current production and use as fuel

The consumed FAME in Sweden during 2015 was 425 000 m3, representing to 31% of the liquid renewable fuels on the market (HVO, FAME and bioethanol). Out of this, 247 000 m3 was sold as low blends and 178 000 m3 was sold as pure FAME, B100. To fulfil the demand of the Swedish market, about 70% of the FAME was imported, mainly from Europe.

The European Union, EU (28), is the largest producer of FAME globally with a production of roughly 12 700 000 m3 in 2014. Germany, France, The Netherlands and Spain are the main producers. EU is followed by US, which had a production of 8 000 000 m3 in 2015. South America produced about 6 900 000 m3 and Asia Pacific (APAC) roughly 5 400 000 m3 in 2014.

In Sweden there are two main production sites of RME, the basis for FAME; Perstorp in Stenungsund, producing roughly 150 000 m3 RME per year and Ecobränsle in Karlshamn with a production capacity of almost 40 000 m3 RME per year. There are also many small Swedish production sites, for example Tolefors Gård in Östergötland that produces roughly 400 m3 RME per year from used cooking oil.

FAME/biodiesel projects

Unclear political steering systems, land usage discussions and removal of tax incentives in Sweden have raised many concerns for the FAME industry the past years. Nonetheless, the global development of biodiesel continues, and new production plants are being built. Despite the uncertain political situation in EU, several European countries want to increase biodiesel use even more and in August 2015 a new European Standard, EN 16709, was approved, allowing B20 and B30 blends in fossil diesel (14-20 % v/v or 24-30 % v/v FAME in diesel fuel) for designated vehicles. However, this is not applicable in Sweden today; as the Swedish law for transportation fuels (Drivmedelslag 2011:319) does not allow marketing of diesel fuels containing more than 7 % v/v of FAME.

Facts

Fact sheet  | 

From visions to smart ICT – Local transitions to renewable transportation

There is large uncertainty regarding how to succeed in the transition to fossil free fuels. In municipalities and regions, there…

Read more »

There is large uncertainty regarding how to succeed in the transition to fossil free fuels. In municipalities and regions, there are uncertainties regarding what to choose for procurements today, as well as for the long-term planning.

This project has aimed at supporting local capacity to develop fossil free fuel transport systems, with improved information on renewable fuels in a systems perspective and development of smart ICT solutions. Through local case studies as well as international literature reviews, the project has analyzed how visions and strategies can be used to strengthen the understanding of the actions needed, what information is needed in different situations and how available ICT solutions support decision-making.

The analysis is based on scientific theories with different systems perspectives: ICT systems for the transport sector, life cycle assessment and strategies for sustainable development.

A scientific publication is beeing prepared within the project.

Facts

Manager
Cecilia Sundberg, SLU

Contact
cecilia.sundberg@slu.se

Participants
Anna Kramers, KTH // Kes McCormick, Tareq Emtairah, Charlotte Leire, Alvar Palm and Nicholas Dehod, Lund University (IIIEE) // Göran Albjär, Uppsala County Board // Camilla Winqvist, Heby municipality

Time plan
July 2015 - December 2016

Total project cost
1 337 082 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, SLU, KTH, Lund University, Uppsala County Board and Heby municipality

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
40769-1

Project Manager: Cecilia Sundberg

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2017-06-27

Update of existing and addition of missing data into a LCI data repository of fossil and renewable transportation fuels on the Swedish market

The objective of this project is improved data for LCA of fuels. The project is an update and addition to…

Read more »

The objective of this project is improved data for LCA of fuels. The project is an update and addition to earlier projects within f3 (INFOGA LÄNKAR NÄR SIDORNA ÄR UPPDATERADE!)

The project will compile life cycle inventory (LCI) data from literature and industry stakeholders for fuel components currently lacking in the existing repository. To the extent possible, current data of insufficient quality will be updated. In particular for fuel components entirely or partly produced in Sweden, the data that which will be published should be validated against real production data. Published data is however not anticipated to correspond to any specific plant.

Facts

Manager
Tomas Rydberg, IVL

Contact
tomas.rydberg@ivl.se

Time plan
June - November 2017

Total project cost
250 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners

Project Manager: Tomas Rydberg

f3 Project  | Ongoing

The role of electrofuels: a cost-effective solution for future transport?

Electrofuels are synthetic hydrocarbons produced from carbon dioxide and water with electricity as the main source. They are interesting for…

Read more »

Electrofuels are synthetic hydrocarbons produced from carbon dioxide and water with electricity as the main source. They are interesting for several reasons, namely as they may play an important role as transport fuels in the future, could be used to store intermittent electricity production, and because they provides an opportunity for biofuel producers to increase the yield of hydrocarbons/biofuels from the same amount of biomass.

The purpose of the project is to deepen the knowledge of electrofuels by

  • mapping and analyzing the technical potential for recycling of carbon dioxide from Swedish biofuel and combustion plants
  • mapping the economic potential
  • analyzing the conditions under which electrofuels are cost-effective compared to other alternative fuels in order to reach climate targets.

Facts

Manager
Maria Grahn, Chalmers

Contact
maria.grahn@chalmers.se

Participants
Selma Brynolf, Chalmers // Julia Hansson, IVL

Time plan
September 2014 - May 2016

Total project cost
1 062 200 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, IVL and Scania

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
39121-1

Project Manager: Maria Grahn

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2017-06-27

Bio-SNG production by means of biomass gasification combined with MCEC technique

Biomass gasification is an attractive technology that efficiently converts forest biomass, biomass-based wastes and other types of renewable feedstocks into…

Read more »

Biomass gasification is an attractive technology that efficiently converts forest biomass, biomass-based wastes and other types of renewable feedstocks into transportation fuels, chemicals or elec­tricity. However, one important bottleneck for commercialisation of the technology in biomass gasification plants is the choice of engineering solutions for the downstream product gas cleaning and conditioning, before using the produced synthesis gas. Gas cleaning and conditioning technologies are capital intensive, and the investment costs for these technologies in biomass gasification production sys­tems are initially very large, leading to large business risks. One way to promote the commercialisation of biomass gasification is to invest in small to medium-scale plants, where the total costs are more reasonable and the financial risks are lower.

The main aim of this study has been to make a preliminary evaluation of the technical and economic feasi­bility of combining biomass gasification with molten carbonate electrolysis cell technol­ogy (MCEC) in systems for production of biomass-based substitute natural gas (bio-SNG). The study is based on a literature survey and a conceptual techno-economic investigation of using a MCEC as a gas cleaning and conditioning process step in a biomass gasification system for bio-SNG production. To enable a comparison with a real case, the GoBiGas plant was selected as a reference case. Five different sce­narios were evaluated in relation to energy and economic performance.

The project results are positive with regard to integrating a MCEC. Introducing a MCEC in the gas cleaning and conditioning process of a biomass gasification system provides with the opportunity for process intensification with a potential integration of three process units into one.

Mass and energy balances show that the production of bio-SNG can be boosted by up to 60% when integrating a MCEC, compared to the same biomass input in a stand-alone operation of a plant similar to GoBiGas. Additionally, the economic assessments re­vealed price ranges for biomass, SNG and renewable electricity, allowing for a wider margin in terms of the Investment Opportunity index for the considered process configurations, as com­pared to the stand-alone SNG plant.

Facts

Manager
Klas Engvall, KTH

Contact
kengvall@kth.se

Participants
Carina Lagergren, Göran Lindbergh and Chunguang Zhou, KTH // Sennai Mesfun, Joakim Lundgren and Andrea Toffolo, Bio4Energy (LTU)

Time plan
January 2016 - February 2017

Total project cost
250 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners, KTH and Bio4Energy (LTU)

Project Manager: Klas Engvall

f3 Project  | Finished | 2017-06-07

Barriers to an increased utilisation of high biofuel blends in the Swedish vehicle fleet

The aim of the Swedish government is a fossil fuel-free vehicle fleet to 2030. In order to meet future environmental…

Read more »

The aim of the Swedish government is a fossil fuel-free vehicle fleet to 2030. In order to meet future environmental goals and reduce the dependence on fossil fuels, high biofuel blends, such as ethanol and biogas, will likely be a substantial part of the fleet.

The aim of this project has been to develop a better understanding of the barriers that currently exists for an increased use of high blend ethanol (especially E85) and ethanol vehicles and by ex­tension other similar vehicle using high biofuel blends. This knowledge is important to provide decision makers with data and recommendations for which incentives and regulations must be created to be able to increase the use of high biofuel blends in Sweden.

Facts

Manager
Åsa Kastensson, earlier at Bio4Energy (LTU)

Contact
asa.kastensson@vattenfall.com

Participants
Pål Börjesson, Lund University // Joakim Lundgren, Bio4Energy (LTU) // Per Erlandsson, Lantmännen

Time plan
January 2015 - January 2017

Total project cost
1 927 119 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, Bio4Energy, Lund University and Lantmännen

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
39584-1

Project Manager: Åsa Kastensson

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2017-05-31

Overview of the proposed changes to the Renewable Energy Directive, RED

On November 30th, 2016, the European Parliament, as part of its so called Winter Package*, issued a…

Read more »

On November 30th, 2016, the European Parliament, as part of its so called Winter Package*, issued a proposal for an update of the directive on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources (the Renewable Energy Directive, RED). The update of this directive, often referred to as RED II, is in May 2017 still a proposal and is going through the legislative process, where the text will be negotiated, before finally being adopted and the directive will be entered into force.

f3’s main purpose is to develop and communicate scientifically based knowledge about renewable transportation fuels and their sustainability. Thus, the parts of the RED II relevant for the development and regulation of renewable transportation fuels, and the extent to which these have been altered, compared to the former RED have been compiled.

Major changes from former RED

The RED launched in 2009 established an overall policy for the production and promotion of energy from renewable sources in the EU. For the transport sector, all EU countries must ensure that at least 10% of their transport fuels come from renewable energy sources by 2020. The directive also introduced a European sustainability criteria for renewable transportation fuels. The RED was later, after extensive debate, complemented by the so called iLUC directive in 2015, in order to address indirect land use change emissions and to prepare the transition towards advanced biofuels. Below, the main changes in the proposed RED II, compared to the former directives, are summarized:

Article 3: The target for 10% renewable energy in the transportation sector (RES-T) is removed after 2020. This means that there is no specific target for the transportation sector after this date, instead the total target for the renewable energy share of 27% in gross final consumption by 2030 is to be met by a non-defined combination of measures within all energy sectors (electricity, heating and cooling, and transportation). The target is a union-wide target. However, each Member State must attain a minimum national share of renewable energy in gross final consumption as set by the earlier national commitments (corresponding to 10-49% in 2020 and also listed in Annex I).

Article 7: The cap on biofuels and bioliquids produced from food or feed crops**, introduced through the iLUC directive in 2015, is gradually reduced from 7% of final consumption of energy (as per Member State) in 2021 in road and rail transport, to 3.8% in 2030, following the trajectory set out in Annex X. Member States may, however, set a lower limit and may also distinguish between different types of biofuels, bioliquids and biomass fuels, for instance by setting a lower limit for biofuels produced from oil crops. To count towards the renewable energy targets the contribution of biofuels, bioliquids and biomass fuels must meet further sustainability and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission saving criteria.

Article 16: An establishment of a permit granting process for (all) renewable energy projects with one designated authority (“one-stop-shop”) to reduce complexity and increase efficiency and transparency. Also, a maximum time limit for the permit granting process is set.

Article 25: An EU-level obligation is established for fuel suppliers to provide a certain share of low-emission and renewable fuels, including advanced biofuels and other biofuels and biogas produced from feedstock listed in Annex IX, renewable electricity, renewable liquid and gaseous transport fuels of non-biological origin, and waste-based fossil fuels.The share of low-emission and renewable fuels should be at least equal to 1.5% in 2021 and 6.8% in 2030.The switch to advanced biofuels is promoted by a specific sub-mandate, within which their yearly contribution should be at least 0.5% in 2021, and increase to reach at least 3.6% by 2030. Advanced biofuels are defined as being produced from feedstock listed in Part A of Annex IX.The share of biofuels produced from organic wastes and residues with mature technologies, as included in Annex IX Part B, is capped to 1.7%.The 6% life-cycle GHG emission reduction target is not continued after the end of 2020 and the RED II would not directly amend the FQD (Fuel Quality Directive).Member States shall put in place national databases that ensure traceability of fuels and mitigate the risk of fraud.

Article 26: The existing EU sustainability criteria is reinforced and extended to biomass used also for other bioenergy purposes than transportation fuel, i.e. for heating/cooling and electricity production.Streamlining of the sustainability criterion applying to agricultural biomass (to reduce the administrative burden).Stricter criterion for peatland protection.Introduction of a new risk-based criterion for forest biomass. According to this, woody raw material should come only from forests that are harvested in accordance with the principles of sustainable forest management. Operators should take the appropriate steps in order to minimize the risk of using unsustainable forest biomass for the production of bioenergy.The country of origin of the forest biomass must meet LULUCF (Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry)requirements set according to decisions adopted under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and Paris agreements.Increased requirements for GHG saving performance to 70% for new plants for biofuels for transportation (80% for biomass-based heating/cooling and electricity – only above 20 MW). These thresholds are a prerequisite for public support and inclusion in the fulfilling of renewable energy targets and obligations. Existing support schemes for biomass-based electricity should however be allowed until their due end date for all biomass installations.The sustainability criteria and the greenhouse gas emission criteria should apply regardless of the geographical origin of the forest and agricultural biomass.

Article 27: Article 27 provides a clarification on the mass balance system and adaption to cover biogas co-digestion and injection of biomethane in the natural gas grid.

Annex V: Default values for GHG emission savings for biofuels and bioliquids in the Annex V are updated. For more mature biofuels (such as ethanol and biodiesel based on food and feed crop), these values have, in general, increased compared to former default values. For future biofuels, the default values are instead, in general, slightly decreased. For all biofuels, a more detailed division upon different biofuel production pathways are provided. Biogas is moved to Annex VI.

Annex VI: A new Annex VI is added to cover a common GHG accounting methodology for biomass fuels for heat and power (as well as biomethane for transport), including default values for GHG emission savings.

Annex IX: In Annex IX the feedstocks (mainly for advanced biofuels) which should be considered for meeting the new fuel-suppliers’ obligation target are listed. New to the list in Part B is molasses. Every two years the Commission shall evaluate the feedstocks listed in the Annex allowing for the possibility to add but not remove feedstocks from the list.

Facts

Manager
Ingrid Nyström, Chalmers Industriteknik Industriell Energi AB

Contact
ingrid.nystrom@chalmersindustriteknik.se

Participants
Ulrika Claeson-Colpier, Chalmers Industriteknik

On November 30th, 2016, the European Parliament, as part of its so called Winter Package, issued a proposal for an update of the directive on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources (the Renewable Energy Directive, RED). The update is often refered to as RED II. This PM summarizes the parts of the RED II relevant for the development and regulation of renewable transportation fuels, and the extent to which these have been altered, compared to the former RED.

Footnotes in the PM:

* The Winter Package, or the Clean energy for all Europeans package, also includes revised versions of the Energy Efficiency Directive, the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive, recasts of the Internal Electricity Market Directive (and Regulation) and the ACER Regulation as well as proposals for a Regulation of Risk-Preparedness in the Electricity Sector and Repealing the Security of Supply Directive, and for a Regulation on the Governance of the European Union.

** Starch-rich sugars and oil crops produced on agricultural land as a main crop excluding residues, waste or lignocellulosic material.

Project Manager: Ingrid Nyström

f3 Project  | Finished | 2017-05-16

Assessing positive social impacts – organizing and structuring the data collection

This project aims at examining the availability of data on positive social impacts for renewable vehicle fuels. The data collection…

Read more »

This project aims at examining the availability of data on positive social impacts for renewable vehicle fuels. The data collection will be focused on the sectors and countries/regions relevant for the most commonly used renewable fuels in a Swedish context. A selection of 2-4 different fuels, relevant in a Swedish market context will be made.

The resulting data vill be presented as potentials for positive impact. The ultimate aim, not included in this project, is to preferably integrate the data in the existing databases SHDB and PSILCA, or, in other case, enter it in a separate database software.

Facts

Manager
Elisabeth Ekener, KTH

Contact
elisabeth.ekener@abe.kth.se

Participants
PhD Student, KTH // Julia Hansson, IVL

Time plan
June - November 2017

Total project cost
250 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners and KTH

Project Manager: Elisabeth Ekener

f3 Project  | Ongoing

Dimethyl ether, DME

Dimethyl ether (DME) can be produced from coal, natural gas or biomass and it is used for a variety of…

Read more »

Dimethyl ether (DME) can be produced from coal, natural gas or biomass and it is used for a variety of purposes including as an aerosol propellant and chemical precursor. DME is an attractive alternative for diesel substitution due to its high cetane number and low tail-pipe emissions. Since it is in gaseous form under normal conditions, it cannot be blended with diesel. BioDME is a so called second generation, or advanced, biofuel. BioDME production via gasification of black liquor has been successfully demonstrated on pilot scale, including long-time fleet tests in heavy duty vehicles.

Primary area of use

DME is currently used primarily blended with liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) for home heating and cooking (mostly in China), as an aerosol propellant in hairspray and other personal care products, as a refrigerant, and as a feedstock for the production of several chemicals, most commonly dimethyl sulphate. As an aerosol propellant and refrigerant DME does not deplete the ozone layer like the chlorofluorocarbons and freons it replaces. Similar physical properties means that LPG infrastructure can easily be modified to handle DME, enabling wider spread.

DME is also an attractive diesel fuel substitute, due to good combustion characteristics, a high cetane number and a low octane number (see “Properties” info box). DME combusts without creating soot, the main material responsible for PM 2.5 particulate emissions. Further, combustion of DME produces no sulphur oxides at all, and any nitrogen oxides generated are simple to remove in the absence of the particulates.

DME used in conventional compression ignition engines requires a new fuel storage and injection system compared to when using liquid diesel fuels. Typically, DME is pressurized to about 5 bar being in liquid phase at normal temperature. When used as a fuel, DME is in a liquid phase all the way from the tank to the combustion chamber. The injection pump in a DME truck goes up to about 500 bar compared to about 1400 bar for regular diesel engines.

This is possible as the DME is easier to atomize resulting in an improved combustion process. DME is not corrosive, although some elastomers may swell in contact with DME. Another benefit is that the noise level of a DME engine is lower than in a conventional diesel engine.

The energy content of DME (LHV, Lower heating value) is 19.3 MJ/litre (28.8 MJ/kg), roughly 70% of the energy content of fossil-derived diesel. Thus, the fuel tank size must be bigger to enable the same driving range as for diesel vehicles. Furthermore, DME has poor lubricity, demanding special additives to avoid excessive wear in engines.

Feedstock and production

DME is currently mainly produced by means of methanol dehydration according to the following reaction:

2 CH3OH (Methanol) → CH3OCH3 (DME) + H2O

It is also generated directly from synthesis gas from thermochemical gasification of coal or through natural gas reforming.

Recent developments in gasification technologies provide the opportunity to also use biomass based fuels such as by-products from the paper and pulp industry, forest and agricultural residues, solid municipal waste and other renewable feedstocks. Using thermochemical biomass gasification the feedstock is first converted into a synthesis gas (syngas) stream consisting mainly of CO, CO2, H2O and H2. After cleaning and conditioning of the syngas in order to obtain a gas suitable for the synthesis reactions, DME is synthesised catalytically via methanol. Each of these steps can be carried out in a number of ways and various technologies offer a spectrum of possibilities which may be most suitable for any desired application.

Distribution and storage systems

DME is liquefied at moderate pressures and it can be handled like LPG due to its similar properties. Existing on- and off-shore infrastructure for LPG could therefore be used for transportation, storage, and distribution of DME with minor modifications.

Current production

The current global production of (fossil) DME is approximately 5 million tons per year, with the majority of production in China from coal-derived methanol. Commercial production facilities are also located in Japan, Germany, the Netherlands, Russia, South Korea, Turkey and the United States, with the first large-scale plant in the Americas (in Trinidad and Tobago) scheduled for  completion in 2018. China’s National Development and Reform Commission forecasts an annual DME production capacity of 20 million tons by the year 2020.

BioDME projects

BioDME production from black liquor, a lignocellulosic by-product from the pulping process, was successfully demonstrated at the LTU Green Fuels (formerly Chemrec) pilot plant in Piteå, Sweden (2011-2016). During the time in operation, about 1,000 tons of DME and methanol was produced in the facility, which has been operating for over 10,000 hours with biofuel production. The produced DME was used for field-testing with ten heavy duty trucks (Volvo Trucks) that were run in commercial traffic using biofuels produced in the pilot plant. Operation in the plant was terminated in 2016.

Currently no other DME projects based on fully renewable feedstocks are ongoing globally.

Facts

Fact sheet  | 

Methanol

Methanol is the simplest form of alcohol and it is produced via synthesis gas (H2 and CO) mainly derived from…

Read more »

Methanol is the simplest form of alcohol and it is produced via synthesis gas (H2 and CO) mainly derived from fossil feedstocks, such as natural gas and coal. Approximately 60% of the global methanol demand is currently used in the chemical industry, but the fuel and energy markets are increasing steadily and represent around 40% of the global use. Bio-methanol is a so called second generation or advanced biofuel and can be used blended with petrol, as marine fuel, or in fuel cells. Compared to conventional fossil based production of methanol, bio-methanol is currently produced at small scale.

Primary area of use

Today methanol is mainly used for production of chemicals like formaldehyde, acetic acid and MTO (methanol-to-olefins). Furthermore, through intermediate chemicals, many common products are produced from methanol, such as paints, antifreeze, plastics, and propellants.

Methanol can be used as a transportation fuel in several ways: blended with petrol, as a precursor to methyl tertiarybutyl ether (MTBE) which is used as an octane enhancer in petrol, in the  transesterification process when making FAME (fatty acid methyl ester) biodiesel, and as a diesel replacement after conversion to dimethyl ether (DME) or oxymethyl ether (OME). Methanol demand for energy purposes has been increasing steadily over the last decade, driven mainly by growing demand as a transportation fuel in China, where methanol currently represents 7% of the total transportation fuel use.

Methanol has a high octane number making it a good alternative to fossil petrol, which has been demonstrated for e.g. M15, M85 and M100. The EU allows low blending up to 3% in petrol, but this is currently not commonly used. When the blend-in level exceeds 15%, modifications are required, e.g. higher fuel injection to compensate for the lower energy density, modification to the ECU (Engine Control Unit), as well as material modifications to endure the corrosiveness of methanol. Emissions in the form of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons are lower from methanol compared to petrol, and methanol contains very low levels of impurities of sulphur or metals. The energy content (Lower heating value, LHV) is 15.8 MJ/litre (or 19.8 MJ/kg), slightly less than half of that of petrol.

Due to the high hydrogen content, methanol is an excellent hydrogen carrier than can be converted to hydrogen for usage in fuel cells without prior fuel pre-treatment. Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC) as well as High Temperature Polymer Eloctrolyte Membrane (HTPEM) fuel cell technologies have the potential of fuel efficiencies of around 40%.

There is also significant interest for methanol as a marine bunker fuel, due to international regulatory changes and cost advantages relative to other fuels. Methanol is sulphur free with low emissions and can be produced to lower cost than marine distillate fuel (when produced from fossil sources).

Feedstock and production

Methanol can be synthesised from a wide range of raw materials via two production steps. First, the feedstock (currently mainly fossil fuels like natural gas and coal) is converted into a synthesis gas consisting of CO, CO2, H2O and H2 through catalytic reforming or partial oxidation. In the second step methanol is synthesised catalytically. Each of these steps can be carried out in a number of ways using different technologies. The methanol process has a high selectivity leading to high production efficiency.

Recent developments in gasification technology provide opportunities to shift the use from fossil based feedstock to biomass, agricultural waste, municipal solid waste, and other lignocellulosic resources.

Distribution and storage systems

The technology for distributing and storing methanol is very similar to the current systems used for petrol and diesel, including pipelines, barges, chemical tankers, rail tankers and trucks. Material components must however be replaced to endure the corrosiveness of methanol. In Sweden, some distribution systems are adapted to alcohols, and systems adapted for E85 can also store M85 or GEM fuels (gasoline-ethanol-methanol).

Small risks are associated with the transportation and distribution of methanol. Methanol is highly toxic to humans and can cause blindness or even death on ingestion. Methanol is classified like petrol or diesel regarding toxicity, but is nonmutagenic and methanol vapour does not involve any health risks under practical conditions. Methanol biodegrades very rapidly in aerobic as well as anaerobic conditions and it will not persist in the environment. The half-life in groundwater is several hundred days shorter for methanol in comparison to petrol components.

Biomethanol projects

In Edmonton, Canada, Enerkem operates a commercial scale plant producing 38 million liters per year of methanol from municipal waste. A similar facility is planned in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, involving a number of European partners.

In Iceland, Carbon Recycling International is producing renewable methanol via CO2 captured from geothermal power generation and hydrogen produced via electrolysis. The production capacity is 5 million liters per year.

BioMCN in the Netherlands produces and sells industrial quantities of bio-methanol, by converting biogas from waste digestion into methanol. The annual production capacity of bio-methanol is around 250 million litres, with plans to further expand the renewable share in the future.

Methanol production via gasification of black liquor has also been successfully demonstrated at pilot scale at the LTU Green Fuels plant in Piteå, Sweden, but operation was terminated in 2016.

Facts

Fact sheet  | 

European collaboration for transition fo renewable transportation fuels (f3 Stories no. 5)

För att utveckla förnybara drivmedel framgångsrikt och i stor skala, krävs samverkan kring både svenska och europeiska satsningar på forskning…

Read more »

För att utveckla förnybara drivmedel framgångsrikt och i stor skala, krävs samverkan kring både svenska och europeiska satsningar på forskning och innovation. Förutsättningarna för utveckling, produktion och användning av förnybara drivmedel i Sverige och Norden är dock inte så väl kända i Europa. Genom att dela kunskap och erfarenheter, delta i europeiska nätverk och aktiviteter samt vara delaktiga i utformningen av till exempel forskningsprogram ökar möjligheterna för svenska aktörer att bidra till att ett hållbart transportsystem blir verklighet. Plattform f3, som är en nationell påverkansplattform för att främja samverkan mellan svenska och europeiska aktörer, har en central roll i detta arbete.

– För att som enskilt land få genomslag i det europeiska drivmedelsområdet måste flera kriterier vara uppfyllda. Det behövs uthållighet, resurser och kompetens inom det område man verkar, man behöver ha en bred industriell och forskningsbaserad förankring inom sitt eget land och, slutligen, måste en europeisk arena till för att budskapet ska nå fram. Genom vårt uppdrag från Vinnova och vår långsiktiga centrumsamverkan i övrigt har vi inom Plattform f3 mycket goda förutsättningar för att uppfylla dessa kriterier, säger Ingrid Nyström, senior rådgivare och internationell samordnare på f3:s kansli.

Facts

This is an excerpt from the story “European collaboration for transition fo renewable transportation fuels” published in March 2017. The full story is available for download in Swedish.

f3 Stories  | 

Public procurement as a policy instrument to support the diffusion and the use of renewable transport fuels

Many municipalities in Sweden have requirements on green cars in the procurement of municipal vehicles and some also have requirements…

Read more »

Many municipalities in Sweden have requirements on green cars in the procurement of municipal vehicles and some also have requirements on electric cars.This project has ana­lysed how green public procurement has been used in the transport sector in order to answer questions such as which potential procurement has to promote renewable fuels, what the practical experiences are, to what extent public procurement is used strategically, and how the policy instrument can be developed.

The methodological approach has been comparative case studies of the municipalities Malmö and Östersund and regions Skåne and Jämtland. The empirical material comes from a combination of document studies and semi-structured qualitative interviews with procurers, environ­mental strategists, public transport strategists, politicians and representatives of private transport operators.

Consisting of three parts, the project deliveries present

  1. an overall analysis of public procurement,
  2. an analysis of experience of procurement through case studies, and
  3. a dialogue with stakeholders.

Together, they aim to increase the understanding of the challanges with green public procurement and how these have been handeled in a few selected cases. Even if differences in political, geographical and infrastructural aspects apply for different cities and/or regions, and, as a result of this, the specific design of procurement requirements, the study has been able to point to some general policy implications concerning laws and regulations, cost, political goals and backing and actor cooperation. The results from the project hereby contribute with knowledge on how the use of public procurement can be improved.

Facts

Manager
Jamil Khan, Lund University

Contact
jamil.khan@miljo.lth.se

Participants
Malin Aldenius and Henrik Norinder, Lund University // Jenny Palm and Fredrik Backman, Linköping University

Time plan
September 2014 - March 2017

Total project cost
2 298 543 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, Lund University and Linköping University

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
39113-1

Project Manager: Jamil Khan

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2017-04-26

Optimization of biofuel supply chains based on liquefaction technologies

Traditional bioenergy supply chains design considers a centralized facility around which the bio­mass is collected. In the centralized supply chain…

Read more »

Traditional bioenergy supply chains design considers a centralized facility around which the bio­mass is collected. In the centralized supply chain design the benefits from economies of scale are counterbalanced by rising upstream transport costs as a higher scale requires a larger feedstock collection radius. Distributed supply chains configurations (i.e. including a pre-treatment step in which the biomass is densified) are often proposed to reduce the upstream transportation costs. It is hypothesized that such configuration allows for further upscaling and can hence decrease bioenergy production costs, particularly when using liquefaction technologies which are able to convert bio­mass into a transportable biocrude with a much high energy and bulk density compared to biomass.

This project has explored the preconditions under which distributed supply chain configurations (based on hydrothermal liquefaction, HTL) are preferred over centralized supply chains. A spatially ex­plicit optimization model based on Swedish data on biomass supply and price, intermodal transport infrastructure, competing demand, and potential conversion sites (including integration benefits) was evaluated at different biofuel demands.

It was found that distributed supply chains may reduce upstream transport cost. Nonetheless, the additional costs for conversion and intermediate transpor­tation associated with distributed supply chains generally leads to a preference for centralized sup­ply chains at biofuel demands below 75 PJout/yr (21 TWh/yr). Distributed supply chains were shown to be useful in cases in which the feedstock cost-supply curves are steep, biofuel production beyond 75 PJout/yr is targeted, or the available biomass resource base is almost fully utilized.

Facts

Manager
Elisabeth Wetterlund, Bio4Energy (LTU)

Contact
elisabeth.wetterlund@ltu.se

Participants
Karin Pettersson, Chalmers/SP // Sierk de Jong and Ric Hoefnagels, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, University of Utrecht

Time plan
November 2015 - October 2016

Total project cost
250 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners and Bio4Energy (LTU)

This work in this project was conducted as part of the Renewable Jet Fuel Supply Chain and Flight Operations (RENJET) project that ran between 2013-2016 with funding from EIT Climate-KIC. The RENJET project partners were Utrecht University, Imperial College London, SkyNRG, KLM and Amsterdam Airport Schiphol. The objective of RENJET was to lay the foundations for upscaling production of biofuels for the aviation industry through scientific research and demonstration projects. The f3 study with its analysis of different supply chain configurations for the production of forest-based jet fuel was performed as a case study over Sweden.

Project Manager: Elisabeth Wetterlund

f3 Project  | Finished | 2017-04-05

Environmental and socio-economic benefits from Swedish biofuel production

The Swedish Energy Agency reported in 2014 a greenhouse gas emissions reduction of 1.95 M tonnes of CO2-eq due to…

Read more »

The Swedish Energy Agency reported in 2014 a greenhouse gas emissions reduction of 1.95 M tonnes of CO2-eq due to the replacement of fossil fuels with biofuels. However, a narrow focus on CO2 fails to capture the value that biofuel production may have. Additional benefits from the Swedish biofuel industry accrue in both environmental and socio-economic spheres.

This project aims to identify the aggregated environmental benefits from biofuel production by-products due to replaced conventional products (e.g. fertilizers, materials, etc.) and utilities and services (e.g. integration with other industries and district heating) in addition to the socio-economic benefits through a screening and review of job creation and assessment methods for other benefits. The project has resulted in increased knowledge on the overall benefits resulting from biofuel production, which may enable the creation of more advanced policy instruments to support future biofuel production.

This summary report attached below is based on two scientific papers, one already published, and a separate supporting analysis with the working title report: Emerging quantifications of key socio-economic metrics: A supporting analysis for the project “Environmental and Socio-Economic Benefits from Swedish Biofuel Production”.

Facts

Manager
Michael Martin, IVL

Contact
michael.martin@ivl.se

Participants
Elisabeth Wetterlund, Bio4Energy (LTU) // Philip Peck, Lund University // Roman Hackl and Kristina Holmgren, IVL

Time plan
July 2015 - December 2016

Total project cost
781 341 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, IVL, Bio4Energy and Lund University

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
40771-1

Project Manager: Michael Martin

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2017-04-03

Electrofuels from biological processes – A knowledge synthesis

Sweden aims to have a 100% renewable power production by 2040. This will primarily be achieved by largely expanding the…

Read more »

Sweden aims to have a 100% renewable power production by 2040. This will primarily be achieved by largely expanding the intermittent power production with for example wind power. However, an increased proportion of wind power also requires increased access to energy storage and balance and/or regulating power. Sweden also has other environmental and cli­mate goals and ambitions to strive for, such as a fossil-independent transport sector in 2030, a car­bon-neutral society in 2045 and acheiving a leading position in taking care of and recycling waste in a circular economy.

The combination power-to-gas and biogas production can contribute to reach these goals in different ways. By enabling for a more flexible electricity system and, at the same time utilize the available biomass (e.g. manure and bio-degradable waste) more efficiently, more renewable fuels and/or chemicals can be produced from the same amount of biogas substrate. The concept is based on converting low-cost renewable electricity, via electrolysis, into hydrogen (power-to-gas). In turn, hydrogen is further reacted with carbon dioxide in raw biogas in so-called electro­fuel processes.

There are both thermochemical and biological electrofuel processes for methane production. There are also biological gas fermentation for the production of liquid electrofuels, i.e. bio-alcohols. Among today’s biogas producers the interest in electrofuel processes is growing because of their potential to open up for more profitable biogas plants at the same time as the plants could become more product flexible and less susceptible to market fluctua­tions. However, it is difficult to get a grip on what the techno-economic performance and degree of maturity of the pro­cesses really are, particularly concerning biological electrofuel processes.

This knowledge synthesis has aimed to meet this need. It includes in-situ, ex-situ biological methanation and gas fermentation, and uses thermochemical methanisation as a reference. The possibilities to combine and/or to replace conventional biogas upgrading with the different electrofuel processes are also investigated and discussed.

The report is written in Swedish with an English summary.

Facts

Manager
Anna-Karin Jannasch, RISE

Contact
anna-karin.jannasch@ri.se

Participants
Karin Willqvist, RISE

Time plan
August 2016 - January 2017

Total project cost
250 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners and RISE

Project Manager: Anna-Karin Jannasch

f3 Project  | Finished | 2017-03-28

EU sustainability criteria for biofuels

The EU Renewable Energy Directive (RED) establishes that a minimum of 10% biofuels or other renewable fuels for transport shall…

Read more »

The EU Renewable Energy Directive (RED) establishes that a minimum of 10% biofuels or other renewable fuels for transport shall be used in every Member State by 2020. The Fuel Quality Directive (FQD) is aimed towards fuel suppliers, obliging them to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with 6% by 2020. Only biofuels meeting the sustainability criteria regarding net GHG savings, biodiversity and land use can be counted towards the targets. In 2015, the two directives were amended by the Indirect Land Use Change (ILUC) Directive, which amongst other strives to reduce indirect GHG emissions from biofuel production.

The EU Directives

The Renewable Energy Directive, RED, (Directive 2009/28/EC), was adopted by the EU in 2009. It mandates that all Member States shall have 10% (on energy basis) biofuels in the transport sector by 2020. In order for a biofuel to be accounted within the national reporting, it must meet a number of sustainability criteria as described in RED. Biofuels must also meet the sustainability criteria to receive financial support, such as tax exemptions.

The Fuel Quality Directive, FQD, (Directive 2009/30/EC) was also adopted in 2009. It sets requirements on fuel specifications, but also obliges fuel suppliers to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. By 2020 every sold unit of energy must reduce life cycle GHG emissions by at least 6%, compared to the EU-average fossil fuel in 2010. FQD gives the fuel suppliers a number of options to obtain this 6% reduction, e.g. via reductions in oil refineries or use of biofuels and alternative fuels. The biofuels must meet the same sustainability criteria as in RED.

In 2015, amendments to RED and FQD were introduced with the Directive on Indirect Land Use Change, ILUC, (Directive (EU) 2015/1513) that introduces ILUC values for biofuels, and stricter sustainability criteria compared to RED and FQD. Interpretation of the complex ILUC Directive is neccessary since it will be individually implemented in each Member State no later than September 2017 This text is based on the preliminary interpretations of the Swedish Energy Agency, available in January 2017 (Source: Markets for biofuels 2016 (ER 2016:29) and Markets for biofuels 2015 (ER 2015:31), available in Swedish).

The amendments introduced by the ILUC Directive affect biofuel development in several important ways:

Biofuels based on food crops can only represent 7% of the 10%-target (set in RED), which reduces the incentive to support these fuels.Member states must report GHG emissions from changes in land use due to biofuel production, but these values can exceed the threshold set in the sustainability criteria.The ILUC Directive promotes so called advanced biofuels, e.g. biofuel based on algae, waste, manure, sewage sludge as well as ligno-cellulosic and non-food cellulosic material. Member states should introduce a non-binding sub-target for advanced fuels, a guideline value of 0.5% is given. In addition, these fuels can be counted twice towards the 10%-target.Electrical road transport fueled by renewable energy can be counted five times and rail-bound transport fueled by renewable energy can be counted 2.5 times towards the target.

The sustainability criteria

To be counted as sustainable, RED states that raw material for biofuel production cannot be taken from primary forest, nature protection areas or highly biodiverse grassland. Land with high carbon stocks such as wetland or peatland can only be used under certain circumstances. A new Commission Regulation (No 1307/2014) from 2015 helps to define grasslands, human interaction and highly biodiverse grassland in order to prevent negative effects on grasslands due to biofuel production.

The RED requires a 35% GHG emission saving from the use of biofuels. However, from January 1st 2018, GHG emission savings from the use of biofuels produced in old production units must be at least 50%, according to the ILUC Directive. For units where biofuel production started after October 5th 2015, the threshold is 60%. The biofuel values are compared to a baseline of 94.1g CO2 eq/MJ for fossil fuels, introduced in an amendment (EU 2015/652) to FQD in 2014.

Social and economic sustainability criteria are not mandatory for a biofuel producer to meet. However, every two years the European Commission has to report on the impact of increased demand for biofuels on food prices, the respect of land-use rights and whether main producer countries have ratified international labour conventions. The European Commission can thereafter propose corrective action.

Implementation of sustainability criteria

The economic operators, in most Member States identified as the companies that pay fuel tax, are responsible for showing that the sustainability criteria have been fulfilled. They are obliged to have a control system that keeps track of the different batches of biofuels, where the raw material is taken from, and the sustainability properties of each batch. Independent auditors inspect and approve the quality of the control systems.

The sustainability criteria apply to biofuels and bioliquids (i.e. liquids produced from biomass that are used for purposes other than fuel, e.g. electricity generation or heating). This means that biogas used for electricity and heating is not included. Solid biofuels are presently not included.

Sweden has implemented the sustainability criteria in law (Act 2010:598), regulations and guidelines. The FQD is implemented in the law (Act 2011:319). The work of implementing the ILUC Directive and the FQD amendment in to Swedish law is ongoing. The Swedish Energy Agency is the supervisory authority to which the economic operators must report yearly.

GHG calculations

The Directives include a list of default GHG values for segments of the biofuel production chain (cultivation, process, transports). The economic operators can choose to use the default values (if the biofuel chain corresponds to those listed in the Directives), their own calculated actual values, or a combination of default and actual values. Calculation of actual values is made according to life cycle assessment methodology and rules described in the Directives annexes. The GHG calculations include emissions from cultivation, process, transport, and distribution.

Emissions of possible by-products that may arise in the calculation are allocated to the different products, based on their energy content (the lower heating value). There is also a number of emissions that can be subtracted e.g. if improved agricultural management binds more carbon in soil or if excess electricity is produced in the biofuel plant. There is also a GHG bonus if raw material is cultivated on severely degraded land. The ILUC Directive introduces a set of default values for indirect land use change which must be reported, but they are not included in the comparison against the threshold values.

Summary of the default values for a number of biofuel production pathways, with the reduction targets marked (reduction compared to fossil fuel emissions of 94,1 g CO2 eq/MJ).

Facts

Fact sheet  | 

Enabling the transition to a bio-economy: Innovation system dynamics and policy

This research project has focused on the following question: “What promotes and hinders transition pathways to the development and deployment…

Read more »

This research project has focused on the following question: “What promotes and hinders transition pathways to the development and deployment of integrated biorefineries in Sweden?” Contributing to the literature on sustainability transitions, the project examines the role of incumbent and emergent industries, policy regulations, and regional context in a transition to biorefineries and biofuels. The project seeks to answer the following research sub-questions:

  1. How do different Swedish firms and industries (incumbent and emergent) react to the opportunities and threats posed by a biorefinery transition?
  2. How is the development and deployment of integrated Swedish biorefineries shaped by framework conditions and policy regulations and to what extent is there a need for change to facilitate a transition?
  3. To what extent are Swedish biorefinery transition pathways influenced by different regional contexts?

By comparing Swedish and international biorefineries, this will provide a thorough examination of the constraining factors and development perspectives for integrated biorefineries in Sweden.

Several scientific articles have been produced as interim deliveries within the project.

Facts

Manager
Lars Coenen, earlier at Lund University

Contact
lars.coenen@unimelb.edu.au

Participants
Fredric Bauer, Teis Hansen, Kes McCormick and Yuliya Voytenko, Lund University // Hans Hellsmark, Chalmers // Johanna Mossberg, SP/Chalmers Industriteknik IE

Time plan
July 2014 - October 2016

Total project cost
2 000 000 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, Lund University, SP and Chalmers

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
39112-1

Project Manager: Lars Coenen

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2017-01-23

Biofuels and ecosystem services

Climate change mitigation is high on the agenda in numerous national and international policy decisions and action plans, particularly in…

Read more »

Climate change mitigation is high on the agenda in numerous national and international policy decisions and action plans, particularly in relation to the transportation sector. Renewable energy sources are pointed out as sustainable alternatives to the use of fossil fuels. However, an all-embracing assessment of different environmental and social aspects related to fuel production is required in order to draw conclusions about the sustainability of different fuel options. In this context, an in-depth knowledge of the different ecosystem services affected is needed.

This project aims at fulfilling knowledge gaps by identifying and describing ecosystem services and their appropriate indicators which affect and are affected by biofuel production in Sweden. The aim has furthermore been to propose a conceptual framework to include ecosystem services in decision-making, in close collaboration with biofuel sector stakeholders.

Photo: IVL

Facts

Manager
Karin Hansen, earlier at IVL

Contact
julia.hansson@ivl.se

Participants
Julia Hansson, IVL // Danielle Maia de Souza, SLU // Gabriela Russo Lopes, Stockholm University

Time plan
August 2015 - September 2016

Total project cost
900 275 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, IVL and SLU

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
40770-1

Project Manager: Karin Hansen

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2017-01-12

Methane as vehicle fuel – a gate-to-wheel study (METDRIV)

Today, the global interest in methane as a transportation fuel is growing rapidly due to the expanded recovery of shale…

Read more »

Today, the global interest in methane as a transportation fuel is growing rapidly due to the expanded recovery of shale gas. The use is also expanding in Sweden, but there are several technical solutions regarding upgrading, distribution and final use in vehicles, which are not yet fully commercialized.

The METDRIV project analyses different technical solutions and system solutions of methane as a vehicle fuel from a gate-to-wheel perspective, including comparisons between bio-based  (anaerobic digestion and thermal gasification) systems and natural gas (fossil) systems. The objectives have been to describe under which conditions the systems are preferable, and to identify knowledge gaps where more research and development is needed. The analysed parameters are greenhouse gas performance, energy efficiency, and costs. Finally, recommendations are given to commercial actors and policy makers regarding which solutions and systems that should be promoted from a socio-economic perspective.

Facts

Manager
Pål Börjesson, Lund University

Contact
pal.borjesson@miljo.lth.se

Participants
Mikael Lantz, Jim Andersson, Lovisa Björnsson, Christian Hulteberg and Helena Svensson, Lund University // Joakim Lundgren and Jim Andersson, Bio4Energy (LTU) // Björn Fredriksson-Möller, E.on // Magnus Fröberg and Eva Iverfeldt, Scania // Per Hanarp and Anders Röj, Volvo // Eric Zinn, Göteborg Energi

Time plan
July 2014 - June 2015

Total project cost
2 408 305 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, Lund University, Bio4Energy (LTU), AB Volvo, Scania, Göteborg Energi and E.on.

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
39098-1

Project Manager: Pål Börjesson

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2017-01-01

A comparative analysis of P2G/P2L-systems for the combined production of liquid and gaseous biofuels

Power to gas (P2G) means that power is used to split water into hydrogen and oxygen by electrol­ysis. The technology…

Read more »

Power to gas (P2G) means that power is used to split water into hydrogen and oxygen by electrol­ysis. The technology has sparked a lot of interest as it enables storage of electrical power in energy gas and it could thereby be efficient for storage of excess electricity from re­newable wind, solar, or wave power. The hydrogen itself can either be used directly as a fuel or raw material, or allowed to react further with carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide into a bio­fuel or biochemical, for example methane or methanol. When the end-product is a liquid, the technology is called Power to Liquid (P2L).

Today, there is one commercial P2L-plant on Iceland and around 40 pilot and demonstration P2G/P2L-plants in Europe. There is not yet any P2G/P2L plant in Sweden, but with a growing interest, several studies have been carried out evaluating the possibilities and potential benefits of the technology with respect to conditions and locations in Sweden. In November 2016, an EU project was initiated with the aim to establish and evaluate a P2methanol pilot plant in Luleå in which carbon dioxide rich blast furnace gas from SSAB’s steel production would be combined with renewable hydrogen from intermittent electricity production.

The purpose of this project has been to identify, analyse and suggest different possibilities for P2G/P2L in Norrbotten with respect to the regional electricity market and hydrogen demands, having the bio­refinery infrastructure in Piteå as a starting point. The analysis consideres both current conditions and dif­ferent future scenarios and is a continuation of an ÅF-study from 2015 that pointed out Piteå-Luleå-Norrbotten as one of the three most appropriate locations for demonstrating P2G/P2L in Sweden.

Facts

Manager
Anna-Karin Jannasch, RISE (formerly SP)

Contact
anna-karin.jannasch@ri.se

Participants
Roger Molinder, Magnus Marklund and Sven Hermansson, SP // Erik Furusjö, Bio4Energy (LTU) // Erik Persson, Piteå Municipality // Stefan Nyström, Preem

Time plan
April - September 2016

Total project cost
250 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners, SP, SP ETC, Bio4Energy (LTU), Piteå Municipality and Preem

Project Manager: Anna-Karin Jannasch

f3 Project  | Finished | 2016-12-19

Implications of EU regulation on Swedish biofuel stimulus

The use of biofuels in Sweden has increased dramatically during the last decade and the country is now one of…

Read more »

The use of biofuels in Sweden has increased dramatically during the last decade and the country is now one of the leadning member states in the EU. Sweden has ambitious nation­al targets for the transport sector and the ambition to continue being a leading country for biofuel use. This requires policies that justify long-term investment in biofuel production facilities and refueling infrastructure.

Although Swedish policy is in line with EU directives and state aid guidelines it has, however, at times, suffered from friction with the EU. This project has set out to give an overview of complex EU legislation and its implications for Swedish stimulus measures for biofuel development.

Among the regulations described and analysed are the Renewable Energy Directive, the ILUC Directive and the EU state aid guidelines.

Facts

Manager
Kersti Karltorp, earlier at SP

Contact
kersti.karltorp@ju.se

Participants
Jorrit Gosens, SP

Time plan
January - June 2016

Total project cost
245 200 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners, SP and Lantmännen

The following persons have given input to the project work: Andreas Gundberg, Lantmännen Agroetanol, Emmi Jozsa, Swedish Energy Agency, Anna Wallentin, the Ministry of Finance and Johanna Ulmanen, SP.

Project Manager: Kersti Karltorp

f3 Project  | Finished | 2016-10-25

Examining systemic constraints and drivers for production of forest-derived transport biofuels

Diversification of forest industry activities into transport fuels is important for Swedish climate and energy policy goal achievement, and biofuel…

Read more »

Diversification of forest industry activities into transport fuels is important for Swedish climate and energy policy goal achievement, and biofuel proponents also claim that it is important for Swedish forest industry competitiveness. There is significant ongoing research effort on biofuels for road transport and extensive experimentation on several technical platforms has been conducted. These different platforms each inter-relate in different ways with the forest sector and transportation fuel processing/value-adding industries. As of 2016, it remains unclear how many of these will emerge from niche applications or experimentation into the market mainstream.

Decisions regarding which particular forest-derived transport biofuels to pursue, and how best to pursue them, are complex and are influenced by many factors. This project has examined systemic constraints and drivers for expansion of forest-derived transport biofuels in Sweden. Through literature reviews, interviews and web-surveys, the project has delivered updated and more nuanced understanding of the positions/views of potential and existing 1st and 2nd generation transportation biofuel producers regarding

  • areas of synergy or competition for resources or political support
  • key strategies for leading actors in forest, fuel & petrochemical sectors
  • general ‘viability perceptions’ for leading fuel-engine systems/pathways.

The study provides an improved knowledge for decision-making to policy makers, industry and researchers regarding areas where policy is a help/hinder to desired progress, the structural function of important drivers and barriers, and about differences between strategies in the field and commonly held scientific beliefs.

Facts

Manager
Philip Peck, Lunds universitet

Contact
philip.peck@iiiee.lu.se

Participants
Yuliya Voytenko, Lunds universitet // Stefan Grönkvist and Tomas Lönnqvist, KTH // Julia Hansson, IVL

Time plan
August 2014 - May 2016

Total project cost
1 326 002 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, Lund University, KTH and IVL

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
39116-1

Project Manager: Philip Peck

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2016-10-12

Accumulated impacts from increased biofuel consumption in Sweden

Through ambitious targets and goals, Sweden has surpassed targets set by the EU for biofuel con­sumption and is a European…

Read more »

Through ambitious targets and goals, Sweden has surpassed targets set by the EU for biofuel con­sumption and is a European leader in the consumption of biofuels. Correspondingly, the use of biofuels in Sweden has increased rapidly since 2000. In 2014 biofuels corresponded to roughly 12% of transportation fuels.

In the context of identifying the environmental implications of Swedish biofuel consumption, this project has reviewed the origins of fuels, and raw materials used to produce the fuels from 2000-2014. This was done to identify and provide a comprehensive review of environmental implications that biofuel consumption (including imports and domestic production) of fuels have both in Sweden and abroad using life cycle assessment.

The results suggest that the increase in biofuel consumption has been met largely in part through the introduction and expansion of HVO, an increasing biogas production and consumption market and the imports of raw materials and fuels from Europe and other nations abroad. The environmental assessments illustrate that while GHG emissions may have been reduced in Sweden by the use of biofuels, the origin of the emissions has shifted from Sweden to other coun­tries abroad; due largely in part to an increased use of biofuels and raw materials from abroad.

In summary, the project illustrate that although policy has been designed to promote sustaina­ble transportation fuels, the implications on regions exporting fuels and raw materials for Swedish consumption in addition to the generation goals set by the Swedish Parliament, should be reviewed in order to avoid problem shifting and promote domestic production.

Facts

Manager
Michael Martin, IVL

Contact
michael.martin@ivl.se

Participants
Tomas Rydberg, Felipe Oliveira and Mathias Larsson, IVL

Time plan
February - September 2015

Total project cost
156 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners and IVL

Project Manager: Michael Martin

f3 Project  | Finished | 2016-10-04

Sustainable transportation fuels – a techno-economic Well-to-Wheel analysis

Increased use of wood-based biofuels and electricity for transportation is singled out as a key part of the transition towards…

Read more »

Increased use of wood-based biofuels and electricity for transportation is singled out as a key part of the transition towards a fossil-free society and a fossil-independent transport sector. This study intends to compare different biofuels, including electricity, as an energy carrier from a techno-economic WtW-perspective, but also key figures in the form of GHG emissions and energy efficiency will be included. The goal is to produce results that show the transport efficiency for each biofuel in the form of SEK/km, kWh/km and CO2eq/km, and compare them with fossil alternatives. The project will also adopt a producer perspective to show the conditions for profitable biofuel production.

Emphasis will be placed on comparisons made with consistent assumptions for the studied value chains and to study how changes in the different parameters affect the transport efficiency of the various alternatives. What limits the potential of the different options will also be discussed.

Facts

Manager
Karin Pettersson, RISE

Contact
karin.pettersson@ri.se

Participants
Peter B Odhner and Henrik Gåverud, Sweco // Eric Zinn, Göteborg Energi AB

Time plan
September 2016 - April 2018

Total project cost
1 429 856 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, RISE, Sweco Energiguide and Göteborg Energi AB

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
42404-1

Project Manager: Karin Pettersson

Collaborative research program  | Ongoing

Value chains for production of renewable transportation fuels using intermediates

This project compares forest raw-material value chains for conversion to transportation biofuels, with respect to energy efficiency, climate impact and…

Read more »

This project compares forest raw-material value chains for conversion to transportation biofuels, with respect to energy efficiency, climate impact and costs. The focus is on the comparison between a value chain with an added process step to produce an intermediate biofuel product, and a scenario in which the entire conversion from raw material to product is handled in one integrated step at one place. Conversion to an intermediate product with higher energy density has benefits for transportation and handling of biomass when final conversion takes place at a large central unit, but could also be a disadvantage in terms of for instance lower overall yield of transportation fuel. It is therefore important to study the whole chain from raw material to product to investigate how factors such as transport, possibilities to integration, yields and size affect the overall outcome.

Facts

Manager
Marie Anheden, earlier at Innventia

Contact
marie.anheden@vattenfall.com

Participants
Christian Ehn and Valiera Lundberg, Innventia // Karin Pettersson, Chalmers // Malin Fugelsang and Carl-Johan Hjerpe, ÅF Industri AB // Åsa Håkansson, Preem AB // Ingemar Gunnarsson, Göteborg Energi AB

Time plan
December 2014 - March 2016

Total project cost
1 491 000 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, Innventia, ÅF Industri AB, Göteborg Energi AB and Preem AB

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
39587-1

Project Manager: Marie Anheden

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2016-08-29

HEFA/HVO, Hydroprocessed Esters and Fatty Acids

HEFA (Hydroprocessed Esters and Fatty Acids), also called HVO (Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil), is a renewable diesel fuel that can be…

Read more »

HEFA (Hydroprocessed Esters and Fatty Acids), also called HVO (Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil), is a renewable diesel fuel that can be produced from a wide array of vegetable oils and fats. The term HEFA or HVO is used collectively for these biogenic hydrocarbon-based renewable biofuels. HVO is free of aromatics and sulfur and has a high cetane number. It is a so-called drop-in fuel, meaning that it is chemically equivalent to fossil diesel fuel and can be used in existing diesel engines without technical blend walls. One challenge that the production of HVO is facing is to find enough suitable and sustainable feedstock.

Primary area of use

HVO is an attractive alternative fuel due to the fact that it is  chemically equivalent to petroleum diesel and can be used in diesel engines without the blend walls or modifications required for e.g. biodiesel. However, European diesel standards limit the HVO blend due to density limits and the use of 100% HVO must be approved by the vehicle manufacturer. HEFA can also be used for biojet fuel in a blend with petroleum fuels of up to 50%. Several airlines have done trials with biojet fuels in commercial flights.

The fact that cold properties of HVO can result in clogged fuel filters and injectors may be a limiting factor. However, through isomerization of the HVO, the cloud point of the fuel can be adjusted, lowering the temperature at which wax in the fuel becomes solid.

Distribution system

HVO is a liquid fuel and distributed as low blends in fossil diesel that are sold at the fuel companies’ filling stations. Since HVO can be blended with fossil diesel, investments in new transport or distribution system are not necessary.

Preem sells HVO in a blend with biodiesel and fossil diesel, which is marketed as Evolution Diesel. Besides Preem, fuel companies such as OKQ8 (DieselBio+), St1 (CityDiesel) and Statoil (Miles Diesel) provide HVO blends of diesel based on imported HVO mainly from Europe. The OKQ8 diesel, BioMax, with 100% HVO, is currently undergoing tests.

Feedstock and production

HVO can be produced from many kinds of vegetable oils and fats. This includes triglycerides and fatty acids from vegetable oils, (e.g. rapeseed, soybean and corn oil), tall oil, (a co-product from the pulp and paper industry) in addition to the use of animal fats.

The simplified production process of HVO from vegetable oil.

HVO is produced through the hydrotreating of oils, in which the oils (triglycerides) are reacted with hydrogen under high pressure in order to remove oxygen. The hydrocarbon chains produced are chemically equivalent to petroleum diesel fuel. Propane is typically produced as a by-product. Investment costs are much higher for HVO than biodiesel production, which requires large scale production plants to allow the production to be economic. Production may be carried out in stand-alone plants producing only HVO or in integrated plants together with fossil fuels.

Raw materials for HVO production in Sweden are primarily of Swedish and European origin, but are also imported from countries outside of Europe. All HVO must fulfill the sustainability criteria set out in the Renewable Energy Directive (RED). RED sets sustainability criteria for biofuels and bioliquids identical to the Fuel Quality Directive. Availability of sustainable feedstock can be a limiting factor for HVO production, as many raw materials occur in limited amounts and may be subject to competing application areas. Of the HVO sold on the Swedish market, the raw material consists of 35% slaughterhouse wastes, 23% vegetable or animal waste oils, 22% crude tall oil, 15% palm oil and 5% animal fat. Globally, vegetable oil and palm oil are used to a larger extent.

The HVO produced in Sweden is currently (2016) based mainly on crude tall oil. The esterified tall oil used in production comes from SunPine in Piteå, which is thereafter hydrogenated to HVO at the Preem refinery in Gothenburg together with fossil raw material.

Current production and use as fuel

The sold amounts of HVO in Sweden have increased rapidly from 45 million litres in 2011 to approximately 439 million litres in 2014.

In 2015, roughly 160 million litres of HVO were produced in Sweden by Preem. The company is currently the only Swedish producer and reports that their Evolution diesel, containing up to 50% HVO, reduces fossil CO2 emissions by up to 46%. Preem recently extended their production capacity to 220 million litres, and is currently investigating new raw materials in addition to crude tall oil.

Globally, the installed capacity was about 3.8 billion litres per year in 2014. Neste Oil is the largest producer and is using waste fats and vegetable oils such as palm oil, rapeseed oil and soybean oil as feedstock. Production of HVO occurs in Singapore, Europe and the USA.

Future developments

Several actors have announced their plans to start up or expand HVO production, among them Diamond Green Diesel in the USA, who are expanding their production capacity to over 1 billion litres per year in 2018. The feedstock will be animal fats and used cooking oil.

Since feedstock availability is one of the main challenges for HVO production, there is ongoing research on new resources, for example algae oil, camelina oil and jatropha oil. In Sweden, the potential of lignin for biofuel production have raised interest. Lignin is an abundant resource which could be suitable for biogasoline production, which is however not in a strict since a HVO fuel.

Facts

Fact sheet  | 

Biogas/Biometan/SNG

Biomethane is a gaseous fuel which consists of mainly methane. Biomethane is normally produced by upgrading (purifying) biogas. Biogas is…

Read more »

Biomethane is a gaseous fuel which consists of mainly methane. Biomethane is normally produced by upgrading (purifying) biogas. Biogas is the raw gas formed by anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge, food waste, manure etc. Before use in vehicles, biogas is always upgraded to biomethane. Biomethane can also be produced synthetically, e.g. by gasification of biomass followed by methanation; it is then called  SNG (Synthetic Natural Gas or Substitute Natural Gas).

Primary area of use

Biomethane can be used as a transport fuel, often as a mixture of biomethane and natural gas with fossil origin. Other areas of use are heat and power production, and as raw material for chemical products. The dominating use of biogas in many countries is for electricity production without prior upgrading to biomethane.

Methane is an ideal fuel for the Otto engine, but it can achieve an even higher energy efficiency if used in an engine that uses the Diesel cycle combustion process. However, the high ignition temperature of methane is a challenge in the Diesel combustion cycle and requires additional ignition assistance, usually in the form of a small pilot injection of diesel fuel. This type of engine is called a dual fuel engine. Although it has the potential of achieving higher efficiencies than the Otto engine, it comes with higher  complexity and cost.

There are two ways in which biomethane (or natural gas of fossil origin) can be stored in the vehicle fuel tanks: as compressed natural gas (CNG) at approx. 200 bar and ambient temperature, or as liquefied natural gas (LNG) at approx. 10 bar and -125°C.  Today CNG is much more common than LNG. LNG is suitable for heavy trucks that need to carry large amounts of fuel due to their long driving distances. Sometimes, fuel made of 100% biomethane is called compressed biogas (CBG) and liquefied biogas (LBG), but the terms CNG and LNG are generally usedirrespective of the biomethane content.

Feedstock and production

Biogas typically contains 60% methane and 40% carbon dioxide. It is produced through anaerobic digestion of easily degraded biomass (e.g. sugars, fatty acids, proteins). It is a naturally occurring process where microbial communities degrade biomass into hydrogen, carbon dioxide and acetic acid, synthesizing methane from these intermediates. Also, slow anaerobic digestion naturally takes place in landfills containing organic waste and the collected biogas of this type is denoted landfill gas. Several types of biomass can be used to produce biogas: the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and industrial waste, wastewater treatment sludge, agricultural residues,  manure and energy crops. Before injection into a natural gas grid and/or use in vehicles, biogas needs to be upgraded to  approximately 97% methane and purified from contaminants such as siloxanes and sulfur.

SNG can be produced by thermochemical gasification, achieved by heating biomass to high temperatures (>700°C) without combustion. The intermediate product is a synthesis gas consisting of methane, hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Depending on the type of gasification process, the composition of the synthesis gas differs and thus its suitability for methanation (the final process step where methane is formed from hydrogen and carbon monoxide). Alternatively, other fuels than methane can be produced from the synthesis gas, e.g. diesel, methanol or petrol. The raw material for thermochemical gasification is lignocellulosic biomass including energy crops and residues from forestry and agriculture; coal can also be used as raw material, though in that case the result is of course not a biofuel.

SNG can also be produced from carbon dioxide and hydrogen. For a low carbon footprint, the hydrogen is produced by electrolysis using renewable electricity. Carbon dioxide can e.g. be supplied from a conventional biogas upgrading plant. Other hydrocarbon fuels such as diesel, methanol and petrol can be synthesized in a similar way; all such fuels are usually denoted electrofuels.

Current production volumes

The use of biomethane as a vehicle fuel, which is small compared to bioethanol and biodiesel, is concentrated to Europe, more specifically to Sweden, Germany, Switzerland, the Netherlands, and Austria. European statistics for biomethane used as vehicle fuel are difficult to find, probably because the volumes are still very small and the final use is difficult to trace when biomethane is co-distributed with natural gas in a gas grid. According to the Swedish Energy Agency, production volumes for upgraded biogas in Sweden amounted to 1 TWh during 2014, of which almost all was used in the transport sector. This is equivalent to 9% of the biofuel use, and 1.1% of total use of fuels for domestic transport in Sweden. Even though the production of biomethane for use in vehicles is limited in Europe today, there is a large  production of raw biogas that potentially could be upgraded to biomethane. The biogas production in Europe amounted to 156 TWh (primary  energy) during 2013 (EurObserv’ER 2014).

System of distribution

Biomethane may be distributed from production site to fuel station by road transport either under high pressure (CNG) or in a liquefied state (LNG). Compressed biomethane may also be injected in the natural gas grid which in turn supplies many fuel stations (although that is not common in Sweden).

SNG projects in Europe

GoBiGas (Göteborg Energi) in Gothenburg, Sweden. A demonstration plant producing biomethane by gasification of forest residues with 20 MW SNG output is in operation since 2014.

Audi/ETOGAS plant in Werlte, Germany. The plant uses hydrogen from intermittent wind power and carbon dioxide from biogas upgrading to produce biomethane which is injected into the natural gas grid. The corresponding amount of methane is sold to Audi car owners.

Facts

Fact sheet  | 

Life cycle assessments of arable land use options and protein feeds

This summary is an extended abstract for a Master of Science in Energy Environment Management thesis performed at Linköping University,…

Read more »

This summary is an extended abstract for a Master of Science in Energy Environment Management thesis performed at Linköping University, the Department of Management and Engineering, written by Malin Karlsson and Linnea Sund.  The thesis was supervised by Sandra Halldin at Lantmännen Agroetanol, a member of f3.

Introduction

The last three decades have been the warmest of the last 1400 years in the northern hemisphere. Human influence on the climate is clear and the on-going climate changes have had widespread impacts on the environment and the economy (IPCC, 2015). Agricultural activities are estimated to be responsible for one-third of climate change, partly because of deforestation and the use of fertilisers (Climate Institute, n.d.). The beef production is also a major contributor to climate change, and the beef consumption worldwide is increasing, raising the demand for animal feed (Dalgaard, et al., 2008). One of the reasons why the beef production has such a large environmental impact is the large area of arable land required in order to grow animal feed (Larsson, 2015). The population growth and the climate change will probably lead to a decrease in available arable land in parts of the world (Zhang & Cai, 2011), which means it is more important than ever to use the arable land existing today in the best possible way from a climate change perspective.

Biofuels, such as bioethanol and rape methyl ester (RME), are produced with the hope to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from a life cycle perspective, since biofuels can replace fossil fuels in the transportation sector. As the availability of arable land is limited, the greenhouse gas reduction per hectare of land and year is an important measure of sustainability when producing biofuels (Börjesson, et al., 2013). Lately, using arable land for biofuel production has been criticized for competing with food production and leading to indirect land use changes, i.e. the production of biofuels in Europe leading to changed land use and greenhouse gas emissions somewhere else in the world. At the same time, a significant part of the European arable land is used as fallow (Eriksson, 2013), land that could have been used to produce food or biofuels. These aspects opens up for a discussion – how should the arable land be used to contribute as little as possible to climate change?

When producing bioethanol from wheat and RME from rapeseed, the co-products Dried Distillers Grain with Solubles (DDGS) and rapeseed meal are also produced. These co-products can be used as protein sources in animal feed and substitute imported soybean meal, which means less land is required to grow soybeans (Börjesson, et al., 2010). However, different protein feeds have different protein content, and soybean meal contains more protein than DDGS and rapeseed meal which means a smaller amount of soybean meal is required to provide the animals with their daily protein intake compared to the two other protein feeds (Bernesson & Strid, 2011). The question remains which of the three protein feeds that contributes the least to climate change.

Aim and method

The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the climate impact from different arable land use options and protein feeds  aimed for cattle. This has been made by executing two life cycle assessments (LCAs). The first LCA aimed to compare the following three arable land use options:

Cultivation of wheat used for production of bioethanol, carbon dioxide and DDGSCultivation of rapeseed used for production of RME, rapeseed meal and glycerineFallow in the form of long-term grassland

The second LCA aimed to compare the three protein feeds DDGS, rapeseed meal and soybean meal. In the LCA of arable land, the functional unit 1 ha arable land during one year was used and the LCA had a cradle-to-grave perspective. The LCA of protein feeds had the functional unit 100 kg digestible crude protein and had a cradle-to-gate perspective, hence the use and disposal phases of the feeds were excluded.

Bioethanol, DDGS and carbon dioxide produced at Lantmännen Agroetanol, Norrköping, were investigated in this study. The production of RME, rapeseed meal and glycerine were considered to occur at a large-scale plant in Östergötland, but no site-specific data was used. Instead, general data of Swedish production was used in the assessment. The wheat and rapeseed cultivations were considered to take place at the same Swedish field as the fallow takes place.

The protein feed DDGS was produced at Lantmännen Agroetanol and the rapeseed meal was assumed to be produced at a general large-scale plant in Sweden. In the soybean meal scenario, a general case for the Brazilian state Mato Grosso was assumed and no specific production site was investigated. Data required for the LCAs was retrieved from literature, the LCI database Ecoinvent and from Lantmännen Agroetanol.

In the LCA of arable land use options, system expansion was used on all products produced to be able to compare the wheat and rapeseed scenarios with the fallow scenario. In the LCA of protein feeds, system expansion was used on co-products. The products in the arable land use options and the co-products in the protein feed scenarios are considered to replace the production and use of products on the market with the same function.

Results and conclusion

The result shows that the best arable land use option from a climate change perspective is to cultivate wheat and produce bioethanol, carbon dioxide and DDGS. This is since wheat cultivation has a higher yield per hectare compared to rapeseed and therefore a bigger amount of fossil products and feed ingredients can be substituted. To have the arable land in fallow is the worst option from a climate change perspective, since no products are produced that can substitute alternative products. Furthermore, the result shows that DDGS and rapeseed meal are to prefer before soybean meal from a climate change perspective, since soybean meal has a higher climate impact than DDGS and rapeseed meal. This can be explained by the smaller share of co-products produced in the soybean meal scenario compared to the DDGS and rapeseed meal scenarios. Since the production and use of co-products leads to avoided greenhouse gas emissions (since they substitute alternatives), the amount of co-products being produced is an important factor. A sensitivity analysis was also executed testing different system boundaries and variables critical for the result in both LCAs.

The conclusion of this study is that arable land should be used to cultivate wheat in order to reduce the total climate impact from arable land. Furthermore, it is favorable for the climate if DDGS or rapeseed meal are used as protein feeds instead of imported soybean meal.

Facts

Participants
Malin Karlsson and Linnea Sund, Linköping University

References in the summary

Bernesson, S. & Strid, I., 2011. Svensk spannmålsbaserad drank - alternativa sätt att tillvarata dess ekonomiska, energi - och miljömässiga potential, Uppsala: Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).

Börjesson, P., Tufvesson, L. & Lantz, M., 2010. Life Cycle Assessment of Biofuels in Sweden, Lund: Lund University.

Börjesson, P., Lundgren, J., Ahlgren, S. & Nyström, I., 2013. Dagens och framtidens hållbara biodrivmedel, s.l.: f3 The Swedish Knowledge Centre for Renewable Transportation Fuels.

Climate Institute, n.d. Agriculture.

Dalgaard, R. et al., 2008. LCA of Soybean Meal. Int J LCA, 13(3), pp. 240-254.

Eriksson, M., 2013. Mat eller Motor - Hur långt kommer vi med vår åkermark? Stockholm: Macklean Strategiutveckling AB.

IPCC, 2015. Climate Change 2014 - Synthesis Report, Switzerland: u.n.

Larsson, J., 2015. Hållbara konsumtionsmönster - analyser av maten, flyget och den totala konsumtionens klimatpåverkan idag och 2050, s.l.: Naturvårdsverket.

Zhang, X. & Cai, X., 2011. Climate change impacts on global agricultural land availability. Environmental Research Letters, 18 March. Volume 6.

f3 Project  | Finished | 2016-06-30

Sustainable biofuels today and in the future

In 2012 f3 was asked to contribute to the official report of the Swedish Government “Fossilfrihet på väg” (Fossil independency…

Read more »

In 2012 f3 was asked to contribute to the official report of the Swedish Government “Fossilfrihet på väg” (Fossil independency on the way, SOU 2013:84) by summarizing the current state of the art knowledge about production of biofuels and sustainability aspects such as energy and land efficiency and greenhouse gas performance and costs, preferably from a Swedish perspective. The f3 contribution was published in June 2013 with the title “Dagens och framtidens hållbara biodrivmedel” (Sustainable biofuels today and in the future).

During 2016 a new report was compiled, based on the work of the 2013 publication. This report includes facts and figures updated in correspondance to new research results and is available in English.

Facts

Manager
Ingrid Nyström, Chalmers Industriteknik Industriell Energi AB

Contact
ingrid.nystrom@chalmersindustriteknik.se

Participants
Pål Börjesson, Lund University // Serina Ahlgren, SLU // Joakim Lundgren, LTU

Time plan
The contribution to the government official report was produced and published in the spring of 2013. The updated compilation report was published in May 2016.

Project Manager: Ingrid Nyström

f3 Project  | Finished | 2016-05-20

Flexibility in ethanol-based lignocellulose biorefineries

This project has produced a knowledge synthesis addressing flexibility in ethanol-based biorefinery processes using lignocellulosic feedstocks from the Swedish forestry…

Read more »

This project has produced a knowledge synthesis addressing flexibility in ethanol-based biorefinery processes using lignocellulosic feedstocks from the Swedish forestry and agricultural sectors. The flexibility of biorefinery operations is important as it determines their capacity to respond to fluctuations in feedstock supply and market demands. Here, the flexibility of feedstocks, processes, volumes and products, referred to as manufacturing flexibility, is reviewed. Particular emphasis has been given feedstock and product flexibility.

Increasing the product flexibility of a biorefinery is one means of reducing the risks associated with uncertainties in the future biofuel demand. A number of non-fuel products can be generated in a flexible biorefinery and there is future market potential in e.g. polyhydroxyalkanoates, lactic acid and other organic acids. Further, single-cell proteins may be produced with a number of microorganisms, using lignocellulosic sugars, simple nutrients and equipment similar to that of second generation ethanol plants.

It is concluded that a vast number of options to increase manufacturing flexibility in biorefinery operations exist. Although the present report does not include assessments of these options from a techno-economical perspective, it is indispensable that such analyses are made in conjunction with a scrutiny of the effects on the production as a whole, and the interdependency of the different processing steps in relation to the prerequisites of each biorefinery facility.

Facts

Manager
Robin Kalmendal, earlier at SP

Contact
robin.kalmendal@vgregion.se

Participants
Rickard Fornell and Karin Willqvist, SP // Björn Alriksson, SP Processum

Time plan
September 2015 - February 2016

Total project cost
250 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners

Project Manager: Robin Kalmendal

f3 Project  | Finished | 2016-05-10

Overview of value flows in the present Swedish forest-based industry

The intensified focus on bio-based economy has revived the interest in forest industry as a very important factor in the…

Read more »

The intensified focus on bio-based economy has revived the interest in forest industry as a very important factor in the achievement of the transition away from an economy based in fossil raw materials. The sustainable use of the natural resources and their ecosystem services is an important constituent of the bioeconomy. The objective of this project has been to give an overall view of the economic values related to the main physical biomass flows through the Swedish forest industry, and to discuss the implication for these value flows at the introduction of large-scale transportation fuel production from forest biomass. Thereby it aims to provide a better understanding for the bioeconomy structure, the values added within it and the options for renewable motor fuel production, by applying a “follow the money” approach.

The approach has been to combine existing information on physical feedstock flows with economic data from available statistics and literature. Through interviews and collection of more detailed statistics, data on production, market prices and value chains were compiled for three selected products: softwood kraft pulp, dissolving grade cellulose and ethanol.

The general conclusion from the project is that biorefining is about finding the optimal combination of feedstock requirements, processing cost, process flexibility, product mix and product properties.  Biorefining with integrated production of several products is generally found to be more efficient and with better economic performance than separate production. Integration with interdependence of several processes, however, increases the technical complexity and puts new demands on the businesses.

Facts

Manager
Jonas Joelsson, SP Processum

Contact
jonas.joelsson@processum.se

Participants
Dimitris Athanassiadis, SLU

Time plan
March - June 2015

Total project cost
178 000 SEK

Funding
f3:s parter

Project Manager: Jonas Joelsson

f3 Project  | Finished | 2016-02-25

How can forest-derived methane complement biogas from anaerobic digestion in the Swedish transport sector?

Forest-derived methane may contribute significantly to a vehicle fleet independent of fossil fuels by 2030. There is sufficient technical knowledge…

Read more »

Forest-derived methane may contribute significantly to a vehicle fleet independent of fossil fuels by 2030. There is sufficient technical knowledge about energy conversion methods and several Swedish actors have investigated and prepared investments in production facilities, but the technology is not commercially mature yet and it needs support during a development period. The combination of varying investment possibilities due to market changes, and the unpredictable development of policy instruments supporting production and use of renewable energy, is a major reason to why potential investments are postponed.

The use of upgraded biogas in the transport sector has increased continuously since its introduction in 1996. Upgraded biogas is complemented by natural gas to meet the vehicle gas demand. A voluntary agreement among the distributors maintains a minimum biogas share that corresponds to 50 %. The biogas share is much higher today (74 % by volume, average January-August 2015) and some large end-users use pure upgraded biogas.

Studies of the practical production potential show that the current vehicle gas demand could be met entirely with upgraded biogas. However, an increased demand will eventually require other production pathways based on other feedstocks. Gasification of forest biomass is one such pathway.

This project has conducted a literature study and an interview study with three industry actors to answer the question “How can forest derived methane complement biogas from anaerobic digestion in the Swedish transport sector?” For example, results from the study point out that

  • In order to attract investments in forest-derived methane, the vehicle gas market must continue to increase. To invest in a large-scale facility implies too large a risk given the size of the current demand and the uncertainties of the future market.
  • If methane should be able to play an increasingly important role in a future transportation sector, the gasification technology needs policy support during a development period.
  • The predictability of policy support is perceived as low. The predictability is more important than the specific type of policy instrument to attract investments.

Facts

Manager
Stefan Grönkvist, KTH

Contact
stefangr@kth.se

Participants
Tomas Lönnqvist and Thomas Sandberg, KTH

Time plan
November 2014 - June 2015

Total project cost
250 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners and KTH

Project Manager: Stefan Grönkvist

f3 Project  | Finished | 2016-02-18

Biogas from agricultural wastes and residues – Where and how much?

In the last years the number of gas-fuelled vehicles has increased rapidly in Sweden. The purpose of this project has…

Read more »

In the last years the number of gas-fuelled vehicles has increased rapidly in Sweden. The purpose of this project has been to estimate how much upgraded biogas could be produced from manure and agricultural harvest residues in Sweden and the EU.

This is done by building a model of the technical and economic conditions for biogas production, taking the geographical distribution of biogas substrates into account. The model has a finer resolution than in previous studies, allowing an overall techno-economical judgment of investment and operations costs for digestion and upgrading as well as transports of substrates and digestate. The result of the project is a map of the potential for biogas production from agricultural residues and manure in Europe. A more detailed analysis is also performed for Sweden, in collaboration with representatives from academia, government and industry.

 

Facts

Manager
Martin Persson, Chalmers

Contact
martin.persson@chalmers.se

Participants
Christel Cederberg and Göran Berndes, Chalmers // Rasmus Einarsson and Johan Torén, SP // Emma Kreuger, Lund University

Time plan
September 2014 - October 2015

Total project cost
803 052 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, Chalmers, SP and Lund University

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
39124-1

Project Manager: Martin Persson

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2016-01-07

The method’s influence on climate impact assessment of biofuels and other uses of forest biomass

There are potentially significant climate benefits with fuels derived from Swedish forest biomass. The assessment of these benefits strongly depends…

Read more »

There are potentially significant climate benefits with fuels derived from Swedish forest biomass. The assessment of these benefits strongly depends on methodological choices and assumptions regarding substituted products and alternative uses of the biomass. This project aims at studying how biofuels’ potential climate benefits depend on these choices and assumptions. Different methods for climate impact assessment are evaluated in life cycle assessments of biofuels, and comparisons are made with alternative uses of Swedish forest biomass: building materials, textile fibres and chemicals.

The project is needed both to improve methods for the  assessment of climate impact and to strengthen decision making influencing Swedish biofuel production.

Facts

Manager
Gustav Sandin Albertsson, SP

Contact
gustav.sandin@ri.se

Participants
Diego Peñaloza and Frida Røyne, SP // Magdalena Svanström, Chalmers // Louise Staffas, IVL

Time plan
December 2014 - November 2015

Total project cost
1 077 000 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, SP and Chalmers

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
39588-1

Project Manager: Gustav Sandin Albertsson

Collaborative research program  | 

Review of North American biofuel production, policies and research

The production of biofuels has increased dramatically in North America in recent years. The United States (U.S.) is leading this…

Read more »

The production of biofuels has increased dramatically in North America in recent years. The United States (U.S.) is leading this development and has promoted biofuels through a number of policies and mandates through the Renewable Fuels Standard to drive production, research and innovation in the area. Canada has also intensified the promotion of biofuels in recent years through the Renewable Fuels Regulation, in addition to a number of provincial policies and mandates to promote biofuels.

Ethanol is currently the dominant fuel in both countries, with blend rates in petrol most commonly between 5-10 percent.  The promotion and policies for ethanol fuels has helped to drastically increase their production and use in the past 10 years (2004-2014). In comparison to ethanol, biodiesel, for example, is produced in only marginal volumes in North America.

Despite the dramatic increases in the past 10 years, Canada and the U.S. have seen stagnation in conventional biofuel production. This is due in part to a saturation of the market and incentives for current plants, but also due to a large focus on advanced biofuel, for example cellulose-based ethanol.

This project has aimed at providing a brief overview of the development, production, policies and trends promoting biofuels in Canada and the US. Information was collected through literature reviews and interviews with leading researchers in Canada and the US.

Facts

Manager
Michael Martin, IVL

Contact
michael.martin@ivl.se

Participants
David Lazarevic, KTH

Time plan
January - September 2015

Total project cost
215 600 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners, IVL and KTH

Project Manager: Michael Martin

f3 Project  | Finished | 2015-12-17

Synthesis gas from agricultural feedstock – a review of possible technical pathways

Syngas, or synthesis gas, is a fuel gas mixture consisting of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2) in different proportions.

Read more »

Syngas, or synthesis gas, is a fuel gas mixture consisting of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2) in different proportions. In some cases, carbon dioxide (CO2) is also included in the mix. Syngas is an important feedstock when producing ammonia, methanol and many other chemical products, but also gaseous biofuels (e.g. substitute natural gas (SNG) and hydrogen) and liquid biofuels (e.g. Fischer-Tropsch diesel and dimethyl ether, DME). Syngas can also be used in turbines for efficient production of electricity and heat.

Much attention has been given to the possibility of thermal gasification of forest products, but there are other alternatives for syngas production. This report reviews the possibilities of converting agricultural feedstock (crops, manure, residues etc.) to syngas via (1) upgrading of biogas from anaerobic digestion and (2) thermochemical conversion. The focus of the review is on technical conversion systems rather than feedstock and it is based on existing literature, but a rough energy analysis, examining some of the energy inputs and outputs to the system, is also presented.

Facts

Manager
Serina Ahlgren, earlier at SLU

Contact
serina.ahlgren@ri.se

Participants
Sven Bernesson, SLU

Time plan
November 2012 - December 2013

Total project cost
200 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners and SLU

Project Manager: Serina Ahlgren

f3 Project  | Finished | 2015-11-26

Carbon Vision? A review of biofuel environmental systems analyses research in Sweden

To ensure that biofuels are produced sustainably, an increasing body of scientific literature has become available in recent years focusing…

Read more »

To ensure that biofuels are produced sustainably, an increasing body of scientific literature has become available in recent years focusing on the environmental sustainability of biofuels, often using environmental systems analysis (ESA) approaches such as life cycle assessments. However, these studies only address some of potential environmental impact categories.

This study aims to review and compare the state-of-the-art in environmental systems analyses of biofuel production systems, internationally and in Sweden. This is done in order to determine how studies have portrayed the potential environmental impacts of biofuel production pathways. Furthermore, this study identifies the scope of environmental impact categories considered, if there is a focus on a narrow set of environmental impact categories, and if there is, why this may exist.

A systematic literature review has been conducted to identify the most relevant environmental systems analyses of biofuels in Swedish research between 2000 and 2014. From the articles, information on ESA approaches used, goals, impact categories, methods, biofuels analysed and other relevant information was compiled.

The results indicate that there is a pronounced focus on GHG emission related impacts. However, this focus has not inhibited other impact categories from being investigated in the environmental assessment of biofuels, which is consistent with international research on the environmental assessment of biofuels, characterised by a dominant focus on GHG emissions and energy use.

The narrow focus in environmental impact categories is discussed in terms of study dependent variables (for example goal of the study, methods, and data uncertainty and availability) and the influence of the dominant science-policy framework in Sweden. Whilst biofuel production is inextricably linked to climate policy, one should not forget that the broader context of the Swedish environmental objectives should also be taken into consideration when developing biofuel production systems in Sweden.

Facts

Manager
Michael Martin, IVL

Contact
michael.martin@ivl.se

Participants
Mathias Larsson, IVL // David Lazarevic, KTH // Graham Aid, Linköping University

Time plan
September 2014 - September 2015

Total project cost
248 572 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners, IVL, KTH and Linköping University

Project Manager: Michael Martin

f3 Project  | Finished | 2015-11-12

Fuel options for public bus fleets in Sweden

Sweden has set the ambitious goal of acquiring a fossil-free vehicle fleet in 2030. This is a key step towards…

Read more »

Sweden has set the ambitious goal of acquiring a fossil-free vehicle fleet in 2030. This is a key step towards the country’s CO2-emissions neutral target to be achieved by 2050. The public transport sector, and bus service in particular, plays an important role in achieving this goal. In 2013, bus transport services were offered in all municipalities in Sweden and accounted for 52% of passenger boarding in public transport.

The Swedish public transport sector has defined two major targets: (i) to run 90% of the total vehicle kilometers of the fleet on non-fossil fuels by 2020, and (ii) to increase the share of public transport in relation to the total personal transport in the country, and double the volume of travel via public transport by 2020. The analysis performed within this project highlights the challenges and solutions encountered, particularly when it comes to the adoption of renewable fuels in the regional bus fleets. The fuel alternatives considered are biodiesel, biogas, ethanol and electricity.

The project results show that biodiesel has been the preferred fuel while increasing deployment of renewable fuels in buses, especially in scarcely populated regions. In addition, the compatibility with traditional diesel engines has favored this option among service providers. The use of biogas is increasing in line with incentives at local and national level. The deployment of electricity in buses is only found in city traffic, while the major choice for regional routes is usually biodiesel. A survey among experts in public transport indicated that electricity is likely to receive increasing attention and become more attractive. Environmental aspects such as emission reduction potential and energy efficiency are a priority when choosing fuels, together with infrastructure needs and fuel availability.

There is no strong correlation between population density or bus transport volume and the share of renewable fuels in the bus fleet, as shown in our mapping of renewable fuel deployment at regional level. This indicates political will, strategic planning and policies to promote public transport as very important factors affecting renewable fuel deployment.

Various knowledge transfer initiatives already in place show that decentralizing implementation efforts and sharing experiences serves well to promote innovative solutions and avoid mistakes. Devising a successful strategy for renewable fuels and low emissions in public bus fleets requires long-term engagement of decision-makers and broad collaboration with stakeholders. Every region has a different starting point but, with a multitude of concrete actions at local level, Sweden is showing that the transition to a fossil-free bus transport is indeed possible. These experiences provide lessons that should be shared internationally, and shall contribute to the transformation of transport systems towards sustainability.

Facts

Manager
Semida Silveira, KTH

Contact
semida.silveira@energy.kth.se

Participants
Maria Xylia, KTH

Time plan
December 2014 - March 2015

Total project cost
250 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners and KTH

The project has received input from the following persons/organisations: Hanna Björk, Västtrafik; Johan Böhlin, Stockholm Läns Landsting/Trafikförvaltningen; Jonas Ericson, Stockholms Stad; Claes Forsberg, Region Gävleborg och Peter Dädeby, Sörmlands kollektivtrafikmyndighet.

Project Manager: Semida Silveira

f3 Project  | Finished | 2015-10-12

LCA and techno-economical analysis of on-site enzyme production in 2nd generation bioethanol

Production of ethanol from lignocellulosic materials is a very complex process, which consists of various interdependent steps, such as pretreatment…

Read more »

Production of ethanol from lignocellulosic materials is a very complex process, which consists of various interdependent steps, such as pretreatment of the raw material, enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharides into sugar monomers, fermentation of the sugars to ethanol, and purification of ethanol. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a potential tool for comparing and analyzing environmental performance of different pathways for lignocellulosic ethanol as well as finding hot spots for future improvements. Several previous LCA’s have identified the production of cellulase enzymes as a process that have a large impact on overall results, especially regarding energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

The aim of the present study was to investigate GHG performance, primary energy use and ethanol production cost from two different process designs regarding cellulase enzymes for lignocellulosic ethanol production: (i) integrated in ethanol plant versus (ii) purchased from a centralized facility. On-site cellulase production in a full-scale bioethanol plant was modelled together with the whole ethanol production process, and the economic impact of the enzyme fermentation step on the ethanol production cost was assessed.

The results show that primary energy efficiency is somewhat higher in the cases with integrated enzyme production, but no major differences are identified. Regarding GHG emissions, results show that by using part of the lignocellulosic feedstock for enzyme production by the microorganism, emissions from bioethanol in a well-to-wheel perspective can be reduced significantly, compared to a scenario using purchased enzymes from a centralized facility. Information regarding purchased enzymes is scarce and data is connected to large uncertainties. The sensitivity analysis shows that assumptions regarding purchased enzymes, such as dosage and type of energy utilized in production, largely affect the comparison with an integrated enzyme production approach.

Facts

Manager
Ola Wallberg, Lund University

Contact
ola.wallberg@chemeng.lth.se

Participants
Zsolt Barta, Pål Börjesson and Johanna Olofsson, Lund University

Time plan
September 2014 - April 2015

Total project cost
220 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners

Project Manager: Ola Wallberg

f3 Project  | Finished | 2015-09-25

A future biorefinery for the production of propionic acid, ethanol, biogas, heat and power – A Swedish case study

Today there are a number of renewable chemicals under development, both biofuels and platform chemicals. Several studies have shown advantages…

Read more »

Today there are a number of renewable chemicals under development, both biofuels and platform chemicals. Several studies have shown advantages of these compared to their fossil based counterparts. To achieve the most efficient production the concept of biorefineries has been brought forward, optimizing the use of the raw material when several products are produced in parallel and the integration of processes leading to energy savings. The number of studies investigating the environmental impact of the production of these products in biorefineries are however, very limited.

The project consists of a case study investigating the environmental performance of an extended biorefinery concept that consists of several industries integrated in a symbiotic system located in Kristianstad producing RME, ethanol, propionic acid, and biogas. The results highlight general critical issues for biorefineries, e.g. important environmental hot spots for biorefinery production, and can increase the understanding of how to maximize the positive environmental effects of production in biorefineries. In cooperation with involved companies, the technical feasibility of the biorefinery is  investigated. This aims at showing industry and policy makers how an efficient and economically viable biorefinery concept based on the use of residues from agriculture and industry can be designed.

Facts

Manager
Pål Börjesson, Lund University

Contact
pal.borjesson@miljo.lth.se

Participants
Linda Tufvesson, Lund University // Serina Ahlgren, SLU // Stefan Lundmark, Perstorp // Anna Ekman, Lund University/SIK (SP)

Time plan
October 2013 - December 2013

Total project cost
650 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners, Lund University, SLU, Perstorp and SIK (SP)

Project Manager: Pål Börjesson

f3 Project  | Finished | 2015-08-10

Beyond LCI: Towards EPD-conforming LCAs for vehicle fuels

Environmental product declarations (EPD’s) of vehicle fuels, based on LCA, will likely be increasingly required by the market in the…

Read more »

Environmental product declarations (EPD’s) of vehicle fuels, based on LCA, will likely be increasingly required by the market in the near future. EPD is in the broad sense a market driven format for communicating LCA based environmental information business-to-business and more recently also business-to-consumer.

A key component in LCA based EPD’s is a method prescription document, referred to as Product Category Rules (PCR). A PCR defines the necessary method and data requirements, as agreed by the interested stakeholders in a process of iterated drafting, open consultation and revising. This project has focused on initiating the work towards a PCR as a necessary background requirement before the actual PCR development can start.

One of the main challenges for correct LCI data and consequently EPDs for fuels lies in the traceability of the fuel to its source, meaning exactly where it comes from and how it is produced. Today, this is more developed for biofuels than for fossil fuels due to the implementation of the EU Renewable Energy Directive (RED), and, more specifically, fulfilment of the so-called sustainability criteria. This is called Guarantees of origin (GO). One difficulty lies in the fact that fuels from different sources are often mixed before distribution to the fuel retailer.

The purpose of this project has been to explore conditions and opportunities to develop EPDs for vehicle fuels including the customer demands for life cycle based environmental data on vehicle fuels. It is a continuation of the previous f3 project Well-to-wheel LCI data for fossil and renewable fuels on the Swedish market.

Facts

Manager
Lisa Hallberg, IVL

Contact
elisabet.hallberg@ivl.se

Participants
Tomas Rydberg, Julia Hansson, Lars-Gunnar Lindfors, Felipe Oliveira and Katja Wehbi, IVL // Nils Brown, KTH

Time plan
April - September 2013

Total project cost
526 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners, IVL, SLU, Perstorp, Lantmännen, Preem, SEKAB, E.on and Göteborg Energi AB

The following persons and companies have in different ways participated and given input to the project: Lars Lind and Anna Berggren, Perstorp Oxo; Per Erlandsson and Sofie Villman, Lantmännen; Jan Lindstedt and Jonas Markusson, SEKAB; Bertil Karlsson and Sören Eriksson, Preem; Håkan Eriksson and Jan-Anders Svensson, E.on; Eric Zinn, Göteborg Energi AB; Ebba Tamm, Svenska Petroleum och Biodrivmedel Institutet SPBI; Kristian Jelse, Swedish Environmental Management Council; Magnus Swahn, The Network for Transport and Environment (NTM).

Project Manager: Lisa Hallberg

f3 Project  | Finished | 2015-07-07

Inventory and comparison of Swedish and international biobutanol projects

Butanols are four carbon alcohols available in four isomeric forms that mainly find use as solvents or as starting chemicals…

Read more »

Butanols are four carbon alcohols available in four isomeric forms that mainly find use as solvents or as starting chemicals in lacquers and plastics. Compared to ethanol and methanol, butanols have a higher energy content and better water separating properties and are as well less corrosive. Thereby, the use of butanols as a fuel or fuel blend component is technically more promising than methanol and ethanol.

Corn has been the traditionall feedstock for biobutanol production, but recently (December 2013) also ligno-cellulosic waste has been used as feedstock for ABE fermentation at scale. With respect to the large supply of cellulosic waste materials in Sweden and potential use and benefits from iso- and n-butanols as biofuels/biochemicals, the objective of this project has been to investigate the production and research efforts on biobutanol in Sweden and relate these to corresponding efforts for biobutanol globally.

The outcome of the survey reveals that Sweden has no or little tradition on biobutanol production as well as no focused research in the field. The greatest increase in biobutanol production occurs in China, where commercial production sites for biobutanol based on corn feedstock are in operation. The research regarding butanol fermentation is dominating in the US, Germany and Asia.

Facts

Manager
Niklas Strömberg, SP

Contact
niklas.stromberg@ri.se

Participants
Anders Loren, SP // Lars Lind, Perstorp

Time plan
November - December 2013

Total project cost
75 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners and Perstorp

Project Manager: Niklas Strömberg

f3 Project  | Finished | 2015-07-07

Bioetanol

Faktabladet är i dagsläget enbart tillgängligt på engelska. Bioethanol is the most commonly used biofuel for transportation. It can be…

Read more »

Faktabladet är i dagsläget enbart tillgängligt på engelska.

Bioethanol is the most commonly used biofuel for transportation. It can be produced from many different raw materials and through different production processes. Today, mainly technologically conventional methods are used, such as fermentation from sugar- and starch-based feedstock. Production of so called second generation, or advanced, bioethanol utilizes methods developed to make use of lignocellulosic types of  biomass, e.g. residues from the forestry and agriculture sector and waste material.

Primary area of use

Bioethanol and synthetic ethanol are chemically the same molecule, and therefore identical from a usage perspective. Low blending of ethanol into vehicle fuel was introduced as an oxygen agent to reduce CO2 emissions. The usage is spread and extensive around the world, mainly as low blending in gasoline. Ethanol can be mixed with gasoline in different properties. Today, blends up to E25 are marketed and used in conventional cars, meaning that 25% of the volume is ethanol. In Europe as well as in many countries around the world, E5 to E10 are the most commonly used blends. In the U.S. most of the gasoline is E10, with E15 lately being introduced to increase the ethanol use. In Brazil E20 to E25 is used in all gasoline.

Ethanol is also used in flexi fuel cars that can run on any mixture from pure gasoline up to E95, i.e. ethanol with 5% water. This market is so far most developed in Brazil, U.S., and Sweden. In Brazil, 90% of new car sales are flexi fuel. A similar trend can be seen in the U.S., however not on the same level. In Europe, the development has been slower. The extra cost for the flexi fuel technology in a car is less than € 100 compared to a normal gasoline car. If the car manufacturer chooses to charge the extra cost depends on the  current situation for competition.

For heavy vehicles, a slightly modified diesel engine with compression ignition can use ED95, an ethanol fuel with 5% water and addition of 3-5% ignition improver.

The suitability and flexibility of ethanol for transportation is good compared to gasoline and diesel of today. The thermal efficiency of ethanol when used in gasoline engines (Otto-engines) is higher than for pure gasoline, especially if the high octane number is utilized in the design of the engine. However, the energy content per liter is 34% lower in ethanol than in gasoline. When ethanol is used as E5 these effects equals out and the ethanol substitutes the same volume of gasoline. For higher ethanol blends, the fuel volume increases, leading to shorter driving range with the same tank size. In the diesel engine, ED95 has the same thermal efficiency as diesel, which means 20–30% higher than an Ottoengine.

Feedstock and production

Ethanol can be produced from almost all types of biomass. Today’s commercial plants use sugar and starch rich biomass like sugarcane, sugar beet, corn, wheat, and other grains. The process used for production of ethanol is fermentation of sugars. For grains, an enzyme hydrolysis of the starch is needed. Cellulose biomass needs a pre-treatment step to open up the structure before enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of the formed sugars can be performed.

Another route to produce ethanol is by gasification of biomass to carbon oxide and hydrogen. The gas is catalytically reformed or biochemically transformed to ethanol. In the US there are some ongoing demonstration projects with this technology.

Current production volumes

Ethanol is the most commonly used biofuel today, and in terms of volume it counts for about 90% of global consumption. The global ethanol production in 2013 was approximately 23 429 Millions of US Gallons, with the US as the largest producer.

Production and use of ethanol has during the last decade increased drastically, but due to the world finance crises and a massive media blackening, it has leveled.

Distribution system

The distribution of E5 to E25 and E85 is generally handled by the normal gasoline and diesel companies in each country, since ethanol is blended in the oil depot. The risk handling and classification are almost the same as for gasoline. The distribution of ED95 is adapted to the customer as they mainly consist of fleet owners. Transporting of ethanol over long distances is done in tankers and implies no problem. Dewatered ethanol for blending in gasoline is hydroscopic (meaning it takes up water) and during storage and transportation nitrogen is used to replace air and minimize breathing in the tanks, caused by temperature differences.

Recent cellulose-to-ethanol projects

Technology to produce ethanol from cellulosic biomass has been developed and verified by several companies, e.g. SEKAB, DONG/Inbicon, Chemtex, Abengoa, Poet-DSM, and Iogen, in pilot scale and small demo scale up to 5 million liters/year.

In Crescentino, Italy, Beta Renewables (earlier M&G/Chemtex) opened the first commercial scale plant in Europe in October 2013. It produces bioethanol from agricultural residues and energy crops, using enzymatic conversion.

In Emmetsburg, Iowa, US, Poet-DSM’s first commercial cellulosic bioethanol plant, Project Liberty, opened in September 2014. The Liberty Project plant produces biofuels from crop residues provided to the plant from local farmers.

Iogen Corp. announced in December 2014 the production start of cellulosic ethanol at Raízen’s newly expanded Costa Pinto sugar cane mill in Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil. The facility will convert biomass such as sugar cane bagasse and straw into 40 million litres per year of advanced, second generation cellulosic biofuel.

Facts

Fact sheet  | 

Restprodukter från jordbruket

Faktabladet är i dagsläget enbart tillgängligt på engelska. Residues from agriculture include a variety of products, such as straw from…

Read more »

Faktabladet är i dagsläget enbart tillgängligt på engelska.

Residues from agriculture include a variety of products, such as straw from cereal and  oilseed cultivation, tops from potato and sugar beet cultivation, and manure from livestock keeping. All of these can be used for biofuel production in different ways. Using residues is a way of increasing energy production from agriculture without competing with food production.

Straw

Straw is the stalks from cereal or oil plants. Straw can be harvested or left in the field for different reasons: because there is no demand for it, to maintain soil quality, or because the weather or time does not allow for collection. The straw harvested in Sweden is mainly used as bedding material and feedstuff for animals, but the excess straw could be used for energy purposes. Fuel qualityfor different types of straw vary and wheat straw is commonly considered as suitable due to e.g. high yields and low content ofash. The content of alkali metals and chlorine can be reduced if the straw is left in the field and exposed to rain before harvesting.

Harvesting of cereal is done with a harvesting combine that cuts the plants and feed them into a thresher where grains are separated from the straw. The straw is then placed in rows on the field for collection. The straw yield varies with respect to species and stubble height, but is generally in the range of 1-5 tonnes dry matter/hectare.

There are many systems to collect and store straw. Capacity is always important when collecting straw, due to economic and time constrain reasons. The straw can be pressed into square or round bales, with square bales usually having a higher density and also being easier to transport and store because of their shape. Another method for collection is to load chopped straw directly onto a collecting trailer. The expenses for baling can then be avoided, but chopped straw has low density, making transportation and storage expensive.

When straw that is not dry enough is stored, it can lead to molding and spores can spread that could cause health problems such as lung disease. It also leads to dry matter losses, heat development and risk of self-ignition. The straw can hold sufficiently low moisture content at point of collection, but the moisture content is very weather dependent.

Potato and sugar beet tops

Tops that remain from cultivation of potato and sugar beet is currently a non-utilized feedstock with potential for harvesting asfeedstock for anaerobic digestion.

In potato cultivation the tops are terminated about three weeks prior to harvest, to prevent mold contaminated green tops to cause damage to the potatoes, and to make the harvesting easier. In conventional farming this is done by spraying the tops with herbicides, and in organic farming it is done mechanically by breaking or burning of the tops. In most cases, the tops are left on the field. There is no standard collecting method yet developed. However, there is ongoing research, including development of a front mounted stem shredder, a side mounted elevator and a collecting trailer. Harvest is estimated to vary between 1-4 tonnes dry matter/hectare.

In sugar beet cultivation the tops are generally left on the field, but can be collected during the harvest. Many beet harvesting machines can separate the tops from the beet, and by using an elevator they can be collected in a trailer. The harvest of beet tops varies between 3-8 tonnes dry matter/hectare. However, removing tops from the field also removes nutrients. This could be compensated for by returning sludge from the anaerobic digestion to the field.

Manure

Manure is the feces and urine from livestock. There is a distinction between liquid manure with a low content of dry matter, and solid manure with a higher content of dry matter that is mixed with bedding materials like straw and feeding residues. In principal all manure in Sweden is used as a fertilizer on farmland.

Storing of manure leads to emissions of methane as the organic matter decomposes. Therefore, manure is a good substrate for anaerobic digestion as this method avoids emissions of methane to the atmosphere, and at the same time allows for energy production. However, manure often needs to be co-digested with other substrates as the methane yield is rather low.

Current production and potential

The estimated total amount of straw available on Swedish fields corresponds to an energy potential of about 27 TWh per year. Dueto weather conditions and time constraints during harvest season it is not possible to harvest all of it. Some straw also has to be leftin the field in order to maintain soil quality, and some is needed as bedding material for livestock. This taken into account, the potentialfor use of straw for energy purposes in Sweden is estimated to around 4 TWh per year. Another 5 TWh is harvested as beddingmaterial in livestock keeping, from which a large share will end up as manure that can also be used for energy purposes.

The annual potential for tops is estimated to about 0.4 TWh from potatoes and 1 TWh from sugar beets.

The current Swedish livestock population produces manure with an energy potential of approximately 14 TWh per year. This also includes the manure that ends up on pasture land during grazing season. Studies of biogas potential from collected manure range between 4-6 TWh per year, depending on assumed biogas yield, number of animals, amount of manure and grazing period. The total production of biogas from manure was about 210 GWh in 2012, of which 145 GWh was upgraded to vehicle gas.

Facts

Fact sheet  | 

Energigrödor från jordbruket

Faktabladet är i dagsläget enbart tillgängligt på engelska. Energy crops are crops produced with the objective to be used in…

Read more »

Faktabladet är i dagsläget enbart tillgängligt på engelska.

Energy crops are crops produced with the objective to be used in the energy system. The energy crops presented here are not suitable as food. They include the species willow, reed canary-grass, poplar and aspen. These crops can be used to produce a variety of biofuels using different processes. By gasification and further treatment they can be used to produce e.g. methanol, DME, hydrogengas, Fischer-Tropsch diesel and substitute natural gas (SNG). By fermentation they can be used to produce ethanol, and by anaerobic digestion to produce biogas, although some pre-treatment is be required.

Willow

The genus Salix includes a large amount of species and is found wild in all  continents except Australia. In Sweden a few species have been selected for breeding programs to form new varieties suitable for growing in different climates. Energy willow can be grown up to the southern parts of northern Sweden. It needs nutrient rich soil with a pH above 6 and a good supply of water and light to grow well. Clay soils to fine sand soils are appropriate.

After preparation of soil, planting is done from cuttings, and is performed from end of April to middle of June. About 13 000 cuttings per hectare are planted in rows, with more space between every second row to facilitate harvesting. Weed control is very important during the establishment since the weeds compete with the willow plants for light, water and nutrients. Both mechanical and chemical weed killing is needed during the planting year. In Sweden, about 11 580 hectares willow was cultivated in 2010.

Use of fertilizers, mainly nitrogen, increase growth significantly. Ideally fertilizing should be done every year, but due to practical problem it is mainly done the first and second year in each rotation, when the plants are small enough to give access for the spreader. In soils with low pH lime or ash can be applied.

Harvesting is done during winter every 3-5 years. It is time for harvest when the biggest stems are 7-10 cm in diameter at the base. The output is 20-25 dry tonnes/hectare during first harvest and 30-35 dry tonnes/hectare onwards. Common harvesting systems include direct chipping at harvest and harvesting of whole stems. The economic lifetime of a plantation is 20-25 years.

Reed canary-grass

Reed canary-grass is a perennial grass that grows wild in wetlands in most of the northern hemisphere and can be grown in all parts of Sweden, even in the north. It can be grown in most kinds of soils, but grows best in wet soils with high organic matter content. When grown in bog soils, spreading of lime or ash may be needed to increase the pH value. Different kinds of soils give the grass different properties. For example the ash content in the grass is higher when grown in clay soils. In 2010, about 800 hectares of reed canary-grass were cultivated in Sweden.

Preparation of the land includes ploughing and weed killing before sowing. Weed killing during the first year of growth may also be necessary. Sowing is done in early spring for the grass to establish properly before autumn.

Harvesting is done either in spring or autumn. The first harvest is done in the second year, and then every year onwards. The outputis 4-6 dry tonnes/hectare. Harvesting in the spring gives a brittle grass with low moisture content, and no further drying is needed. The amount of potassium, chlorine, phosphorus and nitrogen is also lower in the spring, resulting in lower ash content and higher ash melting point. Harvesting in the autumn gives a higher yield, but the moisture content is also higher, this would e.g. be more appropriate for biogas production.

The need for fertilizing is largest the first two years. Autumn harvesting removes a lot of nutrients together with the grass while if the harvesting is done in the spring, most of the nutrients are in the roots and are left on the field. Therefore less fertilizing is needed if a system with spring harvesting is used.

Hybrid aspen and poplar

The genus Populus includes about 30 species and grows wild in most of the northern hemisphere. They are commercially interesting since they grow fast and can reproduce from cuttings. As energy crops, different kinds of hybrid varieties are used. They grow best on farmland or fertile forest land, in soils with a pH between 5.5 and 7.5. Nutrient rich light clay soils are suitable. Locations that are frost exposed during the establishment period should be avoided and there need to be a good supply of water.

Preparation of the soil includes loosening to allow the roots to grow deeper, and weed killing. Weeds can compete with the plants and reduce growth but also constitute a favourable environment for voles, which can cause significant damage to the plants. Especially aspen is also very popular to deer, and fencing is often necessary.

Planting is made from rooted cuttings in May or June. The amount of plants and the management during the growing  period is determined by the intended use of the biomass (energy, pulp and/or timber). Suggested rotation time for energy use is 15-25 years and felling is done with traditional forestry techniques. Growth is 7-9 dry tonnes/hectare and year.

After felling, shoots develop in large amounts, which can be used to establish a second generation plantation, either by keeping all the shoots and after a few years harvest, similar to a willow plantation, or by continuous thinning to establish a new plantation with sparser stems. The latter however is very labour intensive. Another alternative is to pull the stumps and make a new planting with rooted cuttings. However, experience of poplar and aspen growing in Sweden is limited and more research is needed. About 490 hectares poplar and 240 hectares aspen were cultivated in Sweden during 2010.

Facts

Fact sheet  | 

Restprodukter från skogen

Faktabladet är i dagsläget enbart tillgängligt på engelska. Main forestry products are timber and pulpwood, but residues from forestry, such…

Read more »

Faktabladet är i dagsläget enbart tillgängligt på engelska.

Main forestry products are timber and pulpwood, but residues from forestry, such as tops, branches and stumps can be harvested for energy purposes. Currently, the major part of the harvested residues is used in heat plants and combined heat and power plants. However, forest residues also have a large potential as a feedstock to produce biofuels. By gasification and further treatment residues can be used to produce e.g. methanol, ethanol, DME, hydrogen, Fischer-Tropsch  diesel and substitute natural gas (SNG). By pre-treatment and fermentation,  forest residues can be utilised for ethanol production. Another potential lies in the different high-value products that can be co-produced when forest residues are utilized in so called biorefineries.

Forest management

IIn Sweden, the productive forest area is around 22 million hectares. The dominating forest type is conifer (spruce and pine), but also broadleaved and mixed forest types are common. A rotation period can vary from 50 years in southern Sweden to over 100 years in the north. Common practice is to plant seedlings, however natural sowing from seed trees can also be used. Thinning is done to concentrate the growth to fewer trees in order to achieve better timber quality. There is a large energy potential in collecting forest residues from thinning, even though this is not currently done in any considerable scale in Sweden, mainly due to practical problems of transporting the trees out of the forest without damaging the remaining trees. Final felling is in Sweden often done as clear-cutting.

Tops and branches

Tops and branches is the part of the biomass left in the forest after final felling. The tops of the trees are cut, since this part is too small to be used as timber or pulpwood. Tops and branches make up about 15-20% of the mass of the whole tree. During the felling, tops and branches are put in stacks, along with the timber and pulpwood. The stacks of tops and branches are left in the clearing to dry for a period of time and for the needles to fall off, since needles make a good forest nutrient. The semi-dried tops and branches are then taken out of the forest to be stored in windrows alongside the nearest road, before transport to user.

There are many different operational and logistic management options for handling of tops and branches. The residues are bulky; therefore they can be chipped in the forest with mobile chipping equipment before transportation, so that trucks can be effectively loaded. The bulky residues can also be transported to a central chipping facility, before the residues are distributed to heat plants. Storing of chipped wood can be problematic as it leads to dry matter losses. It also leads to heat development and risk for selfignition. Storing wet wood chip can lead to molding, with risks of spreading spores that are unhealthy to inhale. Therefore longtime storage of wood chips is rarely recommended. This requires a balance between supply and demand, which is a logistical challenge.

Stumps

At present almost all stumps are left in the forest after final felling in Sweden. With about 15-20% of the whole tree’s energy contained in the stump, there is a large potential in using stumps for bioenergy. The Swedish research on stump harvesting and its consequences looks to e.g. Finland for experiences, where stump harvesting has already been in commercial operation for some time.

Stump harvesting can be done using an excavator with a harvesting head. There are two main type of harvesting heads, shearing or refractive heads. The shear head has a forked part, which is pressed against a wedge in order to split the stump before lifting. Each piece of the stump then has to be lifted individually.

A refractive head has prongs that are pressed under the stump and pulling it up until it comes loose. The stumps are generally  contaminated with stones, sand etc, of which as much as possible needs to be shaken off before the stumps are hauled to a windrow at roadside. From roadside, stumps can either be crushed at site with mobile crushing equipment or transported to a terminal for  crushing. Crushing on site dramatically increases the pay load on each truck. After crushing, whether on site or at terminal, the stump fuel can be run through a drum sieve, to remove as much contaminants as possible, lowering the ash content to below 5%.

Current production and potential

In 2010, residues from forestry in Sweden contributed with about 14 TWh of energy, with only a small part of this deriving from stumps. The residues are mainly used for heat and electricity production; there is currently no commercial production of biofuels from forest residues in Sweden. It is difficult to obtain statistics on how many hectares the residues are collected from, which can be explained by the reporting routines. The forest owners are only obliged to report the intention to take out residues after final felling, but this intention is not always followed through. During 2010, 155 000 hectares of forest was reported as intended for harvesting of tops and branches, and about 7 600 hectares for harvesting of stumps.

The energy potential in residues from forestry is large, and the total theoretical potential, no restrictions applied, is calculated to 141 TWh annually. But for different reasons not all residues can be collected. For example harvesting should not at all be done on wetlands or steep grounds, stumps cannot be harvested during thinning, and a certain amount of the residues needs to left in the forest for ecological reasons, especially in broadleaved forests. Including these restrictions, there is an estimated total potential of 16 TWh per year in tops and branches, and 21 TWh in stumps for residues after final felling. Including residues from thinning will increase the potential, but removing residues from thinning is connected with practical and economic difficulties.

Facts

Fact sheet  | 

A review of the synthetic step in the production of advanced biofuels

One of the most important routes for the future production of synthetic transport fuels is the gasification of biomass. A…

Read more »

One of the most important routes for the future production of synthetic transport fuels is the gasification of biomass. A lot of different gasification processes exists (direct, indirect, entrained flow) with different types of gasifiers (down draft, fluidised bed, circulating bed). However, all of the gasification processes have in common that the generated gas, the producer gas, must be upgraded or at least purified before the biofuel synthesis steps.

The aim of the project is to establish the state-of-art concerning the purification and upgrading of the producer gas to synthesis gas and the subsequent different fuel synthesis processes. The focus is on the technique, theory and thermodynamics and energy efficiency for the different sub-systems/processes.

Facts

Manager
Henrik Kusar, KTH

Contact
hkusar@kth.se

Participants
Jan Brandin, Linnaeus University // Christian Hulteberg, Lund University

Time plan
February - August 2015

Total project cost
435 000 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, KTH, Linnaeus University and Lund University

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
39585-1

Project Manager: Henrik Kusar

Collaborative research program  | Ongoing

Well-to-wheel LCI data for fossil and renewable fuels on the Swedish market

Commercial fuels in the market are blended out of various constituents. Biomass-based components are part of practically all commercial fuels…

Read more »

Commercial fuels in the market are blended out of various constituents. Biomass-based components are part of practically all commercial fuels today (ethanol in gasoline, FAME/HVO in diesel, CNG/CBG mixtures). With an increasing demand for environmental communication business-to-business as well as business-to-consumer there is also an increasing demand for generic, well-acknowledged best available environmental data for vehicle fuels, both in terms of production resource efficiency and emissions, as well as emissions from use in vehicles.

Through this project, Swedish companies in the transport sector as well as other sectors will get access to a high-quality up-to-date data source containing such data. The project setup will promote long-term collaboration of main stakeholders in Sweden for such data under the f3 structure.

Photo (c) Margarit Ralev

Facts

Manager
Lisa Hallberg, IVL

Contact
elisabet.hallberg@ivl.se

Participants
Tomas Rydberg, Felipe Oliveira and Åke Sjödin, IVL // Lisa Bolin and Frida Røjne, SP // Sara Palander and Johan Tivander, Chalmers // Nils Brown, KTH // Lisbeth Dahllöf and Per Salomonsson, Volvo // Helen Mikaelsson and Eva Iverfeldt, Scania

Time plan
October 2012 - November 2013

Total project cost
925 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners, IVL, Chalmers, KTH, SP, Scania and Volvo

Project Manager: Lisa Hallberg

f3 Project  | Finished | 2014-12-15

Ethanol production in biorefineries using lignocellulosic feedstock – GHG performance and energy balances

Sustainability performance of biofuels is often evaluated using life cycle assessment (LCA). Based on this method standardized guidelines…

Read more »

Sustainability performance of biofuels is often evaluated using life cycle assessment (LCA). Based on this method standardized guidelines has been laid down in the EU Renewable Energy Directive (RED), commonly used by the industry. Biorefineriesproducing a variety of co-products, poses particular challenges for the sustainability assessment methodologies.

In the previous f3 project Sustainable performance of lignocellulose-based ethanol and biogas co-produced in innovative biorefinery systemsthe GHG performance of ethanol and biogas co-produced in biorefineries from a lignocellulosic feedstock were calculated, applying the RED methodology.

The aim in this project has been to study aspects which are not included in the RED methodology. A specific emphasis was laid on methodological choices such as handling of co-products, functional unit, system boundaries etc. The results and methods are also discussed in relation to the RED methodology.

The results can be used to identify future research needs, but also be useful for future policymaking regarding e.g. use of lignocellulosic feedstock or biorefining and for industry.

Facts

Manager
Serina Ahlgren, earlier at SLU

Contact
serina.ahlgren@ri.se

Participants
Hanna Karlsson and Per-Anders Hansson, SLU // Pål Börjesson, Lund University

Time plan
April - September 2013

Total project cost
265 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners, SLU and Lund University

Project Manager: Serina Ahlgren

f3 Project  | Finished | 2014-08-26

Factors that influence the development of biogas

Sweden is one of the leading countries in the development of upgraded biogas for use in the transport sector. The…

Read more »

Sweden is one of the leading countries in the development of upgraded biogas for use in the transport sector. The introduction of a new vehicle fuel is complex since the production, infrastructure, and vehicle fleet has to be simultaneously developed. The aim of this report is to evaluate the barriers and drivers for increased production and use of upgraded biogas. The implications for the future development of the biogas system are also analysed.

It is likely that investment support schemes, like LIP and KLIMP, have been important in the construction of new biogas production facilities and infrastructure. The exemptions from energy and carbon dioxide taxes have also been important, both for producers and gas vehicle owners.

However, it is difficult to predict whether this is enough for the further expansion of biogas as a transportation fuel. Biogas chains from production to use, as well as other chains for pure and highlevel blends of biofuels, will probably need further specific incentives to compete with fuelefficient diesel vehicles. If biogas should be promoted further, support that enable biogas vehicles to compete with the alternatives in terms of life cycle economy is likely to be a key issue.

Facts

Manager
Stefan Grönkvist, KTH

Contact
stefangr@kth.se

Participants
Mårten Larsson, KTH

Time plan
March - September 2013

Total project cost
80 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners and KTH

Project Manager: Stefan Grönkvist

f3 Project  | Finished | 2014-07-14

LCA of biorefineries. Identification of key issues and methodological recommendations

A current trend in biomass conversion technologies is towards more efficient utilization of the biomass feedstock in so called biorefineries. One…

Read more »

A current trend in biomass conversion technologies is towards more efficient utilization of the biomass feedstock in so called biorefineries. One important aspect of bioenergy systems is the sustainability performance, especially energy use and greenhouse gases are at present given much attention. Life cycle assessment, LCA, is often used as a quantification tool for sustainability evaluation.

The aim of this project has been to highlight how different methodological choices in LCA, e.g, time and system boundaries and definition and choice of functional unit, influence the sustainability evaluation of biorefinery systems. Further, the project report gives recommendations and guidelines on how LCA of biorefineries can be carried out in future studies.

These guidelines can be be useful for LCA practioners in both research and industry. Following guidelines will increase accuracy and enhance comparability of studies. Also, as greenhouse gas emissions increasingly often are being regulated, this project has tried to bring to policymakers the balanced information needed for regulation and strategic decisions.

Facts

Manager
Serina Ahlgren, earlier at SLU

Contact
serina.ahlgren@ri.se

Participants
Hanna Karlsson and Ingrid Strid, SLU // Anna Björklund and Göran Finnveden, KTH // Anna Ekman and Pål Börjesson, Lund University

Time plan
May 2012 - September 2013

Total project cost
943 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners, SLU, Lund University, KTH, IVL, SP and Chalmers

A reference group consisting of Johanna Berlin, SP, Thomas Ekvall, IVL and Matty Janssen, Chalmers, was affiliated to the project.

Project Manager: Serina Ahlgren

f3 Project  | Finished | 2014-07-10

Valorization of by-products and raw material inputs in the biofuel industry

As biofuel production increases worldwide, the market value for by-products has continued to change. By-products originally having strong market value…

Read more »

As biofuel production increases worldwide, the market value for by-products has continued to change. By-products originally having strong market value may become saturated in the market with lower profitability. The use of these by-products for innovative products may therefore allevi­ate economic and environmental pressure for the commercial biofuel industry.

There are many potential useful substances that can be extracted from the by-products from the biofuel industry. Their subsequent uses can include for example use as feed, chemicals and energy. Moreover, further value can be added to the raw material inputs by cascading their use for new products prior to use in biofuel production.

This report aims at identifying possibilities for the biofuel industry to add value to their product outputs in addition to cascading use of raw materials for increased valorization, with special atten­tion devoted to the ethanol and biodiesel industry.

The report outlines different possibilities to extract proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, amino acids from the by-products in addition to their use as chemical building blocks for other processing tech­nologies. Raw materials used for the production of biofuel have also been identified as possible inputs to a variety of biorefinery systems. While there are many options available for valorization of the commercial biofuel industry, the promotion of advanced biofuels, environmental perfor­mance guidelines, market acceptance and competitiveness may be barriers to improving the current biofuel production performance.

Facts

Manager
Michael Martin, earlier at Linköping University

Contact
michael.martin@ivl.se

Time plan
November - December 2013

Total project cost
155 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners and Perstorp

Project Manager: Michael Martin

f3 Project  | Finished | 2014-05-25

Impact of biogas energy crops on GHG emissions, soil organic matter and food crop production – A case study on farm level

Use of arable land for energy crop production is already a reality in some countries. To meet future sustainability criteria…

Read more »

Use of arable land for energy crop production is already a reality in some countries. To meet future sustainability criteria for biofuel systems, it will be crucial to demonstrate systems which do not negatively affect current food production. This is of special relevance regarding future biofuels from energy crops cultivated on arable land and a potential implementation of so called iLUC – indirect land use change – factors.

One promising strategy is to improve the soil productivity, and thereby food crop yields, through dedicated and integrated food and energy crop rotations. The purpose of this study has been to evaluate a scenario where a biogas plant is providing the organic fertilizer needed for soil productivity improvement. In addition, crops have been integrated in the food crop rotation to improve soil fertility – crops which at the same time can act as biogas feedstock. The evaluation is performed as a case study on farm level, where the total output of food/feed products from the farm potentially could be maintained in addition to production of biogas feedstock.

Facts

Manager
Lovisa Björnsson, Lund University

Contact
lovisa.bjornsson@miljo.lth.se

Participants
Mikael Lantz and Pål Börjesson, Lund University // Thomas Prade and Sven-Erik Svensson, SLU // Håkan Eriksson, E.on Gas Sverige AB

Time plan
September 2012 -October 2013

Total project cost
1 203 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners, Lund University, SLU and E.on

Project Manager: Lovisa Björnsson

f3 Project  | Finished | 2014-04-04

Scenarios for large-scale integration of renewable fuels in the Swedish road transport sector

The high oil dependence and the continuous growth of energy use in the transport sector have in recent years triggered…

Read more »

The high oil dependence and the continuous growth of energy use in the transport sector have in recent years triggered interest in transport biofuels as a measure to mitigate climate change and improve energy security. A future large scale integration of renewable fuels in the road transport sector will in significant ways change the energy system. To minimize the risk of unwanted system effects, the assessment of biomass potentials and the long term performance of different transport fuels and technologies are essential.

This project has aimed to establish future biofuel-based pathways for the road transport sector that are feasible, sustainable and linked to low risks. A broad perspective is strived for and technical, economic as well as environmental parameters are taken into account. The analysis is primarily based on the development and use of an energy system model describing the Swedish road transport sector as an integrated part of the national energy system.

Photo: FreeImages.com/Johanna Ljungblom

 

Facts

Manager
Erik Ahlgren, Chalmers

Contact
erik.ahlgren@chalmers.se

Participants
Martin Börjesson, Chalmers // Robert Lundmark, Bio4Energy (LTU) // Dimitris Athanassiadis and Andreas Lundström, SLU

Time plan
April 2012 - June 2013

Total project cost
965 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners, Chalmers, Bio4Energy (LTU) and SLU

Project Manager: Erik Ahlgren

f3 Project  | Finished | 2014-04-03

Optimized logistics for biogas production

Biogas has a unique potential to reduce fossil fuel dependency and the climate impact from waste, manure and fuel supply.

Read more »

Biogas has a unique potential to reduce fossil fuel dependency and the climate impact from waste, manure and fuel supply. Previous studies have indicated a potential to produce up to 14 TWh biogas from agricultural substrates in Sweden, and a significant part of this growth potential is found in small-scale plants. In order to increase the utilization of the Swedish agriculture-based biogas potential, not only financial support, but also knowledge, methodology and tools for strategic planning are required.

Important steps to improve the conditions for increasing biogas production is therefore to learn from existing plants and to develop improved tools for strategic planning and efficient logistics, so that the most appropriate places and the most efficient logistic chains for biogas production can be identified. To identify the best opportunities for efficient and profitable biogas production, complex interactions between substrate mix, plant size, gas utilization and transport demand need to be taken into account. On other words, the system needs to be considered as a whole.

The purpose of this project has been to generate knowledge and tools that can improve the conditions for new biogas production. The specific objectives are to promote logistics experiences from existing facilities, to develop an optimization model for strategic planning, and to apply the model in a concrete case study in Sofielund, south of Stockholm, with Scandinavian Biogas Fuels AB.

Field trips and interviews were undertaken to collect information and summarize experiences from Swedish and German crop and manure-based biogas production.

Facts

Manager
David Ljungberg, SLU

Contact
david.ljungberg@slu.se

Participants
Alfredo de Toro, SLU // Carina Gunnarsson och Jonas Engström, JTI (SP) // Jean Collin, Scandinavian Biogas Fuels AB

Time plan
July 2012 - September 2013

Total project cost
1 065 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners, SLU, JTI (SP) and Biogas Uppland

Martin Strobl and Josef Winkler at Bayerische Landesanstalt für Landwirtschaft have also contributed to the projekt.

Project Manager: David Ljungberg

f3 Project  | Finished | 2014-03-13

Optimal localisation of next generation biofuel production in Sweden – Part II

Sweden with its rich forest resources is of significant interest concerning future large-scale production of next generation biofuels. Large plant…

Read more »

Sweden with its rich forest resources is of significant interest concerning future large-scale production of next generation biofuels. Large plant sizes, however, increase the required feedstock supply area and put significant demands on the supply chain. Co-location with
other industry provides an opportunity for higher system efficiencies, but also puts additional requirements on the locations, as does competition for the available feedstock. Since production facilities for next generation biofuels are associated with very large investments,
careful evaluation of possible plant locations is of utmost importance.

Through the f3 project Optimal Localisation of next generation biofuel production in Sweden, a techno-economic, geographically explicit biofuel production plant localisation model was developed. The model, named BeWhere Sweden, is a potentially valuable tool for simulation and analysis of the Swedish energy system, including the industry and transport sectors. It minimises the cost of the entire studied system, including costs and revenues for biomass harvest and transportation, production plants, transportation and delivery of biofuels, sales of co-products, and economic policy instruments. The model will thus choose the least costly pathways from one set of feedstock supply points to a specific biofuel production plant and further to a set of biofuel demand points, while meeting the demand for biomass in other sectors. Focus is on forest-based biomass and integration with industry, in particular with forest industry.

In this work BeWhere Sweden has been used to model four different roadmap scenarios for 2030 that are based on scenarios presented by the Swedish Environment Protection Agency in their report “Basis for a roadmap for Sweden without GHG emissions in 2050”. The roadmap
scenarios used here take into account e.g. demand for transport, transport fuel and next generation biofuels, available forest biomass resources, biomass available for industrial purposes, biomass usage in other energy and industrial sectors, and energy market conditions.
The primary objective has been to identify cost-effective types of biofuel production plant locations that are robust to various boundary conditions, in particular regarding energy market prices, policy instruments, investment costs, feedstock competition and integration possibilities with existing energy systems, and to provide a broader analysis of the model results regarding e.g. implications for policy makers and connections between different actors in the biofuel innovation system.

Facts

Manager
Elisabeth Wetterlund, earlier at Linköping University

Contact
elisabeth.wetterlund@ltu.se

Participants
Joakim Lundgren, Robert Lundmark and Dimitris Athanassiadis, Bio4Energy // Karin Pettersson, Chalmers // Johanna Mossberg and Johan Torén, SP // Niklas Berglin, Anna von Schenck and Christian Hoffstedt, Innventia

Time plan
April - November 2013

Total project cost
1 230 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners, Bio4Energy, Linköping University, Chalmers and SP

The project is the second of three in the series "BeWhere Sweden".

Project Manager: Elisabeth Wetterlund

f3 Project  | Finished | 2014-02-26

Collaboration and a systemic approach are keys to high quality research (f3 Stories no. 3)

Det händer att forskare har skygglappar och forskar på med sitt eget utan att vara särskilt medvetna om vad som…

Read more »

Det händer att forskare har skygglappar och forskar på med sitt eget utan att vara särskilt medvetna om vad som pågår runt omkring. Att få dem att lyfta blicken och se vad i deras forskning som skulle vara värt att titta på ur ett mer holistiskt perspektiv, är en uppgift för Joakim Lundgren, högskolekoordinator inom f3.

Joakim Lundgren arbetar vid Luleå tekniska universitet (LTU) där han är biträdande professor vid avdelningen för energivetenskap. Som f3-koordinator vid LTU spelar han en viktig roll när det gäller att få sina kollegor att inse värdet av systemtänkande och breda samarbeten.

– Det är lätt att tappa bort varför man forskar kring en fråga. Och vad nyttan är i ett större sammanhang. Jag försöker väcka forskarna i mitt eget nätverk genom att visa exempel på frågor som hade kunnat belysas bättre genom systemforskning. I vissa kretsar anses detta lite fult, det blir kanske inga publikationer i Nature och Science av det, men det kan på ett annat sätt än teknisk forskning på grundnivå visa i vilken riktning vi ska gå. Och publicera kan man göra, fast kanske i andra välrenommerade tidskrifter, säger han, och fortsätter:

– När f3 nu gått in i en andra fas, efter de tre inledande åren, finns många goda exempel att visa upp, och jag tror att man får ett annat perspektiv när man kan se nyttan med samarbetet och vad man kan få ut av det. Jag tror att forskningsansökningar utanför f3 kan ha större chans att beviljas tack vare att kraften i det etablerade samarbetet inom f3 ses som en stor tillgång.

Facts

This is an excerpt from the story “Collaboration and a systemic approach are keys to high quality research” that was published in January 2014. The full story is available for download in Swedish.

f3 Stories  | 

Social and socioeconomic impacts from vehicle fuels

A desire in society to reduce the use of fossil fuels has led to a search of renewable options. Lately,…

Read more »

A desire in society to reduce the use of fossil fuels has led to a search of renewable options. Lately, social aspects of the production of biofuels have come into focus. However, research has addressed a limited set of social impacts, and not those from fossil fuels.

In this project we have applied the methodology of social life cycle assessment on different biofuels, and fossil fuels. The objective was to identify the main social and socioeconomic impacts from the life cycle of all assessed fuels in a comparable way, and see how these are incorporated in existing policies and certification schemes.

The project contributes to improved knowledge on social impacts from the selected fuels and guidance on how to use the results in policy-making and integrate them with other evaluations.

Facts

Manager
Elisabeth Ekener, KTH

Contact
elisabeth.ekener@abe.kth.se

Participants
Göran Finnveden, KTH // Jonas Höglund, Julia Hansson and Tomas Ekvall, IVL

Time plan
October 2012 - September 2013

Total project cost
1 183 000 SEK

Funding
f3:s parter, KTH and IVL

Project Manager: Elisabeth Ekener

f3 Project  | Finished | 2014-01-22

Upgrading biogas to methanol or DME in farm-based facilities

Biogas is currently used for production of heat and electricity, or it is upgraded to e.g. fuel gas. In 2012,…

Read more »

Biogas is currently used for production of heat and electricity, or it is upgraded to e.g. fuel gas. In 2012, 26 farm-based biogas facilities existed in Sweden, mainly based on manure, producing in total 47 GWh biogas. In these facilities the main part of the biogas was used for heat and electricity and only 1 GWh was upgraded. The reason why not a larger amount was upgraded is that it is costly to compress and transport the gas, especially when the biogas production site is far from commerce.

One alternative to the present field of application could be to process the gas further to transportation fuels such as methanol and dimethyl ether (DME). In comparison to biogas, methanol and DME are easier to transport. Another advantage is the possibility to use them as fuel at the farm.

Within Biogas Skaraborg, a project run by Hushållningssällskapet Skaraborg, it is of interest to evaluate the possibilities to convert biogas to primarily DME, and possibly also methanol. The aim of this f3 project is a short and general literature survey that presents available technologies and identifies their possibili­ties and most important challenges for further consideration of this biogas upgrading route.

Facts

Manager
Per-Ove Persson, Hushållningssällskapet

Contact
per-ove.persson@hushallningssallskapet.se

Participants
Ann-Christine Johansson, ETC // Per Hanarp, Volvo

Time plan
October 2013 - January 2014

Total project cost
80 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners and Volvo

Project Manager: Per-Ove Persson

f3 Project  | Finished | 2014-01-17

Mapping biofuel research and development activities in Austria

The project provides an overview of R&D activities in Austria, starting with the current situation and legislations concerning biofuels. The…

Read more »

The project provides an overview of R&D activities in Austria, starting with the current situation and legislations concerning biofuels. The report covers domestic production of biofuels, Austrian biofuel technology provider, R&D, and a selection of biofuel related research projects.

Facts

Manager
Joakim Lundgren, Bio4Energy (LTU)

Contact
joakim.lundgren@ltu.se

Time plan
September 2012 - November 2013

Total project cost
60 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners

Project Manager: Joakim Lundgren

f3 Project  | Finished | 2014-01-15

State of the art of algal biomass as raw material for bioenergy production

Algal biomass is a promising future source of sustainable fuel, and efforts are being taken all around the world to…

Read more »

Algal biomass is a promising future source of sustainable fuel, and efforts are being taken all around the world to develop the opportunity. A variety of fuel types are considered, such as biodiesel, biogas, biohydrogen, bioethanol and biobutanol.

The purpose of this study is to obtain knowledge of the worldwide competence within the area of using algal biomass as a source for biofuel, through a systemic structuring and mapping of the work which has been performed as well as ongoing initiatives. The scope of the study is limited to results of recent studies, current industrial activity and ongoing research initiatives.

Conclusions from the study are that there is a variety of research and industrial activities going on within the field of algal biofuel, but the Nordic countries are only to a certain extent involved.

Facts

Manager
Johanna Berlin, SP

Contact
johanna.berlin@ri.se

Participants
Frida Røyne and Susanne Ekendahl, SP // Eva Albers, Chalmers

Time plan
January - April 2013

Total project cost
235 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners and SP

Project Manager: Johanna Berlin

f3 Project  | Finished | 2014-01-08

Biogas hydrate – Novel systems for upgrading, transportation and storage of biomethane

A general problem for biogas of vehicle fuel grade is cost- and energy efficient transportation and storage. One potential option…

Read more »

A general problem for biogas of vehicle fuel grade is cost- and energy efficient transportation and storage. One potential option could be to convert the biogas to gas hydrate, for further transport and upgrading to e.g. vehicle gas in a large scale. Hydrate is ice-like crystals that form at low temperature and high pressure.

The study has investigated the possibilities for formation of gas hydrates from biogas, by applying comparative system analyses with respect to economy and energy. The report includes a comparison of three scenarios for converting farm-produced biogasto vehicle fuel quality gas including conventional upgrading and transport in pressurized vessels and two future-oriented scenarios based on formation, transport and dissociation of gas hydrates.

Facts

Manager
Ida Norberg, earlier at JTI (SP)

Contact
ida.norberg@biofuelregion.se

Participants
Johan Andersson and Pernilla Tidåker, JTI (SP) // Åke Nordberg and Anders Larsolle, SLU // Sven-Olov Holm and Lars Magnusson, MetaHyd AB // Johanna Berlin, SP

Time plan
October 2012 - October 2013

Total project cost
722 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners, JTI (SP), SLU and SP

Project Manager: Ida Norberg

f3 Project  | Finished | 2014-01-07

The value chain for biomethane from the forest industry

The overall goal of the project has been to identify technically feasible and economically and environmentally sustainable concepts for …

Read more »

The overall goal of the project has been to identify technically feasible and economically and environmentally sustainable concepts for biomethane production based on cooperation between the forest industry and utilities. The potential for biogas production via AD in the Swedish forest industry is about 1.5 TWh per year. Technically, most of this potential should be possible to realize by 2020. This potential is comparable to the forecasted demand for biogas in public transportation by 2020.

The study specifically explores the integration of anaerobic digestion (AD) in pulp mills. The AD process converts waste streams into valuable fuel for the transport sector, while  the overall re­source efficiency in the wastewater treatment at the pulp mills increases. Simulation models and economic calculations are used to evaluate the potential for biogas production in mills producing bleached kraft pulp. This is complemented by a compilation of related studies to cover the total potential for biogas production in the pulp and paper industry.

Facts

Manager
Anna von Schenck, earlier at Innventia

Contact
anna.vonschenck@ninainnovation.com

Participants
Mikael Jansson and Niklas Berglin, Innventia // Eric Zinn and Ingemar Gunnarsson, Göteborg Energi AB // Mårten Larsson, Mimmi Magnusson and Per Alvfors, KTH

Time plan
October 2012 - September 2013

Total project cost
1 000 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners, Innventia, Göteborg Energi and KTH

Project Manager: Anna von Schenck

f3 Project  | Finished | 2014-01-07

Comparative system analysis of carbon preserving fermentation for biofuel production

A challenge in the use of biomass for fuel production is loss of mass from the forest or field to…

Read more »

A challenge in the use of biomass for fuel production is loss of mass from the forest or field to the tank by production of carbon dioxide. This loss has large impact on the overall feasibility of biofuels because it requires significant resources in land use and energy use in cultivation, harvesting and transportation of biomass.  If there were some manner in which the carbon could be preserved, significant savings in resources, e.g. up to one half of the land use, could be achieved.

The project proposes a novel, hybrid process that utilizes fermentation to preserve carbon by consumption of carbon dioxide followed by a chemical process to form a biofuel.

Facts

Manager
Robert Nilsson, Bio4Energy (LTU)

Contact
robert.nilsson@ltu.se

Participants
Kris Arvid Berglund, Joakim Lundgren, Sennai Mesfun and Ulrika Rova, Bio4Energy (LTU) // Fredric Bauer and Christian Hulteberg, Lund University // Sune Wännström, Sekab/SP

Time plan
May 2012 - September 2013

Total project cost
500 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners, Bio4Energy (LTU), Lund University and Sekab E-technology

Project Manager: Robert Nilsson

f3 Project  | Finished | 2013-11-28

Collective competence bring wiser choices on the road to future transportation fuels (f3 Stories no. 2)

Den unika styrkan med f3 är bredden i nätverket. Det tycker Eva Lind Grennfelt, Preem och Per Erlandsson, Lantmännen Energi,…

Read more »

Den unika styrkan med f3 är bredden i nätverket. Det tycker Eva Lind Grennfelt, Preem och Per Erlandsson, Lantmännen Energi, båda medlemmar i f3. Här finns Sveriges forsknings- och industrikompetens inom biodrivmedel samlad, och att vara med ger unika möjligheter att påverka utvecklingen på området. Thomas Johannesson, ordförande i f3, menar att skillnaderna mellan f3 och andra kompetenscentra må vara subtila, men ändå rätt avgörande.

– Den täta kopplingen mellan företag, forskare och myndigheter är ovanlig. Alla är eniga om syftet, det vill säga att finna vägar mot ett fossilfritt samhälle, och alla är genom sin plats i styrelsen med och beslutar om vilka projekt som ska genomföras. I andra nätverk är det ofta mer av en producentvinkling; forskarna producerar och företagen konsumerar.

Forskarna inom f3 har uppnått en positiv, kreativ arbetsgemenskap, tycker Thomas Johannesson. Och genom att forskarnätverket är så brett har företagen tillgång till hela den svenska forskningen på området och därigenom också den internationella, och får inte bara en enstaka synpunkt som kanske är fallet i smalare samarbeten.

Facts

This is an excerpt from the story “Collective competence bring wiser choices on the road to future transportation fuels” published in November 2013, The full story is available for download in Swedish.

f3 Stories  | 

Transport biofuel futures in energy-economic modeling – A review

The scientific literature presents an increasing number of energy-economic systems analysis modeling studies treating the transport sector as an integrated…

Read more »

The scientific literature presents an increasing number of energy-economic systems analysis modeling studies treating the transport sector as an integrated part of the energy system and/or economy. Many of these studies provide important insights regarding transport biofuels. To clarify similarities and differences in approaches and results, this project summarizes and analyzes input data and transport biofuel-related results of 29 peer reviewed scientific journal articles presenting studies based on different energy-economic models.

The aim has been to investigate what future role comprehensive energy-economy modeling studies portray for transport biofuels in terms of their potential and competitiveness. This includes a mapping of what future transport biofuel utilization and market shares the studies describe as well as an analysis of what factors influence this.

 

Facts

Manager
Martin Börjesson Hagberg, earlier at Chalmers

Contact
martin.hagberg@ivl.se

Participants
Erik Ahlgren and Maria Grahn, Chalmers

Time plan
August 2012 - August 2013

Total project cost
385 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners and Chalmers

The project report has been subject to review and commenting by Anna Krook Riekkola, LTU, and Bengt Johansson, Lund University.

Project Manager: Martin Börjesson Hagberg

f3 Project  | Finished | 2013-10-10

Policy instruments directed at renewable transportation fuels – An international comparison

The production of transportation fuels from renewable primary energy sources requires ongoing support if it is to reach commercial maturity.

Read more »

The production of transportation fuels from renewable primary energy sources requires ongoing support if it is to reach commercial maturity. Worldwide, the most common types of support are politically derived ‘policy instruments’. A variety of such instruments have been and are applied in differing contexts in different parts of the world; in this project we describe and dissect policy instruments that have been used in Brazil, the EU (with prime focus on Germany), and the US. As the political economy of biofuels these jurisdictions has evolved over past decades, and policy interventions have also changed, the analysis focuses on key points of change or major market inflections. Emphasis was placed on the following aspects of enquiry in particular:

  • underlying motivations for policy interventions, how were they formulated, and how outcomes align with the initial objectives;
  • how instruments supported the biofuels sector(s) in the short and longer terms;
  • lessons of relevance to the promotion of renewable biofuels in Sweden.

During the study period, the Swedish government proposed a new ‘hybrid’ quota system for low-level blended biofuels. However, pure and high-level blended biofuels outside the quota system and retaining tax exemptions. This has affected the deductions drawn for the Swedish way forward regarding biofuel-related policy instruments. Further, two important Swedish policy goals affect biofuel futures: zero net 2050 greenhouse gas emissions, and a fossil independent 2030 transport sector. While transportation biofuels will be part of the toolbox to reach both these goals, lack of clarity regarding their application to biofuels (particularly for the latter) make many questions re-garding future policy instruments difficult to answer definitively.

Facts

Manager
Stefan Grönkvist, KTH

Contact
stefangr@kth.se

Participants
Semida Silveira and Jonas Åkerman, KTH // Philip Peck and Prasad Khedkar, Lund University

Time plan
October 2012 - July 2013

Total project cost
580 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners, KTJH and Lund University

Project Manager: Stefan Grönkvist

f3 Project  | Finished | 2013-10-10

Alternative sources for products competing with forest-based biofuels

Today, there are a number of biofuels in different stages of development: from ethanol, RME and tall oil diesel, to…

Read more »

Today, there are a number of biofuels in different stages of development: from ethanol, RME and tall oil diesel, to methane, methanol and DME from different sources. Several studies have shown the advantages of biofuels compared to fossil fuels regarding greenhouse gas emissions, etc. However, to the best of our knowledge, previous reports have not sufficiently considered current and alternative uses of biomass in for example heat and power production, or production of chemicals or materials such as pulp and paper.

As a valuable resource, and in a sustainable society, biomass should be used as efficiently as possible and the competing interests need to be considered. This project is a pre-study aiming to describe the environmental effects of alternative sourcing for current products from forest biomass when the biomass is instead used for fuel. By highlighting critical issues for further analyses, the study constitutes a solid basis for more detailed analyses of climate related effects of biofuel production, thus leading to increased understanding of how to maximize the positive climate effects of production of forest based biofuels.

Facts

Manager
Louise Staffas, earlier at IVL

Contact
louise.staffas@formas.se

Participants
Stefan Åström and Steve Harris, IVL // Åsa Svenfeldt and Yevgenia Arushanian, KTH // Linda Tufvesson, Lund University // Johan Torén, SP

Time plan
April 2012 - May 2013

Total project cost
780 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners, IVL, KTH, Lund University and SP

Project Manager: Louise Staffas

f3 Project  | Finished | 2013-10-10

Sustainable performance of lignocellulose-based ethanol and biogas co-produced in innovative biorefinery systems

The project summarizes the most promising biochemical production routes for integrated production of ethanol and biogas (together with electricity, heat,…

Read more »

The project summarizes the most promising biochemical production routes for integrated production of ethanol and biogas (together with electricity, heat, lignin etc.) from lignocellulosic biomass. The routes are analyzed from a resource, energy, environmental and cost efficiency point of view, based on research and development activities at the participating partners in the project.

The technical implementation potential is assessed for existing infrastructure in Swedish district heating systems (DHS), forest industries, and ethanol plants, and as stand-alone co-production plants. Also, the corresponding regional potential of feedstock supply from agriculture and forestry which fulfill relevant sustainability criteria is assessed.

The synthesis, which also includes a comparison with the performance of current ethanol and biogas production systems from a life cycle perspective, will be a valuable decision support for policy makers in their effort to develop efficient incentives to accelerate the implementation of innovative biofuel production systems, and for industry when planning for investments.

Facts

Manager
Pål Börjesson, Lund University

Contact
pal.borjesson@miljo.lth.se

Participants
Zsolt Barta, Lovisa Björnsson, Anna Ekman, Emma Krueger and Ola Wallberg, Lund University // Serina Ahlgren, Per-Anders Hansson, Hanna Karlsson, Anna Schnürer, Mats Sandgren and Stefan Trobro, SLU // Jan Lindstedt, SEKAB // Per Erlandsson and Sofie Villman, Lantmännen

Time plan
October 2011 - December 2012

Total project cost
1 210 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners, Lund University, SLU, SEKAB and Lantmännen

Project Manager: Pål Börjesson

f3 Project  | Finished | 2013-08-27

Current situation of biofuels development in Sub-Saharan Africa – policy, production and research

Currently there are several on-going biofuel production units and research projects in Sub-Saharan African countries. These differ in respect to…

Read more »

Currently there are several on-going biofuel production units and research projects in Sub-Saharan African countries. These differ in respect to countries, scales, source of raw materials (feedstock) and so forth. Thus there is a need for an overview of the on-going biofuel production, research and other related activities. The aim of this study was to give a broad overview of Sub-Saharan Africa regarding current biofuel policies, on-going and planned biofuel production, and to map research activities and actors related to biofuels in the Sub-Saharan Africa countries.

Biofuel development largely depends on the policies of the countries in the region. Several countries such as Benin, Ghana, Kenya, Mozambique, South Africa and Tanzania etc. are in the process of developing biofuel regulatory frameworks with the aim to promote sustainable development in the biofuel sector.

Facts

Manager
Serina Ahlgren, earlier at SLU

Contact
serina.ahlgren@ri.se

Participants
Samuel Aradom Messmer and Cecilia Sundberg, SLU

Time plan
January - June 2013

Total project cost
122 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners and SLU

Project Manager: Serina Ahlgren

f3 Project  | Finished | 2013-08-12

Several best choices for future biofuels (f3 Stories no. 1)

Ett av EU:s klimatmål är att tio procent av drivmedlen inom transportsektorn ska vara förnybara år 2020. För att detta…

Read more »

Ett av EU:s klimatmål är att tio procent av drivmedlen inom transportsektorn ska vara förnybara år 2020. För att detta ska bli verklighet krävs bra alternativ till fossila bränslen. Men vad som är bra på en plats och för ett ändamål, behöver inte vara det samma som för en annan plats och ett annat ändamål. Problemet är komplext och kräver flera lösningar.

– Vi kan inte bestämma oss för ett drivmedel en gång för alla och sedan satsa bara på det. Vi bör utveckla flera, och försäkra oss om att det finns avsättning för dem, både genom lämpliga distributionssystem och genom fordon som är avpassade för drivmedlet. Det går inte att säga att etanol är dåligt och att el är bra till exempel. Allt beror på hur och var det produceras. Och hur och var det ska användas.

Det säger Pål Börjesson, professor i miljö- och energisystem vid Lunds universitet, och en av författarna till rapporten Produktion av dagens och framtidens hållbara biodrivmedel.

Avsändare för rapporten är f3, Svenskt kunskapscentrum för förnybara drivmedel. Den är gjord på uppdrag av den statliga utredningen Fossilfri fordonstrafik som ska vara klar i oktober 2013, och kommer att ingå i underlaget till denna.

Facts

This is an excerpt of the story “Several best choices for future biofuels” that was published in June 2013. The full story is available for download in Swedish.

f3 Stories  | 

Overview of system studies on biofuel production via integrated biomass gasification

A large number of national and international techno-economic studies on industrially integrated gasifiers for production of biofuels have been published…

Read more »

A large number of national and international techno-economic studies on industrially integrated gasifiers for production of biofuels have been published during the recent years. These studies comprise different types of gasifiers (fluidized bed, indirect and entrained flow) integrated in different industries for the production of various types of chemicals and transportation fuels (SNG, FT-products, methanol, DME etc.) The results are often used for techno-economic comparisons between different biorefinery concepts. One relatively common observation is that even if the applied technology and the produced biofuel are the same, the results of the techno-economic studies may differ significantly.

The main objective of this project has been to perform a comprehensive review of publications regarding industrially integrated biomass gasifiers for motor fuel production. The purposes have been to identify and highlight the main reasons why similar studies differ considerably and to prepare a basis for “fair” techno-economic comparisons. Another objective has been to identify possible lack of industrial integration studies that may be of interest to carry out in a second phase of the project.

Around 40 national and international reports and articles have been analysed and reviewed.

Facts

Manager
Joakim Lundgren, Bio4Energy (LTU)

Contact
joakim.lundgren@ltu.se

Participants
Jim Andersson, Bio4Energy (LTU) // Laura Malek and Christian Hulteberg, Lund University // Elisabeth Wetterlund, Linköping University // Karin Pettersson, Chalmers

Time plan
September 2012 - March 2013

Total project cost
500 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners, Bio4Energy (LTU), Lund University, Linköping University and Chalmers

Project Manager: Joakim Lundgren

f3 Project  | Finished | 2013-06-14

Biofuels and land use in Sweden – An overview of land use change effects

The project investigates the current state of knowledge and identifies knowledge gaps related to land use linked to biofuel production.

Read more »

The project investigates the current state of knowledge and identifies knowledge gaps related to land use linked to biofuel production. The main focus is on impacts related to Swedish production of biofuels.

Land use change issues have generated a large volume of research throughout the world. Though many facts have been scientifically established, divergent opinions also occur. It is difficult to grasp what the scientific community as a whole knows and thinks on these matters. This project therefore collects and compiles the research results on three important subject areas: Biodiversity and soil chemistry, Indirect land use (ILUC) and climate change, and Socioeconomic impacts and policy development.

Information on what is scientifically known in these subject areas, and what impacts of todays and future biofuel production could be, is important to Swedish industry policy-makers in order to obtain a solid basis for investments, strategic decisions and development of policies on future biofuel production.

Facts

Manager
Jonas Höglund, earlier at IVL

Contact
jonas.hoglund@afconsult.com

Participants
Karin Hansen, Mathias Gustavsson and Julia Hansson, IVL // Serina Ahlgren and Pål Börjesson, Lund University // Cecilia Sundberg, Jan-Olof Helldin and Elham Ahmadi Moghaddam, SLU // Maria Grahn and Martin Persson, Chalmers // Christel Cederberg, SP-SIK

Time plan
October 2011 - December 2012

Total project cost
1 360 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners, IVL, Chalmers and SP-SIK

Project Manager: Jonas Höglund

f3 Project  | Finished | 2013-05-27

The fossil fuel reference – A literature review

Many life cycle assessment (LCA) studies have investigated the environmental impact of using biofuel in transportation compared with fossil fuels.

Read more »

Many life cycle assessment (LCA) studies have investigated the environmental impact of using biofuel in transportation compared with fossil fuels. Since these studies often use standard values for the fossil fuel reference scenario, there is a need for a thorough review of published data on fossil fuel use in transportation.

This study reviewed the available literature regarding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy balances in petrol and diesel use and examined possible causes for the differences reported in the literature. This included differences connected to the LCA methodology itself, but also those resulting from technical and economic effects.

Thirteen studies were reviewed in order to establish the level of GHG emissions and energy use in the well-to-tank perspective and, where possible, in the entire well-to-wheel perspective. The studies used different input data, allocation methods and system boundaries, but the results fell within a narrow range, since the energy content of the fuels on a tank-to-wheel basis differed only slightly, while the use phase represents most GHG emissions and energy usage in fuel life cycles. All studies reviewed reported GHG emissions values that exceeded the reference value of 83.8 g CO2-eq/MJ fuel suggested in the EU Renewable Energy Directive (RED) of 2009.

Facts

Manager
Serina Ahlgren, earlier at SLU

Contact
serina.ahlgren@ri.se

Participants
Mattias Eriksson and Sheshti Johansson, SLU // Mikael Höök, Uppsala University

Time plan
December 2012 - May 2013

Total project cost
250 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners, SLU and Volvo

The project had a reference group consisting of Per Ahlvik at Ecotraffic, Sören Eriksson and Bertil Karlsson at Preem, Per-Anders Hansson at SLU, Tomas Rydberg at IVL and Per Salomonsson at Volvo.

Project Manager: Serina Ahlgren

f3 Project  | Finished | 2013-05-20

Biomass gasification – A synthesis of technical barriers and current research issues for deployment at large scale

Thermal gasification at large scale for cogeneration of power and heat and/or production of fuels and materials is a main…

Read more »

Thermal gasification at large scale for cogeneration of power and heat and/or production of fuels and materials is a main pathway for a sustainable deployment of biomass resources. However, so far no such full scale production exists and biomass gasification projects remain at the pilot or demonstration scale.

This project has focused on the key critical technology challenges for the large-scale deployment of the tre following biomass-based gasification concepts:

  1. Direct Fluidised Bed Gasification (FBG)
  2. Entrained Flow Gasification (EFG)
  3. Indirect Dual Fluidised Bed Gasification (DFBG)

The main content in this report is based on responses from a number of experts in biomass gasification obtained from a questionnaire. The survey was composed of a number of more or less specific questions on technical barriers as to the three gasification concepts considered. For formalising the questionnaire, the concept of Technology Readiness Level (TRL 1-9) was used for grading the level of technical maturity of the different sub-processes within the three generic biomass gasification technologies.

Facts

Manager
Truls Liliedahl, KTH

Contact
truls@ket.kth.se

Participants
Stefan Heyne, Chalmers // Magnus Marklund, ETC Piteå

Time plan
November 2013 - February 2013

Total project cost
375 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners, KTH, Chalmers and ETC Piteå

Project Manager: Truls Liliedahl

f3 Project  | Finished | 2013-05-17

Optimal localisation of second generation biofuel production in Sweden

With a high availability of forest biomass and various types of cellulose based waste, Sweden is of significant interest concerning…

Read more »

With a high availability of forest biomass and various types of cellulose based waste, Sweden is of significant interest concerning future large scale production of second generation biofuels. Large plant sizes, however, increase the required feedstock supply area and put significant demands on the supply chain. Competition for the available feedstock further complicates the picture, and as co-production or co-location with other industry provides an opportunity for higher total conversion efficiencies, it also puts additional requirements on the locations.

This project has developed an optimization model for investigation and determination of locations in Sweden for production of second generation biofuels from lignocellulosic feedstocks. The overall aim is to identify locations with boundary conditions robust to energy market prices, policy instruments, investment costs, feedstock competition, and integration possibilities with existing energy systems. The model can be useful for decision support for different biofuel production stakeholders as well as for government and policy makers.

Facts

Manager
Elisabeth Wetterlund, earlier at Linköping University

Contact
elisabeth.wetterlund@ltu.se

Participants
Karin Pettersson, Chalmers // Johanna Mossberg and Johan Torén, SP // Christian Hoffstedt, Anna von Schenck and Niklas Berglin, Innventia // Robert Lundmark and Joakim Lundgren, Bio4Energy (LTU) // Sylvain Leduc and Georg Kindermann, International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)

Time plan
January 2012 - February 2013

Total project cost
2 240 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners, Bio4Energy (LTU), Linköping University, SP and Innventia

The project is the first of three in the series "BeWhere Sweden".

Project Manager: Elisabeth Wetterlund

f3 Project  | Finished | 2013-05-17

Biofuels for transport in Australia and the Asia-Pacific Region

The project provides an overview of ongoing activities, policies and actors related to biofuels in Australia and collaborative activities to…

Read more »

The project provides an overview of ongoing activities, policies and actors related to biofuels in Australia and collaborative activities to promote biofuels in the Asia Pacific Region, particularly through the forum for Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation, APEC. A parallel objective is to identify and explore possibilities for cooperation between the f3 centre and key organisations in Australia and the Asia-Pacific Region.

Facts

Manager
Kes McCormick, Lund University

Contact
kes.mccormick@iiiee.lu.se

Time plan
August - December 2012

Total project cost
100 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners

Project Manager: Kes McCormick

f3 Project  | Finished | 2013-04-29

Glycerol-based isobutanol

In the pursuit of renewable fuels alternatives, several “drop-in” gasoline replacements are discussed. The most common one is ethanol, but…

Read more »

In the pursuit of renewable fuels alternatives, several “drop-in” gasoline replacements are discussed. The most common one is ethanol, but in this list isobutanol is a good candidate. The fuel has excellent properties with respect to energy density, Reid vapour pressure and is covered by existing fuels standards.

In this application, the integration of a thermochemical isobutanol pathway into a traditional petrorefinery is investigated. The starting material for the process is a side-product from the first generation biofuels production such as ethanol and biodiesel production. By integrating the process into an existing production facility, the project estimates the savings with respect to energy and feedstock as well as the environmental impact of the process.

Photo: FreeImages.com/Luciano Tirabassi

Facts

Manager
Christian Hulteberg, Lund University

Contact
christian.hulteberg@chemeng.lth.se

Participants
Fredric Bauer, Lund University // Jan Brandin, Biofuel Solution // Eva Lind-Grennfelt, Stefan Nyström and Christina Simonsson, Preem

Time plan
April - December 2012

Total project cost
730 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners, Lund University, Preem and Biofuel solution

Project Manager: Christian Hulteberg

f3 Project  | Finished | 2013-04-12

A global overview of bioeconomy strategies and visions

As a consequence of advancing research about biobased energy forms and biobased materials, the concept of biobased economy has evolved.

Read more »

As a consequence of advancing research about biobased energy forms and biobased materials, the concept of biobased economy has evolved. In a biobased economy, energy, materials and chemicals are produced from biobased and renewable raw materials without endangering food availability or quality.

This project provides an overview and comparative analysis of the strategies and visions for biobased economies in different countries, focusing on the USA, EU, Finland, Germany, Sweden, Canada and Australia. The report also comments on the situation in China, Russia, Brazil and Malaysia, and briefly outlines the OECD policy agenda for the bioeconomy.

A complementary report about the Indian bioeconomy has also been produced.

Facts

Manager
Louise Staffas, earlier at IVL

Contact
louise.staffas@formas.se

Participants
Mathias Gustavsson, IVL // Kes McCormick and Prasad Khedkar, Lund University

Time plan
December 2012 - December 2013

Total project cost
145 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners

Project Manager: Louise Staffas

f3 Project  | Finished | 2013-04-10

A pre-study of biogas production by low-temperature pyrolysis of biomass

This project has performed a cross-disciplinary study of the low-temperature route of biogas production from bio­mass, evaluating different aspects of biomass production…

Read more »

This project has performed a cross-disciplinary study of the low-temperature route of biogas production from bio­mass, evaluating different aspects of biomass production and chemical conversion. An assessment of suitable agricultural residues and energy crops for low temperature pyrolysis defines the entire supply chain from the field to the plant, including harvesting techniques, transport, storage and up-grading. Aspen Plus simulation is used for design and  process integration of a low temperature biogas production module in a combined heat and power (CHP) plant.

Potential results from the study can be useful for cost estimations and overall cycle efficiencies. Pyrolysis of biomass can be performed without oxygen and thereby enables production of biogas from a wide range of raw materials. Also, low-temperature pyrolysis minimizes risks of ash-melting and release of alkali metal potentially making it especially advantageous for alkali-rich biomass or biomass with a low ash-melting point that are difficult to gasify at high temperatures. A high energy exchange is possible, and by locating plants next to central heating systems or heat-demanding industry efficiency gains can be made.

Facts

Manager
Stefan Grönkvist, KTH

Contact
stefangr@kth.se

Participants
Martin Bojler Görling, Mårten Larsson and Mats Westermark, KTH // Elham Ahmadi Moghaddam, Per-Anders Hansson and Åke Nordberg, SLU

Time plan
December 2011 - February 2013

Total project cost
670 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners, KTH and SLU

Project Manager: Stefan Grönkvist

f3 Project  | Finished | 2013-04-05

Policies promoting biofuels in Sweden

Biofuels have been recognised to be one of the key solutions for reducing the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the…

Read more »

Biofuels have been recognised to be one of the key solutions for reducing the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transport sector. For quite some time there have been national and international (EU level) policies promoting biofuels and this has indeed led to significant increase in production. But concerns have been raised about the actual societal and environmental benefits of the significant rise in biofuel production and utilisation. Two of the most intriguing concerns are the actual savings of GHG emissions compared to conventional fossil alternatives, and the impact of increased prices of raw material for the production and competition for food and feed purposes.

After these concerns were brought into the light more hope has been set for 2nd generation biofuels that are based on waste products and non-food crop.

The aim of this project has been to describe the current policy instruments applied in Sweden for promoting biofuels, and to make a comparison of supply and demand side instruments and what effects they have had or could have. As background a description of the current use and production of biofuels in the Swedish transport sector is given. The project report also discusses the difference between first and second generation biofuels briefly, with focus on the rational for policy instruments making a difference between the two categories.

Facts

Manager
Kristina Holmgren, earlier at IVL

Contact
kristina.holmgren@vti.se

Funding
The f3 partners

This report was written as part of a course in Environmental Economics and Policy Instruments at the University of Gothenburg.

Project Manager: Kristina Holmgren

f3 Project  | Finished | 2012-11-23

Sustainability criteria for biofuels in the European Union – A Swedish perspective

The aim of this project has been to give an overview of the EU biofuel sustainability criteria within the Renewable…

Read more »

The aim of this project has been to give an overview of the EU biofuel sustainability criteria within the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) and the Fuel Quality Directive (FQD). The aim is also to describe how the sustainability criteria have been implemented in Swedish law. Further, the aim is to briefly discuss how the implementation has affected biofuel stakeholders and to discuss future changes to the sustainability criteria.

The report content has been developed into a fact sheet for f3 about sustainability criteria.

Facts

Manager
Serina Ahlgren, earlier at SLU

Contact
serina.ahlgren@ri.se

Time plan
January - April 2012

Total project cost
63 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners

Lina Kinning and Paul Westin, Swedish Energy Agency, Martin Engström, Lantmännen Agroetanol and Ebba Tamm, Svenska Petroleum och Biodrivmedelsinstitutet SPBI, have given input on the contents of the project report.

Project Manager: Serina Ahlgren

f3 Project  | Finished | 2012-06-15

Mapping of biofuels research and development in Brazil

The project has put together a comprehensive list of ongoing R&D activities and actors related to biofuels in Brazil through web…

Read more »

The project has put together a comprehensive list of ongoing R&D activities and actors related to biofuels in Brazil through web and literature searches as well as interviews and meetings with some key actors. The report also presents a short background on biofuels use for transportation in Brazil, including production and legal framework.

Facts

Manager
Niklas Berglin, earlier at Innventia

Contact
niklas.berglin@ninainnovation.com

Participants
Anna von Schenck and Peter Axegård, Innventia

Time plan
February - June 2012

Total project cost
100 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners

Project Manager: Niklas Berglin

f3 Project  | Finished | 2012-06-15

R&D challenges for Swedish biofuel actors

Climate benefits and greenhouse gas (GHG) balances are aspects often discussed in conjunction with sustainability and biofuels. Every now and…

Read more »

Climate benefits and greenhouse gas (GHG) balances are aspects often discussed in conjunction with sustainability and biofuels. Every now and then voices are heard in media claiming that biofuels have worse environmental impact compared to diesel and gasoline. This is true for a fraction of the biofuels on the market but not for the majority of the biofuels. The total GHG emissions depend on the entire fuel production chain, mainly from the agriculture or forestry feedstock systems and the manufacturing process. To compare different biofuel production pathways it is essential to conduct an environmental assessment using a well to wheel (WTW) analysis methodology.

This study identifies research and development challenges for Swedish biofuel actors based on literature studies as well as discussions with the researchers themselves. The ambition has been to learn about ongoing research and find improvement potentials, dilemmas between different improvement options as well as if there are barriers to overcome or technology that needs to be proven in large scale before the fuel production can achieve commercial status.

The overall study consists of case studies focusing on three biofuel production technology options that are currently in the demonstration phase: cellulose based ethanol, methane from gasification of solid wood, and DME from gasification of black liquor. This is done with the purpose of identifying research and development potentials that may result in improvements in the WTT (Well-to-Tank) emission values. In addition to the three case studies, improvement potentials for the agriculture and forestry part of the WTT chain are also discussed in a separate study.

Photo: FreeImages.com/Mauro Alejandro Strione

Facts

Participants
Per Alvfors, Krister Sjöström, Henrik Kusar and Mimmi Magnusson, KTH // Niklas Berglin and Christian Hoffstedt, Innventia // Pål Börjesson, Gunnar Lidén, Ola Wallberg, Guido Zacchi, Lovisa Björnsson and Henrik Stålbrand, Lund University // Maria Grahn, Simon Harvey and Karin Pettersson, Chalmers // Kristina Holmgren, Jenny Arnell, Kristian Jelse and Tomas Rydberg, IVL // Patrik Klintbom, Volvo // Elisabeth Wetterlund, Linköping University // Olof Öhrman, ETC Piteå

The study was performed as a pilot project in the consolidating phase of developing f3.

Maria Grahn, SP/Chalmers, has edited the report. Contact the f3 centre office for further information.

f3 Project  | Finished | 2010-06-25