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How can alcohols contribute to a fossil-independent non-road machinery fleet?

Working vehicles such as tractors and wheel loaders use 13.9 TWh of fossil fuel annually. There are many alternatives to…

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Working vehicles such as tractors and wheel loaders use 13.9 TWh of fossil fuel annually. There are many alternatives to fossil fuels. These vary in technology maturity, as well as in emission reduction potential, taking into account e.g. the fuel production. In order for the potential to be realized, well-functioning business models for all stakeholders that handle and use the fuel are necessary. Regarding biogas and biodiesel, a relatively large amount of studies have been performed, but for alcohols, the number is limited.

The purpose of the project is to supplement existing studies by evaluating the consequences of introducing alcohols as fuel for working vehicles, as well as to study driving forces and restrictions on the way towards broader establishment. This is done by analyzing different types of cases in terms of economic, environmental and practical consequences under different conditions.

Facts

Manager
Gunnar Larsson, SLU

Contact
gunnar.larsson@slu.se

Participants
Per-Ove Persson, Per-Ove Persson F.N.B.

Time plan
January - December 2019

Total project cost
973 135 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, SLU and Per-Ove Persson F.N.B.

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
46986-1

Project Manager: Gunnar Larsson

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2020-06-26

Climate-positive and carbon-efficient bio jet fuels, are they possible? – a systematic evaluation of potential and costs

Producing biofuels from biomass means that only part of the carbon atoms from the biomass end up in the product.

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Producing biofuels from biomass means that only part of the carbon atoms from the biomass end up in the product. The rest of them are often emitted as carbon dioxide directly in the production process. This not only means that the climate benefits from biofuels decrease and a carbon debt is created, a connection that often in focus in discussions about the sustainability of biofuels. It also tends to make the use of biomass inefficient, compared to a case in which all biogenic carbon atoms were included in products replacing for example fossil fuels.

Future conversion technologies and use of biomass are expected to require high carbon utilization and/or negative CO2 emissions to be legitimate and competitive in the long run. To capture and store a part of the carbon in biomass raw material also opens up for the possibility of producing CO2 negative bio jet fuel that could compensate for non-CO2 climate impacts that constitute an additional climate impact due to emissions at high altitudes. This could help to reach flight transports with potentially little or no total climate impact.

This project makes a systematic evaluation of the possibilities of increasing utilization of biogenic carbon of the raw material through an increased yield of carbon in bio jet fuel and/or storage of carbon. Various technologies are evaluated for carbon efficiency, climate and costs, with/without CO2 capture and use (BECCU) or storage (BECCS).

The overall project goal is to develop a knowledge and decision basis to support the development towards a sustainable aviation sector with regard to both R&D and commercial implementation technology. The project is an extension of the ongoing project Future-proof biofuels through improved utilization of biogenic carbon – carbon, climate and cost efficiency (K3), that studies road transport.

Facts

Manager
Erik Furusjö, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden

Contact
erik.furusjo@ri.se

Participants
Elisabeth Wetterlund, Bio4Energy (LTU Luleå University of Technology)

Time plan
1 August 2020 - 31 December 2021

Total project cost
595 000 SEK

Funding
The Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partner organisations, Bio4Energy (LTU), Neste AB, RISE and SkyltMax.

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
50482-1

Stakeholders from industry will be involved in the project's working group.

Project Manager: Erik Furusjö

Collaborative research program  | Ongoing

Biofuels from fast growing deciduous trees – a synthesis study from biomass to fuels

The costs for producing bio-based fuels are to a large extent associated with raw material prize, which, in turn, depends…

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The costs for producing bio-based fuels are to a large extent associated with raw material prize, which, in turn, depends on factors like quality, geographical localisation, and the competition with other areas of use. Growing species of trees with better growth rate and higher production capacity is one way of enhancing the production potential per areal unit.

This project will identify opportunities to increase biofuel production in Sweden with poplar plantations. For Swedish climate conditions, poplar is one of the fastest growing tree species with great potential. In the project, the production potential will be determined by analyzing previous published results and new data that has not earlier been analyzed. The project will also identify the geographic distribution of available land, focusing on agricultura land that is not in use today, and former agricultural land that has been planted with spruce. The cultivation economy for landowners as well as associated transport and logistics solutions will give an indication of cost for biomass production. Moreover, poplar’s chemical and physical raw material properties will be investigated to evaluate potential process pathways for biofuel production. Techno-economic calculations will be carried out for different process concepts, including a sensitivity analysis to identify the most important parameters for the product price.

Facts

Manager
Henrik Böhlenius, SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences

Contact
henrik.bohlenius@slu.se

Participants
Per-Ove Persson, Persson f.N.B. AB // Marcus Öhman, Bio4Energy (Luleå University of Technology, LTU)

Time plan
1 July 2020 - 31 December 2021

Total project cost
2 203 000 SEK

Funding
The Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partner organisations, Bio4Energy (LTU), Persson f.N.B. AB and SLU.

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
50468-1

The project will have a reference group with participants from forest owner asssociations, Skogforsk (the Forestry Research Institute of Sweden), the Swedish Board of Agriculture, the Swedish Forest Agency, the Swedish mapping, cadastral and land registration authority, and stakeholers from the process industry.

Project Manager: Henrik Böhlenius

Collaborative research program  | Ongoing

The connection between policies and biofuel production and consumtion in Europe and how it affects Sweden

Biofuels are important for reducing climate impacts of the transport sector in the short term through blend in of biofuels…

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Biofuels are important for reducing climate impacts of the transport sector in the short term through blend in of biofuels and in the long run in sectors such as aviation and shipping. Several studies have highlighted the need to combine the policies that currently drive demand for biofuels with instruments that support production as Sweden imports most of the biofuels used. However, Sweden’s conditions for producing and consuming biofuels are also affected by the conditions that exist in other countries.

The purpose of this project is to map, on an overall level, policies, resources, production and consumption of biofuels in European countries, in order to better understand the relationship between these, and how they affect Sweden. The project will be implemented through data collection and quantitative data and policy analysis. The goal is that the results should be used as support when designing biofuel policies in Sweden as well as when interacting with EU on biofuel policy.

Facts

Manager
Liv Lundberg, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden

Contact
liv.lundberg@ri.se

Participants
Olivia Cintas and Sujeetha Selvakkumaran, RISED

Time plan
3 August 2020 - 31 December 2021

Total project cost
820 748 SEK

Funding
The Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partner organisations, Chalmers, Lantmännen, Preem, RISE, Scania and St1 Sweden.

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
50479-1

The project's working group also includes representatives from industry - both producers and users - and researchers involved in biofuels in Sweden. The group, consisting of Lantmännen, E.on, Scania, Preem, St1 and Chalmers, will provide the project with business specific insights, ideas and other relevant input on a regular basis.

Project Manager: Liv Lundberg

Collaborative research program  | Ongoing

Circularity and security of supply – Development of methodology

Quantifying socio-economic benefits can complement business-related aspects in decision-making. Examples of relevant decision-making situations are public procurement and long-term strategic…

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Quantifying socio-economic benefits can complement business-related aspects in decision-making. Examples of relevant decision-making situations are public procurement and long-term strategic investments. In socio-economic analyses, quantifying the economic value of available measures makes it possible to compare them, based on what would constitute advantages or disadvantages in different systems. If methods lack for quantifying certain benefits, there is a risk that the correct value of a certain benefit is not added to an overall assessment.

Even if there are standardized and/or established methods to determine some socio-economic benefits, research has exposed knowledge gaps. Previous studies have shown that specific parameters infer a benefit, but, at the same time, they have failed to quantify the benefit due to lack of applicable methods. Quantification would enable more detailed input for decision makers in business and society prior to investment decisions, strategic planning and policy.

When it comes to transportation fuels, two benefits have proven to be particularly interesting and with potential to largely impact the total quantified benefits of transportation fuels: security of supply and circularity for renewable fuels. Security of supply of different energy carriers is critical for society and in terms of Swedish security policy. Circularity is regarded to be a cornerstone for sustainable developent, both by Sweden and the international community.

The project will develop new methodology for quantifying socio-economic benefits of security of supply and circularity for renewable fuels. Methodology for quantifying security of supply is developed based on the combination of two factors: event cost mitigation and reduced inventory cost. For quantification of circularity, methodology is developed based on the combination of  linked life cycles and socio-economic cost of alternative method. The developted methodology will be applied to three selected value chains for renewable fuels in a Swedish context.

Facts

Manager
Desirée Grahn, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

Contact
desiree.grahn@ivl.se

Participants
Anton Fagerström and Tomas Lönnqvist, IVL

Time plan
15 June 2020 - 29 oktober 2021

Total project cost
1 623 002 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners organisations, Biofuel Region, Biogas Öst, E.on, Energigas Sverige, IVL, Lantmännen and Stockholm Public Transport (SL).

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
50396-1

The project has a focus group with members from industry and sectors that could be direct users of the results: Lantmännen, Stockholm Public Transport, Energigas Sverige, Biogas Öst, E.on, Biofuel Region and Region Gotland.

Project Manager: Desirée Grahn

Collaborative research program  | Ongoing

Routes for production of transportation fuels via deoxygenated bio oil

Biomass is the main source of renewable carbon, enabling production of a wide variety of valuable energy carriers and chemicals,…

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Biomass is the main source of renewable carbon, enabling production of a wide variety of valuable energy carriers and chemicals, e.g transportation fuels. Sweden has good prospects for utilizing residual biomass from forest and agricultural land for biofuel production, for example via biomass termochemical conversion in which one criticl step is pyrolysis. In view of the advantage of using existing refinery infrastructure, biomass pyrolysis is a versatile way to produce bio-oil (or bio-crude) that could potentially replace fossil-based feedstock. However, bio-oil’s chemical instability, mainly caused by the high oxygen content, complicates its transportation and storage and constitutes a major hinderance for widespread adoption as feedstock. Removal of oxygen by HDO, hydrodeoxygenation,  is a promising pre-treatment stage necessary for downstream upgrading of the bio-oil to premium products, such as transportation fuels.

Large R&D efforts have been directed towards studying pyrolysis processes for biooil production and upgrading to transportation fuels. But there is a lack of studies considering the integration of different processes/technologies for producing clean hydrogen for the hydrodeoxygenation step for bio-oil upgrading. This project aims at developing and strengthen knowledge about production of biofuels via biomass feedstock pyrolysis and hydrodeoxygenation, including various hydrogen sources, to produce stable bio-oil that can be further upgraded in existing refinery plants to gasoline, diesel and jet fuel. Four different process routes, including also the refinery and – when relevant – CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) will be investigated. Key performance indicators associated with energy and economic performance and important insights on opportunities and constraints of possible utilization and integration of process routes in existing infrastructure will be provided.

Facts

Manager
Shareq Mohd Nazir, KTH Royal Institute of Technology

Contact
smnazir@kth.se

Participants
Klas Engvall, KTH // Simon Harvey, Chalmers // Elin Svensson, CIT Industriell Energi // Rolf Ljunggren, Cortus Energy AB

Time plan
1 July 2020 - 31 December 2021

Total project cost
1 764 000 SEK

Funding
The Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partner organisations, KTH, Chalmers and Cortus Energy.

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
50466-1

A focus group with members from relevant industry will be tied to the project.

Project Manager: Shareq Mohd Nazir

Collaborative research program  | Ongoing

Bio-electro-fuels – Technology that can offer improved resource efficiency

Use of electrical energy in biofuel production can give large benefits through improved production potential, resource efficiency and sustainability. This…

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Use of electrical energy in biofuel production can give large benefits through improved production potential, resource efficiency and sustainability. This is achieved by reducing biogenic losses or the use of natural gas. Different technical solutions are relevant for different production pathways. Heating and electrolysis of carbon dioxide or water are important alternatives. The “electricity boosted” fuels, “bio-electro-fuels”, are different from pure electrofuels because the basis is biofuel production with biomass as raw material and carbon source.

This project gives an overview of technical possibilities, with the concept’s advantages and disadvantages. It is done through studies of a number of value chains and quantification of effects on sustainability, costs and yields. These are synthesized and aggregated to study the technology’s production potential and interaction with the electricity system.

Facts

Manager
Erik Furusjö, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden

Contact
erik.furusjo@ri.se

Participants
Sennai Mesfun, RISE // Mahrokh Samavati, KTH Royal Institute of Technology // Christer Gustavsson, BioShare AB

Time plan
1 October 2020 - 31 December 2021

Total project cost
2 210 000 SEK

Funding
The Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partner organisations, BioShare AB, KTH, Neste, St1, Södra and Vattenfall.

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
50452-1

The project consortium contains commercial representatives from the full value chain.

Project Manager: Erik Furusjö

Collaborative research program  | Starting soon

Electric and fuel cell powered construction transports in cities – Analysis of systems set-up

Load capacity is important when it comes to bulk freight vehicles. For transports within cities, there is a general need…

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Load capacity is important when it comes to bulk freight vehicles. For transports within cities, there is a general need for heavier solutions than today’s proposed concepts with fuel cells. On the other hand the distance that city transports need to cover is shorter than theese concepts have been designed for. Short transports with limited bulk weight could theoretically use electric battery power, potentially charging the vehicle during breaks and nights. But for longer transports and/or transports with higher bulk weight, and in vehicles that has an additional energy demand, e.g. concrete mixers, hydrogen fuel cells are an interesting alternative. Some advantages with fuel cells are that they make quick energy refilling possible, that load capacity is not limited in the same extent as with electric batteries, and that fuel cells only emit water vapor. This is very relevant in cities with problems with air pollution.

This project intends to contain a knowledge building regarding hydrogen fuel cell powered trucks, which can be used for construction and bulk materials in cities and urban areas, in order to accelerate the development of sustainable transport solutions in this area. Transition from fossil fuel to hydrogen fuel cells in bulk freight vehicles is expected to reduce the emissions of transport by 70-100%, depending on how the hydrogen is produced. This is why the project will include an account of the financial incentives available for construction and transport companies to buy and use fuel cell powered vehicles. The project is unique in its focus on transports of bulk mass where distances often are relatively short (<100 km), and where the vehicles’ load weights are of great importance. The results are intended to form a basis for decision makers when switching to renewable fuels without local emissions.

Facts

Manager
Ingrid Nordmark, TFK - TransportForsK

Contact
ingrid.nordmark@tfk.se

Participants
Joachim Andersson and Peter Bark, TFK

Time plan
15 June 2020 - 31 October 2021

Total project cost
750 000 SEK

Funding
The Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partner organisations, AB Volvo, Parator Industri, Skanska Asphalt and Concrete, The Swedish Association Road of Transport Companies, The Swedish Confederation of Transport Enterprises, and Vattenfall.

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
50453-1

A focus group with representatives from the co-funding industry companies will contribute to several of the projects' work packages, providing input to e.g. the case studies and analyses.

Project Manager: Ingrid Nordmark

Collaborative research program  | Ongoing

Impacts on producers and customers of conflilting rules for LCA

Fuel producers are increasingly affected by conflicting rules for life cycle assessment (LCA). The EU Renewable Energy Directive (RED), the…

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Fuel producers are increasingly affected by conflicting rules for life cycle assessment (LCA). The EU Renewable Energy Directive (RED), the EU framework for Product Environmental Footprints (PEF), and the frameworks of Environmental Product Declarations (EPD) all have different requirements on the calculations. Fuel producers can expect requests for life cycle assessments in various contexts. Since each context has its specific requirements on the LCA method, a new LCA might have to be carried through for each request. The total cost to meet the requests can be a significant economic burden, at least to small and medium-sized producers.

The methods for LCA affect the results and sometimes the conclusions. Different frameworks for LCA can generate conflicting recommendations on how to improve the fuel life cycle, which poses a challenge to all producers. The multiple LCA frameworks can also give conflicting guidance regarding what fuel to use, which makes the choice more difficult to customers. Conflicting recommendations and incentives can result in inaction, which would be bad for the environment.

In this project the three frameworks mentioned above are applied in case studies on selected real fuels. The project estimates the additional work required for applying multiple frameworks, discusses how it can be reduced, and analyzes the extent to which they generate conflicting conclusions. Several producers are actively involved in the project, and results will be disseminated to authorities and other actors. This generates awareness on the requirements and implications of the different frameworks, makes their application more efficient, and prepares the Swedish sector for active participation in the future development of the frameworks and other international harmonization of the LCA methodology.

Facts

Manager
Tomas Rydberg, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

Contact
tomas.rydberg@ivl.se

Participants
Tomas Ekvall, IVL // Sara Palander, Swedish Life Cycle Center (Chalmers) // Miguel Brandao, KTH // Lena Heuts, RISE

Time plan
15 June 2020 - 31 December 2021

Total project cost
2 035 392 SEK

Funding
The Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partner organisations, BASF, Fordonsgas Sverige, IVL, Lantmännen, NTM (Network for Transport and Measures), Scania, SEKAB, St1, SPBI and Volvo Technology.

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
50481-1

Project Manager: Tomas Rydberg

Collaborative research program  | Ongoing

Most efficient use of biomass – for biofuels or electrofuels?

Non-fossil carbon-based fuels can be produced based on biomass (biofuels) or based on carbon neutral electricity and CO2 (electrofuels). Biofuels…

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Non-fossil carbon-based fuels can be produced based on biomass (biofuels) or based on carbon neutral electricity and CO2 (electrofuels). Biofuels currently dominate the market for non-fossil fuels and technology development brings increasingly competitive biofuel production. With the prospect of a renewable power system, the demand for balancing power from biomass is expected to grow, thus increasing competition for biomass between the power- and transport sectors.

Sweden, in addition to its ambitions for the transport sector, has a political goal of a renewable power system by 2040. In power systems with large amounts of variable renewable energy (VRE), the use of biomass or other carbon-based fuels for thermal power generation can provide the flexibility. Such a VRE based system may also produce electro-fuels, and, in fact, producing electro-fuels can act as a tool to manage variations within such a system, by providing an offset for periods of high wind- and solar generation. Hence, biomass may be used in two different ways to ensure production of renewable transport fuels. Either as biofuels, or as balancing power to a renewable power system that supplies electro-fuels. Which route that is most cost-effective heavily depends on technical parameters as well as demand for negative emissions with BECCS (Bio-Energy with Carbon Capture and Storage), and constraints on biomass supply.

This project investigates how bio energy for CO2 neutral electricity and transport is used most cost-effectively, under the assumption that biomass is a limited resource. It combines a state-of-the-art, sector-integrated energy system model with a transport module in order to support policy development, as well as robust long-term investments in the power- and transport sectors. The transition pathways for the European transport- and power systems, in particular how carbon-based fuels may be produced and used in these systems during the coming 20-30 years, will be analyzed. The results will contribute new knowledge about transition pathways towards a GHG neutral and resource efficient society, where energy services are provided by robust and flexible systems using renewable energy sources.

Facts

Manager
Fredrik Hedenus, Chalmers

Contact
hedenus@chalmers.se

Participants
Göran Berndes and Lina Reichenberg, Chalmers // Tom Brown, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT)

Time plan
1 July 2020 - 31 December 2021

Total project cost
2 253 000 SEK

Funding
The Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partner organisations, Chalmers and KIT.

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
50460-1

The project has a reference group including energy policy spokespersons from the Swedish Left party and Center Party, and industry representatives from Preem, Göteborg Energi and Södra. The project will be carried out internationally in association with e.g. IEA Bioenergy Task 45.

Project Manager: Fredrik Hedenus

Collaborative research program  | Ongoing

Is liquid biogas part of the solution to greenhouse gas emissions from shipping?

In 2018, the International Maritime Organization, IMO, adopted an initial strategy to reduce and later phase out greenhouse gases from…

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In 2018, the International Maritime Organization, IMO, adopted an initial strategy to reduce and later phase out greenhouse gases from the shipping sector. Fossil fuel phase-out will be required in order to meet the long-term targets. Liquefied natural gas, LNG, has been discussed as a step on the road. It is a popular alternative for environmental and cost reasons. On one hand, LNG produces lower CO2 emissions per energy unit than fossil oil, but on the other, LNG engines have been shown to allow for methane to be emitted to the air in large amounts. This is referred to as a methane slip. The GHG impact from the methane slip could be reduced by replacing LNG with LBG, liquefied biogas.

This project provides knowledge and elaborates on the conditions for providing shipping with LBG, which is an environmentally, economically and socially sustainable renewable fuel alternative. The project will produce data on how much LBG can be produced, reqiured conditions and techniques (including Power to gas, P2G), and which cost levels that are accepted by shipping companies and transport buyers in the short and long term. Expected policy instruments will also be considered in the project.

Facts

Manager
Karl Jivén, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

Contact
karl.jiven@ivl.se

Participants
Anders Hjort and Hulda Winnes, IVL // Selma Brynolf, Chalmers

Time plan
15 June 2020 - 31 december 2021

Total project cost
1 830 000 SEK

Funding
The Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partner organisations, Energigas Sverige, Energikontor Sydost, Furetank Rederi AB, Gasum AB, Innovatum AB, IVL, Svensk Rederiservice AB and Tärntank Ship Management.

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
50435-1

The project has a reference group consisting of representatives from Furutank Rederi AB, Tärntank Ship Management AB, The Swedish Shipowners’ Association, Gasum AB, Energigas Sverige, Biogas Väst and Energikontor Sydost. The group will be extended.

Project Manager: Karl Jivén

Collaborative research program  | Ongoing

Multi filling stations

Despite the large use of hydrogen in various industrial sectors, the use in transport applications has so far been very…

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Despite the large use of hydrogen in various industrial sectors, the use in transport applications has so far been very limited. The theoretical potential for hydrogen in road transport, on the other hand, is very large.

Hydrogen filling stations are often not profitable due to high investment, operating and maintenance costs and low sales volumes. Costs can be lowered by upscaling, but it requires higher sales volumes than today. An alternative is to use existing infrastructure (production, distribution and filling station) for other hydrogen-containing fuels (eg. methane).

The project aims to investigate the possibilities of using existing infrastructure for upgraded biogas to enable increased establishment of hydrogen. The project adopts a system perspective where four different possible solutions for the implementation of the multi-filling- station for LBG/CBG and hydrogen are compared regarding technology maturity, investment and operating costs and CO2-benefits.

Facts

Manager
Anton Fagerström, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

Contact
anton.fagestrom@ivl.se

Participants
Anders Hjort, IVL // Stefan Heyne, CIT Industrial Energy

Time plan
15 June 2020 - 31 December 2021

Total project cost
2 800 000 SEK

Funding
The Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners organisations, AB Borlänge Energi. E.on Biofor Sverige AB, Gasum AB, IVL, Metacon AB, Neste AB, Nilsson Energy, Powercell Sweden AB, Sandviken municipality, Trollhättan Energi and Volvo Technology AB.

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
50324-1

The projects has a reference group consisting of representatives of fuel producers, filling stations, technology providers and users. These are E.on, Volvo, Borlänge Energi, Powercell, Metacon and Sandviken
Pure Power.

Project Manager: Anton Fagerström

Collaborative research program  | Ongoing

Climate impact of car travel moving towards climate neutrality

Many studies have quantified GHG emissions from cars and car travel. Syntheses are hampered by the use ofdifferent methods, delimitations,…

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Many studies have quantified GHG emissions from cars and car travel. Syntheses are hampered by the use ofdifferent methods, delimitations, and assumptions. This study instead provides an overview via modeling. The future climate impact of Swedish car travel is analyzed for scenarios where the path to climate neutrality goes through electrification and biofuel use, to varying degrees. Emissions from production and use of cars, electricity and fuels are considered, and also the CO2 exchange between land and atmosphere, which is critical for the climate impact of biofuels.

Climate impact are described with a method that show in an easily understandable way how car travel affects global warming over different time horizons, and how warming depends on whether CO2 emissions originates from fossil fuels or biofuels. The aim is to improve the understanding of issues that complicates discussions on different paths to climate neutrality.

Facts

Manager
Göran Berndes, Chalmers

Contact
goran.berndes@chalmers.se

Participants
Daniel Johansson and Johannes Morfeldt, Chalmers // Julia Hansson, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

Time plan
15 June 2020 - 30 November 2021

Total project cost
2 123 000 SEK

Funding
The Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partner organisations, Chalmers and IVL.

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
50434-1

The project has a reference gruop consisting of Jakob Lagercrantz, the Swedish 2030-secretariat; Anna Elofsson head secretary for SOU 2019:04 (The Swedish Government Inquiry on the phase-out of fossil fuels and a petrol and diesel car sales ban); Anna Widerberg and Andrea Egeskog, Volvo Cars; Tomas Kåberger, Swedish Climate Policy Council and Anette Cowie, IEA Bioenergy and University of New England, Ausrtalia. The reference group will mainly be involved in teh scenario construction and assessment.

Project Manager: Göran Berndes

Collaborative research program  | Ongoing

A review of the synthetic step in the production of advanced biofuels

One of the most important routes for the future production of synthetic transport fuels is the gasification of biomass. A…

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One of the most important routes for the future production of synthetic transport fuels is the gasification of biomass. A lot of different gasification processes exists (direct, indirect, entrained flow) with different types of gasifiers (down draft, fluidised bed, circulating bed). However, all of the gasification processes have in common that the generated gas, the producer gas, must be upgraded or at least purified before the biofuel synthesis steps.

The aim of the project is to establish the state-of-art concerning the purification and upgrading of the producer gas to synthesis gas and the subsequent different fuel synthesis processes. The focus is on the technique, theory and thermodynamics and energy efficiency for the different sub-systems/processes.

Facts

Manager
Henrik Kusar, KTH

Contact
hkusar@kth.se

Participants
Jan Brandin, Linnaeus University // Christian Hulteberg, Lund University

Time plan
February - August 2015

Total project cost
435 000 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, KTH, Linnaeus University and Lund University

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
39585-1

Project Manager: Henrik Kusar

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2020-05-25

Renewable fuels for waterborne public transport

In Sweden, renewable fuels have been used in public transport applications for years with one exception: ferry traffic. Some initiatives…

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In Sweden, renewable fuels have been used in public transport applications for years with one exception: ferry traffic. Some initiatives including HVO fuels and electric and hybrid ships exist, but in order to achieve the Swedish national environmental and climate objectives, as well as regional and municipal environmental goals for public transport, there is a need to implement fossil free fuels on a larger scale. Waterborne public transport has a great potential to contribute to the urban environment and to relieve road and rail-bound public transport.

The aim of this project is to analyse suitable renewable fuels for different vessel types, shipping services and conditions. The overall goal is to increase knowledge and propose measures that can be used in procurement and implementation of fossil free ferries, leading to reductions of greenhouse gas emissions, hazardous air pollutants and particles.

Facts

Manager
Linda Styhre, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

Contact
linda.styhre@ivl.se

Participants
Anna Mellin and Karl Jivén, IVL // Karl Garme, KTH Royal Institute of Technology

Time plan
1 September 2020 - 31 October 2021

Total project cost
250 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partner organisations.

Project Manager: Linda Styhre

f3 Project  | Starting soon

Thermochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass

Lignocellulosic biomass can be converted into fuels and chemicals using thermochemical or biochemical process pathways. Thermochemical technologies apply heat and…

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Lignocellulosic biomass can be converted into fuels and chemicals using thermochemical or biochemical process pathways. Thermochemical technologies apply heat and chemical processes in order to produce bioenergy from biomass. There are four main thermochemical conversion processes: direct combustion, gasification, pyrolysis and liquefaction. Direct combustion produces heat while the three latter can produce various types of energy carriers that can be converted into fuels.

Direct combustion

Direct combustion is the burning of biomass in open air, or, in the presence of excess air, converting the chemical energy stored in biomass into heat, mechanical power or electricity. Direct combustion is carried out using stoves, furnaces, steam turbines, or boilers at a temperature range starting at 800°C. All types of biomass can be burned, but in practice, direct combustion is only performed for biomass that has low moisture content (less than 50%). Biomass containing higher levels of moisture needs to be dried prior to combustion, or it may be better suited to biochemical conversion.

Gasification

Gasification is the partial oxidation of biomass at high temperatures (over 700°C) in the presence of a gasification agent, which can be steam, oxygen, air or a combination of these. The resulting gas mixture is called syngas or producer gas, and can be used in various processes to produce liquid fuels such as methanol, ethanol and Fischer-Tropsch diesel, and gaseous fuels, such as hydrogen and methane.

Syngas is comprised mainly of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, but could also contain methane, carbon dioxide, light hydrocarbons (e.g. ethane and propane) and heavy hydrocarbons (e.g. tars). Undesirable gases, such as hydrogen sulfide may also be present. The composition of the syngas depends on the type of biomass, the gasifier, the gasification agent, and on the temperature used in the process. Generally, when the biomass has high content of carbon and oxygen, the syngas produced via gasification is rich in carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide.

The most common biomass feedstocks used in the gasification process to produce biofuels are different kinds of wood, forestry wastes and agricultural residues. The heat for the high temperature gasification process can be supplied either directly by oxidation of part of the biomass in the gasifier, or indirectly by transferring energy to the gasifier externally.

 

Pyrolysis

Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of biomass to liquid, solid and gaseous fractions at high temperatures in the absence of oxygen in order to avoid significant levels of combustion. The liquid fraction is called bio-oil or bio-crude; a dark brown, viscous liquid with a high density, composed by a mixture of oxygen-containing organic compounds. Due to its high oxygen content, bio-oil is not suitable for direct use as a drop-in transportation fuel. However, it can be easily transported and stored, and after upgrading it has the potential to substitute crude oil, which makes it the most interesting product of pyrolysis. The solid fraction obtained from pyrolysis is called biochar, i.e. charcoal made from biomass, and the gasous fraction is syngas. The relative proportions of these fractions depend on the type of reactor employed and the feedstock used. It is controlled by varying the temperature, the heating rate and the residence time of the material in the reactor.

Depending on the heating rate employed, there are three main types of pyrolysis processes: slow, fast and flash pyrolysis. Slow pyrolysis has been used for thousands of years for the production of solid fuel. It is a decomposition process at relatively low temperatures (up to 500°C) and low heating rates (below 10°C/min), which takes several hours to complete, and results in solid biochar as the main product.

Fast pyrolysis is currently the most widely used process. It occurs at controlled temperature of around 500°C employing relatively high heating rates and only takes a few seconds to complete. The key product from fast pyrolysis is bio-oil (60-75%). In addition, biochar (15-25%) and syngas (10-20%) are also produced.

When heating rates and reaction temperatures are even higher, and the reaction time is shorter than that of fast pyrolysis, the process can be described as flash pyrolysis. Flash pyrolysis can result in a high yield of bio-oil and high conversion efficiencies (up to 70-75%).

Liquefaction

Hydrothermal liquefaction is the conversion of biomass to bio-oil in the presence of water, with or without a catalyst. During hydrothermal liquefaction, large compounds in the biomass are broken down into unstable shorter molecules that in turn reattach to each other and form bio-oil. In contrast to pyrolysis and gasification, the liquefaction process does not require the use of dry biomass, which reduces the cost of drying. The resulting bio-oil has lower oxygen content than the bio-oil obtained from pyrolysis, and therefore, it requires less upgrading prior to utilization as a transportation fuel.

Fact sheet  | 

Biochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass

Lignocellulosic biomass can be converted into fuels and chemicals using thermochemical or biochemical process pathways. Biochemical processes involve biocatalysts. They…

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Lignocellulosic biomass can be converted into fuels and chemicals using thermochemical or biochemical process pathways. Biochemical processes involve biocatalysts. They can be enzymes that degrade biomass to a mixture of sugars, which can be fermented by microorganisms to produce a wide range of valuable compounds such as fuels, organic acids, alcohols, etc. When the aim is to produce liquid and gaseous biofuels, mainly two biochemical conversion processes are used: fermentation for ethanol production and anaerobic digestion for biogas production.

Fermentation process for ethanol

A typical process to convert biomass to ethanol consists of four main steps: pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation, and product recovery (Figure 1).

Pretreatment

Lignocellulose is a very resistant material. It consists of an intertwined network of cellulose (30-50%), hemicellulose (20-30%) and lignin (20-30%) that provides strength and resistance to the plant structure. Converting lignocellulose to sugar molecules requires pretreatment to open its structure and make it easier to break down the cellulose fibers consisting of glucose linked together in long chains. The pretreatment step can separate the cellulose from hemicellulose and lignin.

Several pretreatment methods, including biological, physical, and chemical pretreatments, have been studied. In a biomass-to-ethanol process at commercial scale, steam pretreatment has so far been the main choice. During steam pretreatment high-pressure steam is used to increase the temperature of the biomass to 160-240°C for a certain time, after which the pressure is released causing most of the hemicellulose and part of the lignin to solubilize. The cellulose remains undissolved but becomes more available for the enzymes.

Enzymatic hydrolysis

During enzymatic hydrolysis, the cellulose fibers and hemicellulose which were not degraded in the pretreatment are decomposed into simple sugar molecules. Cellulases, a mixture of several types of enzymes acting in synergy, are used to attack the bonds between glucose molecules in different regions of the cellulose. As hemicellulose mainly consists of other types of sugars than glucose, and has a different structure compared to cellulose, its hydrolysis requires different enzymes (hemicellulases). In the end of the enzymatic hydrolysis a solution that is rich in various kinds of sugars is obtained and can be fermented.

Fermentation

The sugars produced can be fermented to ethanol by yeast or bacteria. Due to it generally being recognized as safe, robust, and presenting high ethanol tolerance, ordinary baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is the most preferred microorganism. But ordinary baker’s yeast can only ferment sugars that contain six carbon atoms, such as glucose. To convert sugars from hemicellulose containing five carbons (e.g. xylose and arabinose), the yeast needs to be genetically modified or replaced with other microorganisms, e.g. bacteria. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation can be carried out in two main configurations: consecutively, known as separate hydrolysis and fermentation, or at the same time in one vessel, known as simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (see Figure 1).

Product recovery

To obtain a high-purity product that can be used for fuel production, ethanol needs to be recovered from the fermentation by distillation and dehydration. Residues from distillation are separated into solids and liquids. The solid residue, which is rich in lignin, can either be burnt to produce steam, heat, and electricity, or converted to various coproducts. The liquid residue is sent to an anaerobic digestion plant to produce biogas. Ethanol obtained by this process is blended with gasoline at different ratios (E5-E85) or can even be used as a pure ethanol fuel (E100).

Anaerobic digestion for biogas production

Anaerobic digestion (AD) is the microbial decomposition of biomass into biogas without the presence of oxygen. Biogas is mainly composed of 55-65% methane and 35-45% carbon dioxide, but it can also contain small amounts of e.g. nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen, hydrogen sulfide, and ammonia. The composition of the resulting biogas depends on the type of biomass used.

It is possible to break down biomass by means of AD without pretreatment. However, higher biogas yields can be achieved in shorter time if pretreatment is applied. The four main steps of AD are hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis, and methanogenesis (Figure 2). In each step, different groups of microorganisms are used.

In the hydrolysis step, large macromolecules such as carbohydrates, lipids and proteins are broken down by enzymes to smaller compounds, such as simple sugars, amino acids, fatty acids. These are further degraded in the acidogenesis to organic acids and alcohols, which are in turn converted to acetate, as well as to carbon dioxide and hydrogen in the acetogenesis. In the final step, methanogenesis, biogas, i.e. a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide, is produced by two different types of bacteria. One converts acetate and the other type utilizes carbon dioxide and hydrogen to produce biogas.

Biogas obtained from AD can be burnt and the energy released can be used for heating purposes. Alternatively, after removal of carbon dioxide, biogas can be compressed the same way as natural gas and used as a vehicle fuel.

 

 

Fact sheet  | 

Annual reports from f3

Read and download annual reports from f3 describing the work within the centre on a yearly basis. From 2018 and…

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Read and download annual reports from f3 describing the work within the centre on a yearly basis. From 2018 and onwards, the annual report is written in Swedish. Contact the f3 office if you wish to have more information on any certain content.

Miscellaneous  | 

Aviation biofuel, Biojet

The fact sheet is currently only available in Swedish. Jet A1, också benämnt som flygfotogen eller jetbränsle, är det drivmedel…

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The fact sheet is currently only available in Swedish.

Jet A1, också benämnt som flygfotogen eller jetbränsle, är det drivmedel som används i flygplan och helikoptrar drivna med jetmotorer. När biobaserade bränslen blandas i flygbränsle brukar det kallas biojet. Det är i dagsläget bränsle från fyra olika biobaserade produktionsvägar som är certifierat som tillsats (upp till 50%) i konventionell Jet A1 enligt standarden för flygbränsle: hydrerade estrar och fettsyror (HEFA), Alcohol-to-Jet (AtJ), Fischer-Tropsch (FT) och direktfermentering av socker (DSHC).

För att ge biojet bra klimatprestanda är det viktigt att vätgasproduktionen som processteg görs hållbar. I svenska bioflygbränsleprojekt är det främst tre av de biobaserade produktionsvägarna som är intressanta att utveckla, HEFA, AtJ och FT, vilka presenteras närmare i detta faktablad. Längs värdekedjan för respektive teknik finns olika faktorer som påverkar status för bioflygbränslena, och därmed också hur de kan bidra till luftfartssektorns klimatmål.

De fyra produktionsvägarna för biobaserade drop in-bränslen certifierade för inblandning i flygbränsle enligt standard ASTM 7566-18. Med inblandning av dessa kallas flygbränslet för Biojet.

HEFA – hydrerade estrar och fettsyror

Hydrerade (vätebehandlade) estrar och fettsyror, HEFA, produceras ur vegetabiliska och animaliska oljor och fetter, också avfallsoljor som använd matolja. Råvaran vätebehandlats för att reducera syreinnehåll och konvertera fetter och oljor till kolväten. En förbehandling krävs för att använda förorenade råvaror.

HEFA är ASTM-certifierad för en inblandning i flygbränsle på upp till 50%.

HEFA-processen är den enda produktionsprocess som idag har kommersiell produktion av bioflygbränsle. Eftersom tillverkningsprocessen till stor del är densamma som för HVO (hydrerad vegetabilisk olja) som finns på marknaden för vägtransporter, kan anläggningar ha en flexibel produktmix, dvs fördelning mellan olika produkter (t ex mellan flygbränsle, andra fordonsbränslen och kemikalier). Men det betyder också att en konkurrenssituation om vissa råvaror kan uppstå mellan drivmedelsproduktion för flyget respektive vägtransporter. En ökad efterfrågan på vegetabiliska oljor kan orsaka tryck på ändrad markanvändning i vissa fall. Lignocellulosaråvaror har mycket högre tillgänglighet och lägre indirekta miljöeffekter men kan med dagens teknik inte användas för HEFA-produktion.

Investeringskostnader har i exempel beräknats ligga kring 8 000 SEK/årston för storskaliga anläggningar vilket ger ett uppskattat lägsta försäljningspris för HEFA på i storleksordningen 8-12 SEK/l beroende på råvara. [1, 2] De relativt låga produktionskostnaderna är delvis beroende av synergier med annan kolväteproduktion. Andra uppskattningar av produktionskostnader är högre, t ex 15-17 SEK/l för använd matolja som råvara. [3]

Omvandlingsprocessen från biomassa till bioflygbränsle har vätgas som viktigaste insatsvara i tillägg till olja/fett-råvaran. Tillverkat av förnybara och hållbara råvaror kan bioflygbränsle med HEFA minska utsläppen av växthusgaser med 70-80% jämfört med konventionellt jetbränsle. [2, 3]

AtJ – Alcohol to Jet

Alcohol to Jet (AtJ) innebär att biojetbränsle framställs katalytiskt ur någon av alkoholerna butanol eller etanol. Dessa alkoholer kan ha framställts ur många olika biogena råvaror och en mängd olika biologiska processer. Det innebär att det finns många varianter av AtJ som produktionsväg.

För s k första generationens etanol används främst socker från sockerrör och stärkelse från sädesslag som råvara. Men användningen av grödor för drivmedelsproduktion är omdebatterad och EU har satt ett tak för den. För att bredda råvarubasen har teknik för att producera såväl etanol som butanol från lignocellulosa, t ex trä och halm, tagits fram. Restströmmar från befintlig industri kan också vara ett viktigt komplement till råvarubasen.

Att omvandla biomassa till AtJ-baserat bioflygbränsle kan ske med låg miljöpåverkan. Den övergripande miljöprestandan är en kombination av val och metod för insamling av råvara och den specifika produktionsvägen. I allmänhet betraktas rest- och biprodukter från skogsbruk och jordbruk samt biogena avfall som de viktigaste framtida råvarorna. De är enligt reglerna för växthusgasberäkning som tillämpas i förnybarhetsdirektivet [4, 5] associerade med låga utsläpp av klimatpåverkande gaser. Jämfört med fossila bränslen ger bioflygbränsle producerat från någon av dessa råvaror enligt AtJ en signifikant växthusgasreduktion. I typfallet är minskningen större än 80%. [2]

Som process är AtJ relativt mogen och ett flertal aktörer bedriver aktivt utvecklingsarbete. Tekniken är dock ännu inte demonstrerad i kommersiell storskalig produktion. Detta innebär att den ekonomiska prestandan för AtJ-processen är osäker. [6] Det är dock tydligt att produktionsekonomin skiljer sig beroende på vilken råvara som används. Priser på 25-35 SEK/l har t ex angivits för de första anläggningarna som producerar AtJ-bränsle från lignocellulosa. Med mogen teknik förväntas de sjunka till 15-25 SEK/l. [2, 7, 8]

ASTM-certifiering som tillåter upp till 50% inblandning i fossilt jetbränsle finns för produktion både via butanol och etanol.

FT – Fischer Tropsch

Fischer Tropsch (FT) är en serie kemiska reaktioner som kan användas för att uppgradera syntesgas (H2 och CO) till vätskeformiga bränslen. Råvaran för framställning av syntesgasen kan vara av både fossilt ursprung eller biomassa och avgör alltså om slutprodukten är bioflygbränsle. Det finns i dagsläget ingen storskalig produktion av flygbränsle från biomassa baserat på FT-teknik, men snarlik teknik, baserad på fossila råvaror, har sedan länge använts för kommersiell produktion av flygbränsle. Två kommersiella produktionsanläggningar är 2019 under uppförande i USA med planerad start 2020.

Det är inte möjligt att producera enbart bioflygbränsle i en FT-process, men 50-70% av produkten kan bli bioflygbränsle med förnybar diesel som den viktigaste andra produkten. Effektiviteten beror mycket på processkonfiguration och råvara men typiskt kan 35-50% av energin i råvaran bli till drivmedel. Dessutom bildas en stor mängd värme som kan vara värdefull om produktionen integreras med andra processer eller i ett fjärrvärmenät.

Det är svårt att generalisera produktionskostnader för FT-baserade bioflygbränslen. Skälet är att de i hög grad beror på lokalisering, råvaruval, anläggningens storlek och vald produktmix. Generellt präglas kostnadsprofilen av höga investeringskostnader men låga råvarukostnader jämfört med de flesta andra produktionstekniker. För FT-baserade bioflygbränslen anges ofta produktionskostnader i ett intervall om 10-20 SEK/l. [2, 3, 8, 9] Kostnader i den lägre delen av intervallet kan sannolikt nås för kommande anläggningar som byggs integrerade med befintlig industri, exempelvis svensk skogsindustri.

Att omvandla biomassa till FT-baserat bioflygbränsle har potential att göras med mycket liten miljöpåverkan från själva omvandlingsprocessen eftersom få ytterligare insatsvaror används och endast lite avfall bildas. Det innebär att så länge hållbart producerade och insamlade råvaror används, kan totalt sett god miljöprestanda nås med denna produktionsväg. Med de regler för växthusgasberäkning som tillämpas i förnybarhetsdirektivet [4, 5] är dessa associerade med låga klimatgasutsläpp och ger växthusgasreduktion för producerat bioflygbränsle med >90% jämfört med fossila bränslen. [7]

Fact sheet  | 

Research-based conclusions on renewable fuels

The transition towards an energy-efficient society with energy-efficient vehicles poses a lot of complex questions. We need a systems perspective…

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The transition towards an energy-efficient society with energy-efficient vehicles poses a lot of complex questions. We need a systems perspective both to adequately phrase the questions, and to visualise the conditions of renewable transition options for the transport sector. f3 presents six conclusions based on the knowledge of researchers and experts active in our network:

  1. We need renewable transportation fuels to reach climate targets
  2. Sustainable feedstock for large-scale production of rebewable fuels is available
  3. Renewable transportation fuels reduces greenhouse gas emissions
  4. A variety of renewable transportation fuels and production technologies are needed
  5. Powerful efforts within both policy and R&D are needed
  6. Swedish technology and knowledge export plays an important part in the global climate challange

Each of these conclusions refer to research that has been performed within f3 and the collaborative research program Renewable transportation fuels and systems.

Currently, the folder that elaborates on the conclusions is available in Swedish only. It can be downloaded as PDF and ordered in printed copies from the f3 office.

Miscellaneous  | 

Actor networks, local policy instruments, and public procurement that support biogas development

Cities and regions can play an important role in supporting an increased use of biogas in the transport sector. The…

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Cities and regions can play an important role in supporting an increased use of biogas in the transport sector. The tools thay can use are public procurement, local policy measures and broad stakeholder networks.

This project has investigated what it takes to eliminate barriers and create incentives for biogas development, thereby contributing to the transition to a fossil free vehicle fleet. The purpose has been to give local decisionmakers efficient tools in their work. Conclusions derive from case studies in three Swedish Regions, and have been verified through stakeholders active in local biogas development projects.

This text is beeing updated.

Results are mainly avalable in Swedish. Both the final report and executive summary however include summaries in English.

Facts

Manager
Tomas Lönnqvist, IVL

Contact
tomas.lonnqvist@ivl.se

Participants
Sara Anderson, Julia Hansson, Anders Hjort and Sven-Olof Ryding, IVL // Robert Lundmark and Patrik Söderholm, Bio4Energy (LTU)

Time plan
September 2018 - December 2019

Total project cost
1 600 000 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, IVL, Bio4Energy (LTU), Luleå Municipality, Dalsland Environment and Energy Federation, Energigas Sverige AB, Biogas Öst AB, Energy Agency for Southeast Sweden, Västra Götaland County Council, Region Gotland and Fyrbodals Municipal Association

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
46979-1

Project Manager: Tomas Lönnqvist

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2020-02-01

Indirect Land Use Change – ILUC

The fact sheet is at this point only available in Swedish. Förhållanden mellan markanvändning och biodrivmedel diskuteras i många sammanhang.

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The fact sheet is at this point only available in Swedish.

Förhållanden mellan markanvändning och biodrivmedel diskuteras i många sammanhang. Att uppta mark för biodrivmedelsproduktion kan potentiellt leda till att matproduktion flyttar till andra platser, och att ny odlingsmark behöver tas i anspråk. Detta kan påverka både livsmedelspriser och utsläpp av växthusgaser. Men vad säger den senaste forskningen?

Vad är ILUC?

I debatten används ofta uttrycken direkt och indirekt förändrad markanvändning. De brukar förkortas DLUC (eng. Direct Land Use Change) och ILUC (eng. Indirect Land Use Change).

DLUC innebär att mark byter användning, från exempelvis skog till åkermark, för att möjliggöra odling av grödor till biodrivmedel. Det är viktigt att ta med i beräkning av klimatprestanda för biodrivmedel från länder där det sker avskogning. DLUC kan beräknas via mätningar av mängden kol i mark och biomassa innan och efter den ändrade markanvändningen, eller via modeller. Även om det finns stora osäkerheter i bedömningen finns en direkt koppling mellan grödan och den ändrade markanvändningen.

Samband mellan efterfrågan på grödor och direkta och indirekta effekter på markanvändning.

ILUC är ett mer komplicerat begrepp, grundat i ekonomiska resonemang. Om vi inom EU upptar stora arealer för odling av grödor till biodrivmedel, kan det bli en påverkan på livsmedelspriserna. Vår matproduktion kan då flyttas till andra områden inom EU, eller till andra delar av världen där maten är billigare att producera. Det kan leda till att ny odlingsmark tas i anspråk, mark som tidigare kanske varit i träda, skog eller extensiv betesmark. Det behöver inte vara negativt; om mark i träda som inte används kommer i bruk, kan vi producera mat och biodrivmedel och samtidigt binda in mer kol i marken.

Högre livsmedelspriser kan innebära att bönderna ser möjlighet till investeringar i jordbruket och kan intensifiera sin odling, vilket ofta är klimatsmart. Högre livsmedelspriser kan även påverka konsumtionsmönster. ILUC-teorin uttrycks alltså i flera steg och är svår att härleda till biodrivmedel då det finns många andra faktorer som påverkar bönders och konsumenters val. ILUC brukar därför uppskattas med hjälp av ekonomiska jämviktsmodeller.

Hur stor klimatpåverkan ger ILUC?

Det finns en stor mängd litteratur som försöker uppskatta ILUC. Resultaten varierar mycket och beror på val av modelleringsverktyg, systemgränser, indata och så vidare. Spannet varierar mellan -75 och 55 g koldioxidekvivalenter (CO2-ekv) per megajoule (MJ) biodrivmedel enligt senaste IPCC-rapporten om markanvändning. Det kan jämföras med utsläpp från ett fossilt bränsle på ca 94 g CO2-ekv per MJ. Ofta får grödbaserade drivmedel högre ILUC än lignocellulosabaserade drivmedel. Notera att ILUC i vissa fall kan bli negativt, det vill säga en besparing av utsläpp. Det kan hända i de fall där biprodukter ersätter andra mer resurskrävande produkter, till exempel när drank ersätter soja.

Bör vi ta hänsyn till ILUC?

På grund av de stora osäkerheterna gällande metoder för att uppskatta ILUC, rekommenderar de flesta handböcker i livscykelanalys att inte inkludera ILUC i klimatberäkningar av enskilda produkter.

I ett globalt perspektiv går det att ifrågasätta relevansen av ILUC. När en ändring i markanvändning sker, räknas den som DLUC för den gröda som odlas på platsen. Att samma markanvändning sedan även ska bokföras som ILUC för en annan gröda blir en dubbelräkning. ILUC är alltså ett högst teoretiskt sätt att beräkna markanvändning, i verkligheten finns bara DLUC.

Men att beräkna ILUC kan vara relevant i vissa sammanhang, till exempel inom explorativ forskning, där effekterna på markanvändning vid införande av en policy undersöks. Vissa forskare, som Timothy D Searchinger, anser även att all markanvändning som inte producerar enligt sin maxkapacitet, leder till ILUC-effekter och bör tas med i utvärdering av markanvändning.

Oavsett diskussionen, är det extremt viktigt att värna om mark som en resurs både i Sverige och internationellt. Vi måste upprätthålla god markhälsa och minska skövling av värdefull skog. I störst möjliga mån bör bioenergi integreras i existerande system, utan att äventyra produktion av livsmedel. Det bör emellertid nämnas att biodrivmedelsgrödor utgör ett fåtal procent av den globala jordbruksmarken; vi behöver också fokusera på övriga drivkrafter till ändrad markanvändning, till exempel den globalt ökande köttkonsumtionen.

Hur hanteras ILUC i lagstiftningen?

Det är mycket svårt att lagstifta bort indirekta effekter som kan ske på andra sidan jordklotet. Men att ignorera att all markanvändning idag sammanlänkas genom ett globalt nät av förflyttningar av grödor, livsmedel och biodrivmedel är inte heller en framkomlig väg.

I EU har frågan om ILUC diskuterats länge. I det senaste direktivet om förnybar energi (2018:2001) har ILUC-risk för jordbruksråvaror delats upp i två nivåer, låg och hög. Lågrisk-ILUC tillskrivs grödor där man undviker omflyttningseffekter av foder- och livsmedelsgrödor, grödor producerade genom förbättrade jordbruksmetoder samt grödor från områden som tidigare inte användes för odling av grödor. Grödor som inte återfinns i dessa kategorier anses vara högrisk-ILUC; dessa får inte räknas in i EU:s ramverk efter 2030.

Fact sheet  | 

Drop-in the tank or a new tank? A comparison of costs and carbon footprint

The potential of transportation fuels to contribute to the transition of the transport sector depends on their overall performance as…

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The potential of transportation fuels to contribute to the transition of the transport sector depends on their overall performance as a whole, i.e. considering carbon footprint and cost for production, infrastructure and vehicles. Studies show that for forest-based fuels, the production of single molecule transport fuels can be more efficient than production of so-called drop in fuels, considering use of raw materials and cost.

Single molecule transport fuels are characterized by small molecules of a single chemical such as methane, methanol, dimethyl ether and ethanol. Drop in transport fuels are biofuels consisting of mixtures with longer carbon chains, for example diesel and gasoline, and production demands more energy and is more costly. However, they are compatible with the existing infrastructure, whereas production of single molecule transport fuels require a dedicated distribution infrastructure. From a fuel producer perspective, it is therefore easier, cheaper and more efficient to produce single molecule transport fuels, but engine and vehicle producers, the preferred fuel is one that can be used directly in conventional combustion engines. Using drop in fuels does not claim the development of new technology, i.e. many different engine models.

Today, from a Swedish perspective, there is a lack of studies covering the total cost and climate performance of the whole transport fuel value chain for single molecule transport fuels compared to drop in fuels. This project aims at increasing the understanding of different forest-based transport fuel chains among fuel producers, engine and vehicle manufacturers, authorities, decision makers, researchers and other relevant stakeholders. It does so by a comparison focused on the two categories of biofuels, single molecule and “drop-in”, comparing the carbon footprint and total cost, including production, distribution and vehicles, for the two value chains. Results will potentially increase the knowledge of what role different fuels may play in a future energy system and thus provides a better decision support for policy makers.

Facts

Manager
Tomas Lönnqvist, IVL

Contact
tomas.lonnqvist@ivl.se

Participants
Julia Hansson, IVL // Patrik Klintbom, Erik Furusjö och Johanna Mossberg, RISE

Time plan
September 2019 - June 2021

Total project cost
1 732 500 SEK

Funding
The Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, E.on Biofor Sweden, Lantmännen Agroetanol, Scania CV AB, Södra, Volvo Personvagnar and Volvo Technology AB.

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
48361-1

A reference group connected to the project consists of members from Lantmännen, Södra and E.on.

Project Manager: Tomas Lönnqvist

Collaborative research program  | Ongoing

BioFlex – Bio-based flexible production of transportation fuels in a combined pyrolysis and gasification plant

Biomass is the main source of renewable carbon, enabling production of various valuable energy carriers, providing with a possible pathway…

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Biomass is the main source of renewable carbon, enabling production of various valuable energy carriers, providing with a possible pathway for reshaping the present fossil based energy usage. Research has shown that Sweden has good prospects for utilising residual biomass from forest and agricultural land and subsequently produce biofuels for the transportation sector, and that there is a large theoretical potential for sustainably produced lignocellulose-based liquid fuels.

Biomass thermochemical treatment (gasification/pyrolysis) produce gaseous and liquid feedstock that could be used for transportation fuel production. However, catalytic deoxygenation of pyrolysis liquids results in low overall carbon efficiencies. Fischer Tropsch synthesis (FTS) displays the same results due to unfavourable product selectivity. Production of a versatile intermediate, such as lower olefins, used for production of high-quality fuels with high selectivity and flexibility would therefore be attractive, improving the overall carbon efficiency.

This project analyses, models and optimizes a novel route for direct conversion of biomass pyrolysis vapors and gasification-derived gas to liquid fuels (synthetic gasoline, diesel and LPG) via olefin production to provide knowledge about the feasibility of the production route. The goal is to develop a process scheme that offers at least 40 % carbon efficiency. This will be accomplished technologies that are already commercially available technologies, satisfying also the objective for fast industrial implementation according to the 2030 agenda.

However, the transportation fuel market is dynamic and changes are strongly related to international and regional developments and policies as well as technology advances and therefore production flexibility is needed. The project will therefore evaluate process costs and process adaption into the transportation fuel distribution chain using advanced optimization techniques for mass and heat integration among process components that act on the main design parameters of the components themselves. Last but not least, this alternative route could also contribute to the production of very important feedstock (light olefins) for the chemical or petrochemical industry contributing to the overall goal of sustainable economy and society.

Facts

Manager
Efthymios Kantarelis, KTH

Contact
ekan@kth.se

Participants
Klas Engvall, KTH // Andrea Toffolo, LTU // Rolf Ljunggren, Cortus Energy

Time plan
July 2019 - December 2020

Total project cost
1 117 036 SEK

Funding
The Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, KTH, LTU and Cortus Energy AB.

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
48369-1

Project Manager: Efthymios Kantarelis

Collaborative research program  | Ongoing

Sulfur-Free MARine LIgnin FuEls (SMARt LIFE)

Aiming to decrease the pollution from shipping, new rules from the U.N. International Maritime Organization (IMO) will come into force…

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Aiming to decrease the pollution from shipping, new rules from the U.N. International Maritime Organization (IMO) will come into force by 2020, that ban ships from using fuels with sulfur content higher than 0.5% w/w. Today, the allowed limit is seven times as high, that is 3,5%, and the global shipping fleet uses millions of barrels of oil daily. As a consequence, the marine transportation is currently facing a high demand for low-sulfur fuels. Restrictions related to the use of low-sulfur fuel (0.1%) in Sulfur Emission Control Areas (SECA) as of 1 January 2015 have also increased the interest of the sector to find alternatives.

But lowering the sulfur content in fuel oil is a process that increases both adds costs and CO2 emissions from refineries. If low sulfur fuels are not used, scrubbers need to be installed to remove the sulfur emissions that take up take up extra space and require extra costs for chemicals and waste water discharge. This projects suggests the preparation of sulfur-free green marine fuels from renewable resources. More specifically, the suggested fuel will consist of a mixture of lignin in ethylene glycol, in which lignin will be derived from wood waste streams after fractionation with organosolv pretreatment while the ethylene glycol will be produced by the conversion of the wood cellulose to ethanol (via fermentation) and catalytic conversion of ethanol to ethylene and dehydration to ethylene glycol. The properties of the fuel will be tested in an HD single cylinder test engine and emissions and fuel efficiency will be quantified. The potential market for this a low-sulfur biofuel for ships will be assessed and a LCA study will be performed in order to assess its environmental performance.

Facts

Manager
Dimitris Athanassiadis, Swedish University of Agriculture (SLU)

Contact
dimitris.athanassiadis@slu.se

Participants
Paul Christakopoulos, Ulrika Rova ans Leonidas Matsakas , SLU // Martin Tunér, Lund University // Joanne Ellis, SSPA

Time plan
September 2019 - December 2021

Total project cost
2 309 544 SEK

Funding
The Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, SLU, Luleå University of Technology, Lund University, SSPA Sweden and Sveaskog.

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
48358-1

Project Manager: Dimitris Athanassiadis

Collaborative research program  | Ongoing

Future fuel choices for low-carbon shipping, aviation and road transport

To reach the climate targets in the Paris Agreement, i.e. preventing a temperature rise that exceeds two degrees Celcius, the…

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To reach the climate targets in the Paris Agreement, i.e. preventing a temperature rise that exceeds two degrees Celcius, the global emissions of greenhouse gases need to be radically reduced before 2050. This is a big challenge for the energy system, and specifically for the transport sector, today dominated by fossil fuels.

Compared to 2006, estimations show that CO2 emissions from global aviation may have increased five times by the year 2050. The marine transport sector could potentially increase its CO2 emissions with as much as 270 percent between 2007 and 2050. In order to meet future climate targets, aviation and shipping as well as road transport need to reduce their climate impact. Implementing energy efficiency measures, both technological and operative, are steps in the right direction, but they are not enough. The amount of renewable fuels needs to increase in all sectors.

Biomass-based fuels, electrification, hydrogen and so-called electrofuels are being developed for different parts of the transport sector. Most likely, a combination of different transportation fuels will be needed also in the future.  But which fuels and propulsion technologies will be the most cost-effective for aviation and shipping in the future, seen in a global energy system context given strict carbon reduction requirements? And what is the influence on the development of other parts of the transport sector? Is there enough biomass to contribute to a substantial reduction of CO2 emissions in the aviation and shipping sectors, and what else has an impact on the prerequisits for different options in these sectors?

This project aims to study this, focusing on aviation and marine transport. Up until today, most related studies have focused on competition for biomass in the road transport sector and the electricity/heat sector. The project also aims to contribute to method development for assessing the climate and environmental impact of electrofuels with life cycle assessment (LCA) which is needed in order to to understand their potential role as fuel for aviation, shipping and road transport.

Enhanced knowledge about alternative aviation and marine fuels, as well as increased collaboration and consensus among stakeholders within different parts of the transports sector, could contribute to industry and society actively finding solutions that have large-scale potential to be sustainable long-term, both from a resource and a cost perspective.

Facts

Manager
Julia Hansson, IVL

Contact
julia.hansson@ivl.se

Participants
Erik Fridell, IVL // Selma Brynolf and Maria Grahn, Chalmers

Time plan
August 2019 - August 2021

Total project cost
1 990 000 SEK

Funding
The Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners and Chalmers.

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
48357-1

The project has a stakeholder reference group with members from the most relevant authorities and business companies in the concerned sectors.

Project Manager: Julia Hansson

Collaborative research program  | Ongoing

Electrolysis assisted biomass gasification for transportation fuels

The production of forest-based drop-in biofuels has huge potential in Sweden thanks to its abundant forest-based feedstock. From the Swedish…

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The production of forest-based drop-in biofuels has huge potential in Sweden thanks to its abundant forest-based feedstock. From the Swedish perspective, development of technologies that unlock the potential of its forest feedstock to replace fossil use in the transport sector is critical. One type of technology that has been demonstrated in several occasions, to mention a few, the Gobigas plant and LTU Green Fuels, is biomass gasification. Two major limitations of biomass gasification-based biofuels production are high investment costs and reaching economy of scale production levels.

A concept combining biomass gasification and MCEC can help address both. Feedstock diversification is crucial both to achieve economy of scale and to facilitate transition by boosting the production levels. Molten carbonate electrolysis cell (MCEC) can play central role to diversify feedstock by creating an important link between excess electricity and liquid/gas fuels. This way, integration of the MCEC adds flexibility to the biofuel production process and the overall energy system, helping to debottleneck capacity limitation of biomass gasifiers to reach economy of scale production levels. In addition, the fact that the MCEC process can replace multiple steps used in current state-of-the-art gasification based biofuels production, contributes to a lower specific investment cost. Also, the oxygen by-product of the MCEC can be used in the gasification step which can eliminate the need for separate air separation unit.

The aim of this project is to validate a hybrid process, combining MCEC technique with gasification to allow for optimal conversion of renewable energy into storable transportation fuels. Focus is on gasification as MCEC can replace multiple process steps — O2 plant, removal of hydrocarbons, water-gas shift and CO2-removal.

The project will produce knowledge specific to the operating range and feasibility of MCEC as an alternative pathway to a multiple-stage downstream conditioning of raw-syngas from biomass gasification prior to its synthesis to transport grade biofuel. It will also evaluate biofuel production potentials for an integrated industrial setup including scale, feedstock availability, integration aspects, production cost and GHG emissions reduction.

Facts

Manager
Sennai Asmelash Mesfun, RISE

Contact
sennai.asmelash.mesfun@ri.se

Participants
Andrea Toffolo, Bio4Energy (LTU) // Klas Engvall and Carina Lagergren, KTH

Time plan
July 2019 - December 2020

Total project cost
1 240 000 SEK

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
48371-1

Project Manager: Sennai Asmelash Mesfun

Collaborative research program  | Ongoing

Future-proof biofuels through improved utilization of biogenic carbon – carbon, climate and cost efficiency (K3)

Often, only a fraction of the biomass feedstock carbon ends up in the product in biofuel production. This means, in…

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Often, only a fraction of the biomass feedstock carbon ends up in the product in biofuel production. This means, in the short run, that the climate benefits of biofuels are reduced since the carbon dioxide that remains unused contributes to the carbon debt, a critical subject in the overall discussion about biofuel sustainability. In a longer run, this leads to inefficient use of the carbon dioxide, compared to a scenario in which 100 percent of the biogenic carbon would be utilized in a product and replace, for example, fossil fuels. Future technologies for biomass conversion and utilization can be expected to need to show high carbon efficiency or facilitate negative emissions in order to be legitimate and competitive. According to the IPCC, this will be necessary if emission reductions and measures to reduce energy and land use are no enough to limit the global warming to 1,5 degrees Celsius.

This project will perform a systematic evaluation of possibilities to increase the utilization and utility of biogenic carbon in biofuel production, by increasing the proportion of biogenic carbon that ends up in products, or by storing part of the carbon. One of the prominent methods when it comes to technologies for negative emissions is BECCS/BECCU, Bio-Energy with Carbon Capture and Storage/Utilization. Sweden has been identified as a suitable country for implementation of BECCS in the near future, with high potential for negative emissions specifically in the pulp and paper industry.

In the project, a range of biofuel production tracks will be evaluated and compared regarding carbon, climate, and cost efficiency, with as well as without carbon dioxide capture followed by utilization (BECCU) or storage (BECCS). The aim is to produce a knowledge-based decision support regarding technology selection in the short as well as longer term regarding “future-proof” biofuels with production processes that don not “waste” biogenic carbon.

Facts

Manager
Elisabeth Wetterlund, Bio4Energy (LTU)

Contact
elisabeth.wetterlund@ltu.se

Participants
Erik Furusjö and Johanna Mossberg, RISE // Simon Harvey, Chalmers // Christian Hulteberg, SunCarbon // Peter Axegård, C-Green // Monica Normark, SEKAB // Conny Johansson, Stora Enso // Harri Heiskanen, Neste // Andreas Gundberg, Lantmännen Agroetanol // Ragnar Stare, Arvos Schmidsche-Schack GmbH

Time plan
July 2019 - December 2021

Total project cost
3 626 190 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, LTU, Arvos Schmidsche-Schack GmbH, C-Green, Lantmännen Agroetanol, Neste, SEKAB, Stora Enso and SunCarbon.

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
48363-1

Project Manager: Elisabeth Wetterlund

Collaborative research program  | Ongoing

KNOGA – Cost and risk distribution among key actors for defossilized long-haulage freight transports on road

In order to reach the Swedish climate goals of reducing greenhouse gas emissions from domestic transport by 70% by 2030,…

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In order to reach the Swedish climate goals of reducing greenhouse gas emissions from domestic transport by 70% by 2030, increased use of renewable energy is needed. This project aims to compare different fossil-independent systems (biofuels, electric roads, battery vehicles and fuel cells) for long-distance freight transport by road in terms of cost structures and risk distribution for different key actors.

The analysis is followed by a summary of greenhouse gas performance for the various renewable alternatives. Advantages and disadvantages, barriers and opportunities, as well as synergies between different solutions will also be highlighted.

The results of the study will constitute a basis for politicians, decision makers and industry showing where investments and policy instruments may be needed in order to implement renewable systems with large potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions at a faster rate.

Facts

Manager
Kristina Holmgren, VTI

Contact
kristina.holmgren@vti.se

Participants
Inge Vierth and Johanna Takman, VTI // Stefan Heyne, CIT Industriell Energi // Ingemar Magnusson and Monica Johansson, Volvo // Magnus Fröberg, Scania // Olov Petrén, E.on // Per-Arne Karlsson, St1

Time plan
August 2019 - February 2021

Total project cost
1 800 000 SEK

Funding
The Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, Volvo Technology, St1, Scania and E.on.

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
48353-1

The project has a reference group with members from relevant authorities and industry and commerce.

Project Manager: Kristina Holmgren

Collaborative research program  | Ongoing

Implications of electrifying municipal transportation systems: Regional consequences for biogas production

In many Swedish municipalities, current public transportation bus fleets are primarily fueled with renewable fuels. Nationally, recent figures show that…

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In many Swedish municipalities, current public transportation bus fleets are primarily fueled with renewable fuels. Nationally, recent figures show that they make up a share of nearly 86% of buses, primarely biofuels. The transition from fossil fuels has been pursued to achieve reductions in GHG emissions while also supporting Swedish biofuel production systems and regional industries. As a large number of sectors within Sweden attempt to “de-fossilize” the economy, electrification has been promoted as a potential pathway for the transportation sector.

While many popular science reports and media platforms present generally positive views regarding this development, the academic literature has yet to review the consequences of such transitions for incumbent regional renewable energy systems. Biogas systems are an important example of such. Implications for biogas systems of an e-transformation conceivably include a number of displacement effects within the regional economic system. Disruption of biogas systems can in turn affect biowaste valorization systems, employment, regional identity, and environmental sustainability, yet these are yet to be thoroughly addressed. There is thus also a potential to undermine a transition towards a bio-based and circular economy, where displacing biofuels in the transport system may actually fail to displace fossil fuel utilization, while also creating losses for society by stranding biogas infrastructure assets, and reducing society’s capacity to deal with bio-waste flows. There is a thus need to understand the broader systemic implications as electric transportation systems have been promoted primarily with positive expectations.

The aim of this project is to review the broader systemic implications of these choices on a regional perspective to understand the potential consequences of replacing developed biogas systems with electric bus transport systems, the political issues surrounding a shift to electrification, displacement effects and opportunities and implications for regional sustainability.

To start with, the project will review current discourse enfolding public transport electrification and the potential effects this will have on current renewable energy systems (e.g. among social stakeholders, media and academic literature). Thereafter, anticipated consequences will be reviewed and outlined, first by producing a mapping of the consequences, and second complementing this with an assessment of the socio-economic and environmental sustainability implications using qualitative and quantitative methods. The work will then examine the political issues surrounding a shift to electrification in inner cities and displacement of current biogas use.

Facts

Manager
Michael Martin, IVL

Contact
michael.martin@ivl.se

Participants
Sara Andersson, Anders Hjort and Åsa Romson, IVL // Philip Peck, Lund University

Time plan
September 2019 - October 2020

Total project cost
1 809 942 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, IVL, Biogas Öst AB, Energigas Sverige Service, Gasum AB, Innovatum AB, KTH, Linköping University, Power Circle AB, Ragn-Sells AB, Scania AB, Storstockholms lokaltrafik and Vattenfall AB.

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
48367-1

The project group also includes representatives from industry, the user side, researchers and decision makers.

Project Manager: Michael Martin

Collaborative research program  | Ongoing

Mitigating environmental impacts from biomass production by producing more biomass

Biomass resources are of major significance for the economy in many countries. Sweden has a very high proportion of bioenergy…

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Biomass resources are of major significance for the economy in many countries. Sweden has a very high proportion of bioenergy in its energy system and many companies are both using and producing bioenergy and other biobased products at small to large scales. The demand for land and biomass is expected to increase, as a growing and wealthier global population requires more food, paper, construction wood, etc. Additional biomass demand arises as countries, organizations and companies adopt policies, regulations and strategies aligned with visions about a biobased circular economy, which have been formulated in response to concerns about resource scarcity and a multitude of negative impacts associated with the use of fossil fuels and other non-renewable resources.

But compared with other renewable energy sources, bioenergy is often perceived as more complex. Considering the current international debate on sustainability aspects linked to bioenergy, it is essential to internationally highlight, for decision makers and politicians, good examples in policy as well as technology, to demonstrate the important contributions of bioenergy to sustainable energy supply. There is a need for more knowledge on how biomass production systems can be designed to enhance land use sustainability, and how such production systems can be implemented to support new, or replace existing, demands of biomass for food, feed, fiber, biofuels, and biomaterials.

This project creates, synthesizes, and disseminates new knowledge for society, academia, and industry on how increased biomass demands can be met while improving the overall land use sustainability. A first version of a GIS based analytical framework has been developed for indicating existing environmental impacts and the effectiveness for impact mitigation by strategic introduction of perennial crops into the landscape, in over 80 0000 individual sub-catchments in all 28 EU member countries. The project advances this research by extending the analytical framework at EU28 level, adapting it for application at a national scale for Sweden, and downscaling it for application with higher resolution and precision at the local level, for scenarios where green biorefineries, biogas plants, and CHP plants with production of bio-oil increase, and alter, the demand of biomass from the surrounding landscapes. This will provide new insights in how new, or different, biomass demands can be met while improving the overall land use sustainability.

Extensive dissemination is planned for a broad national and international audience.

Facts

Manager
Göran Berndes, Chalmers

Contact
goran.berndes@chalmers.se

Participants
Christel Cederberg, Chalmers // Oskar Englund, Englund GeoLab AB // Pål Börjesson, Lund University // , Mid Sweden University // , Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development - Utrecht University // , IINAS - International Institute for Sustainability Analysis and Strategy // , University of New England // , CBIO Aarhus University Centre for Circular Bioeconomy // , IEA Bioenergy Task 45 // , SLU // , EC JRC // , Ispra

Time plan
July 2019 - June 2021

Total project cost
1 978 134 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, Chalmers, Englund GeoLab AB and Lund University

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
48364-1

The project will include a Swedish stakeholder group with representatives from relevant industries, organiszations and agencies.

Project Manager: Göran Berndes

Collaborative research program  | Ongoing

Well-to-wheel LCI data for HVO fuels on the Swedish market

The objective of this project is improved data for LCA of fuels. The project is an update and addition to…

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The objective of this project is improved data for LCA of fuels. The project is an update and addition to earlier projects within f3, Well-to-wheel LCI data for fossil and renewable fuels on the Swedish market and Beyond LCI: Towards EPD-conforming LCAs for vehicle fuels.

The purpose of this third project has been to complement the life cycle inventory data presented in the previous projects with data on HVO, hydrogenated vegetable oil, with the goal to better reflect the current conditions on the Swedish fuel market. The project also highlights the importance of the method used in calculations for life cycle analysis, and how results can vary significantly depending on factors such as location of feedstock production and the properties of the production facility (technology, age etc.)

Facts

Manager
Albin Källmén, IVL

Contact
albin.kallmen@ivl.se

Participants
Simon Andersson, Tomas Rydberg, Felipe Oliveira and Mia Romare , IVL

Time plan
June 2017 - April 2019

Total project cost
250 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners, IVL and NTM (Network for Transport Measures)

Project Manager: Albin Källmén

f3 Project  | Finished | 2019-05-31

Sustainable transportation fuels – a techno-economic Well-to-Wheel analysis

Increased use of wood-based biofuels and electricity for transportation is singled out as a key part of the transition towards…

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Increased use of wood-based biofuels and electricity for transportation is singled out as a key part of the transition towards a fossil-free society and a fossil-independent transport sector. This study compares different biofuels, including electricity, as an energy carrier from a techno-economic WtW-perspective. Also key figures in the form of GHG emissions and energy efficiency  are included. The goal has been to produce results that show the transport efficiency for each biofuel in the form of SEK/km, kWh/km and CO2eq/km, and compare them with fossil alternatives. The project also adopts a producer perspective to show the conditions for profitable biofuel production.

Emphasis is placed on comparisons made with consistent assumptions for the studied value chains and on studying how changes in the different parameters affect the transport efficiency of the various alternatives. What limits the potential of the different options is also discussed.

Facts

Manager
Karin Pettersson, RISE

Contact
karin.pettersson@ri.se

Participants
Henrik Gåverud and Martin Gjörling, Sweco // Mårten Larsson, Lantmännen (earlier at Sweco) // Rickard Fornell, RISE // Peter Berglund Odhner, Skåne County Administrative Board (earlier at Sweco) // Eric Zinn, Göteborg Energi AB

Time plan
September 2016 - April 2019

Total project cost
1 429 856 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, RISE, Sweco Energiguide and Göteborg Energi AB

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
42404-1

A reference group has been connected to the project, consisting of members from E.on, Volvo and Svebio.

Project Manager: Karin Pettersson

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2019-04-29

f3 Annual reports

Here you can read and download annual reports, summarizing the acitivities within f3 during specific years. From 2018, the annual…

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Here you can read and download annual reports, summarizing the acitivities within f3 during specific years. From 2018, the annual report is written in Swedish. Contact the f3 office if you want to find out more about any content.

f3 Project  | 

Biogas in the transport sector – An actor and policy analysis

Biogas vehicles have been used for decades but nevertheless the biogas market is small. The aim of this project has…

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Biogas vehicles have been used for decades but nevertheless the biogas market is small. The aim of this project has been, firstly, to increase the knowledge about how to get actors to increase the transformation of their feedstock to biogas, and increase the use of biogas vehicles. Secondly, the project has aimed at investigating how to design policy instruments to foster such development. The basic question is: What can be done and by whom to foster a more rapid development of supply and use of biogas in the transport sector? Actors, i.e. present and potential feedstock suppliers, biogas producers and users of biogas vehicles, is the first main focus. The second focus is policy instruments, where biogas is one of many biofuels that can/should be supported.

The project is a case study of the Stockholm region and designed in a way that the results should be relevant also on the national level. The biogas market is viewed as a socio-technical system and the approach includes intensive contacts with the actors.

The results are published in a project report and two articles.

Facts

Manager
Stefan Grönkvist, KTH

Contact
stefangr@kth.se

Participants
Tomas Lönnqvist and Thomas Sandberg, KTH // Jonas Ammenberg och Stefan Anderberg, Linköping University // Jürgen Jacoby, Stockholm Gas

Time plan
July 2015 - December 2016

Total project cost
1 927 625 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, KTH and Stockholm Gas

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
39595-1

Project Manager: Stefan Grönkvist

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2019-03-05

Techno-economics of long and short term technology pathways for renewable transportation fuel production

Sweden has the ambition to have a fossil-free vehicle fleet by 2030. From a short-term perspective, biofuels are needed that…

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Sweden has the ambition to have a fossil-free vehicle fleet by 2030. From a short-term perspective, biofuels are needed that can be used in existing vehicles and infrastructure (identical to gasoline or diesel; drop-in fuels). The Swedish Energy Agency has in particular highlighted lignin based biofuels as a strategically prioritized area. From a longer time perspective focus is on high-blend or pure biofuels, due to energy and resource availability reasons. Examples are cellulose-based ethanol, or methane, methanol and DME produced via biomass gasification.

In this project, short and long-term technology tracks for integrated biofuel production are evaluated regarding techno-economic performance and technology readiness level. The analysis is made based on existing knowledge and on targets for production costs under given scenarios, from which acceptable investment costs and yields will be calculated. The results can be used to guide future R&D efforts.

The project has delivered two scientific publications and a detailed report, including analysis from all project scenarios. A concluding report in Swedish has also been produced.

Facts

Manager
Erik Furusjö, IVL

Contact
erik.furusjo@ivl.se

Participants
Elisabeth Wetterlund and Yawer Jafri, Bio4Energy (LTU) // Marie Anheden, Ida Kulander och Johan Wallinder, RISE Bioeconomy

Time plan
August 2016 - December 2017

Total project cost
1 488 868 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, IVL, LTU, RISE and Preem

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
42406-1

Project Manager: Erik Furusjö

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2019-02-22

Synthesizing LCA reports on transport fuels for heavy duty trucks

Road freight vehicles are key economy enablers, they are employed for the movements of goods, such as food, electronics or…

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Road freight vehicles are key economy enablers, they are employed for the movements of goods, such as food, electronics or raw material. Today’s road freight vehicles are mainly fuelled with die­sel and use a significant fraction of the global fossil oil production. Without further policy efforts, oil demand from road freight vehicles is projected to increase considerably. Measures to lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from road freight vehicles include the use of renewable fuels, electrifica­tion and the use of fuel cells. All of these alternatives seem viable for medium size distribution trucks, but for heavy duty long-haul trucks the possible alternatives to diesel are less clear.

Life cycle assessment (LCA) can be an important tool to guide policymakers and the direction of technology development. However, from the studies examined in this work, it was recognized that available LCA studies on road freight vehicles do not sufficiently support decision making. Most studies are limited, and therefore, results from different studies are difficult to compare and lead to different recommendations. Problems identified in present studies are the following:

  1. there is only a limited number of available reports on trucks
  2. the definition of the vehicle is unclear
  3. different ap­proaches and system boundaries are applied
  4. studies are focusing on the present situation and do not include future considerations.

Furthermore, available studies are typically limited by not includ­ing equipment life cycle, end of life, analysis of resource depletion and cost.

Since there is no simple solution to lower GHG emissions from heavy duty transport it seems obvious that more LCA studies should focus on this sector. Such studies should be complete and well-defined LCAs also including equipment life cycle and end of life. In addition, it is suggested that the analysis include availability of resources as well as incorporate costs. Finally, to bet­ter support decision making, also future developments of technologies and society needs to be con­sidered. Building long-term scenarios with zero net GHG emissions and where all material is recycled is particularly important to obtain fully sustainable heavy duty transport solutions.

Facts

Manager
Ingemar Magnusson, Volvo GTT

Contact
ingemar.magnusson@volvo.com

Participants
Isabel Cañete Vela and Henrik Thunman, Chalmers // Per Hanarp, Volvo GTT

Time plan
May - November 2017

Total project cost
250 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners and Volvo

Project Manager: Ingemar Magnusson

f3 Project  | Finished | 2018-09-29

Sustainable biofuels – critical review of current views and case studies using extended systems analysis providing new perspectives and positive examples

The project is a further development of ongoing research on sustainable bioenergy systems at the departments of Fysisk Resursteori (FRT,…

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The project is a further development of ongoing research on sustainable bioenergy systems at the departments of Fysisk Resursteori (FRT, Physical Resource Theory) and Miljö- och Energisystem (AMES, Environment and Energy Systems). The aim is to broaden and further develop systems research on biofuels and add new perspectives, as well as to critically examine and propose alternatives to the approaches, analyses and policy instruments that have shaped the bioenergy development in recent years. The focus is on sustainable land use and efficient use of primary biomass as well as waste and residue streams used as feedstock for biofuels and other high-value bioproducts.

The project also focuses on the increased integration of energy systems with other systems. Case studies are carried out in order to clarify positive opportunities associated with biofuels development, as well as to demonstrate how the conclusions of the systems studies may depend on choices of method and parameter assumptions that may be disputed.

The project has high ambitions regarding scientific publishing and also regarding communication with the business community and the political system, where the IEA Bioenergy and other networks are used for effective dissemination.

Facts

Manager
Göran Berndes, Chalmers

Contact
goran.berndes@chalmers.se

Participants
Pål Börjesson, Lund University // Oskar Englund and Olivia Cintas, Chalmers // , IEA Bioenergy Task 43 - Biomass Feedstocks for Energy Markets

Time plan
September 2015 - November 2017

Total project cost
1 903 133 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, Chalmers and Lund University

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
40774-1

Project Manager: Göran Berndes

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2018-09-27

Sustainable HVO production potential and environmental impact

Hydrogenated vegetable oil, HVO, is today the most important biofuel in Sweden. Despite Sweden’s rich assets on biomass, HVO is…

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Hydrogenated vegetable oil, HVO, is today the most important biofuel in Sweden. Despite Sweden’s rich assets on biomass, HVO is today produced from imported biomass mainly. This project helps to identify raw materials and estimate the potential of domestic and Nordic raw materials. The project aims to increase the knowledge about alternative sustainable raw materials and technologies for HVO production, with estimates of potentials. The project will also, together with the industry, identify the most promising raw materials and technologies and perform environmental systems analysis and techno-economic assessments of these.

Climate performance is calculated using the method in the EU Renewable Energy Directive (RED) and a broader method to show the significance of changes in the method of climate calculations in the regulatory framework.

The focus will be on raw materials that are present or can be produced in Nordic conditions.

Facts

Manager
Hanna Karlsson, SLU

Contact
hanna.e.karlsson@slu.se

Participants
Torun Hammar and Kajsa Henryson, SLU // Sofia Poulikidou, IVL // , Neste // , Preem AB

Time plan
January 2019 - December 2021 (extension)

Total project cost
1 303 628 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, SLU, IVL, Neste and Preem AB

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
46980-1

Project Manager: Hanna Karlsson

Collaborative research program  | Ongoing

Drop-in fuels from black liquor part streams – bridging the gap between short and long-term technology tracks

In this project we investigate possibilities to produce drop-in biofuels from a partial stream of the total black liquor (BL)…

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In this project we investigate possibilities to produce drop-in biofuels from a partial stream of the total black liquor (BL) in kraft pulp mills. Focus is on petrol components, which today has fewer options than renewable diesel, and can thus contribute to the transport system transition on relatively short term and within the reduction obligation system.

Different technology tracks are studied based on lignin liquefaction/hydrotreatment, and BL gasification/synthesis via methanol-to-gasoline. By using only a share of all BL, pulp mills with limited recovery capacity can increase the pulp production. We evaluate both the biofuel production (costs, greenhouse gases (GHG), production potential, technology maturity) and effects on the pulp production from debottlenecking the recovery boiler. Favourable results may increase the drivers for investment in pulp mill integrated production of biofuels with high GHG performance.

The project involves participants from both pulp and refinery industry.

Facts

Manager
Elisabeth Wetterlund, Bio4Energy (LTU)

Contact
elisabeth.wetterlund@ltu.se

Participants
Yawer Jafri and Fredrik Granberg, Bio4Energy (LTU) // Erik Furusjö, Johanna Mossberg and Karin Lindgren, RISE // Christian Hulteberg, SunCarbon AB // Klaas va der Vlist and Bo Johansson, Smurfit Kappa Kraftliner // Henrik Rådberg, Preem // Henric Dennergård, Södra

Time plan
September 2018 - June 2020

Total project cost
2 034 427 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, Bio4Energy (LTU), Preem AB, Smurfit Kappa, SunCarbon and Södra skogsägarna ekonomisk förening

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
46982-1

Project Manager: Elisabeth Wetterlund

Collaborative research program  | Ongoing

SunAlfa – System-oriented analysis of processes for renewable fuels form forest raw material

SunAlfa is a project aimed at quantifying key factors for the development and commercialization of production chains for biofuels from…

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SunAlfa is a project aimed at quantifying key factors for the development and commercialization of production chains for biofuels from forest raw materials based on hydrothermal wood liquefaction (bark, sawdust, GROT, etc.). Two systems for processing wood raw material into finished renewable automotive fuels will be analysed:

  1. Catalytic hydroprocessing (refinery mode or stand-alone)
  2. Gasification in suspension bed gasifier and synthesis gas upgrading to methanol/DME or Fischer Tropsch liquids

The project is focused on analysing the current processes at the system level from raw material to final product and aims to highlight environmental and sustainability aspects and techno-economic conditions for commercialization.

Facts

Manager
Christer Gustavsson, BioShare AB

Contact
x-scientia@outlook.com

Participants
Christian Stigsson, Pål Börjesson, Ola Wallberg and Christian Hulteberg, Lund University // Erik Furusjl, RISE

Time plan
Septe,ber 2018 - December 2020

Total project cost
3 600 000 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, Kiram AB, Lund University and RISE

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
46969-1

Project Manager: Christer Gustavsson

Collaborative research program  | Ongoing

Long-term sustainability evaluation of fossil free fuels production concepts

The development of fossil free fuels will take place in a situation with successively, probably radical, changing conditions regarding surrounding…

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The development of fossil free fuels will take place in a situation with successively, probably radical, changing conditions regarding surrounding energy system, energy prices and policy instruments. This means that the conditions economically and environmentally for fossil free fuel concepts will not be the same as today. There is therefore a strong need for methods dealing with economic and environmental consequences for new bio-based fuel concepts in different future scenarios.

In this project, ongoing developments generally in this area and especially in three Swedish research groups from LTU, LU and Chalmers are analyzed and compared and possible combinations of methods identified. In addition to the project report, the project will result in a review paper with the aim to be an important contribution to the need for a firm knowledge base for decision-making about biofuel developments in industry as well as in policy-making.

Facts

Manager
Simon Harvey, Chalmers

Contact
simon.harvey@chalmers.se

Participants
Åsa Kastensson and Joakim Lundgren, Bio4Energy (LTU) // Pål Börjesson, Lund University // Matty Janssen, Chalmers

Time plan
September 2016 - March 2018

Total project cost
1 200 923 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, Chalmers, Luleå University of Technology and Lund University

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
42402-1

Project Manager: Simon Harvey

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2018-08-21

Prospects for renewable marine fuels

In order to reduce the environmental and climate impact of shipping, in the short and long term, the introduction of…

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In order to reduce the environmental and climate impact of shipping, in the short and long term, the introduction of alternative fuels is required. The International Maritime Organization, IMO, state that GHG emissions should be reduced with 50 % until 2050, compared to 2008. Since other measures are not enough increasing the use of alternative fuels with low emission rates is necessary. However, more knowledge is needed on potential alternative marine fuels. The overall aim of this project has been to assess the role of renewable fuels in the shipping sector and to contribute with scientifically based decision support for the choice of renewable fuels to industry, policy makers and other actors.

The project consists of three parts: a synthesis of knowledge on alternative marine fuels and the current activities by different actors, an assessment of factors influencing the choice of marine fuel, and a multi-criteria analysis of selected alternative marine fuels that consider technical, environmental and economic aspects. Results are presented in a summary report and a scientific article.

Facts

Manager
Julia Hansson, IVL

Contact
julia.hansson@ivl.se

Participants
Stina Månsson and Erik Fridell, IVL // Selma Brynolf, Karin Andersson and Maria Grahn, Chalmers

Time plan
September 2016 - December 2017

Total project cost
1 385 000 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, IVL and Chalmers

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
42403-1

A reference group has supported the project, inclulding members from Stena Line, Preem, Wallenius Marine, Energigas Sverige, Wärtsilä, Swedish Transport Administration, Swedish Maritime Administration, The Maritime Cluster of West Sweden, Swedish Energy Agency and SSPA.

Project Manager: Julia Hansson

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2018-06-18

Prospects for renewable LBG in Sweden in 2030

The interest for renewable liquid methane as a fuel for heavy duty road and marine transports has risen in Sweden…

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The interest for renewable liquid methane as a fuel for heavy duty road and marine transports has risen in Sweden as well as in the EU as a whole, referring to its’ tehnology readiness level, and the relatively large climate benefits and high energy density. One example of this is the discussion on possibilities of replacing liquid natural gas (LNG) with liquid biogas (LBG) in a longer time perspective.

This project aims at studying the possibilities with LBG in Sweden, focusing on the year 2030. The project will map the possibilities for LBG production in Sweden and compare them with scenarios regarding the predicted demand. Creating a better understanding of the conditions for LBG as an alternative fuel for heavy duty vehicles and ships, the project aims to answer the quesion of what a realistic level of contribution of LBG in Sweden in 2030 is.

The project complements an earlier project that broadly studied the prospects for renewable transportation fuels in Sweden, but without any specific focus on LBG, whish is the focis of this new project. There are also connections to three projects within the f3 and Swedish Energy Agency collaborative research program Renewable transportion fuels and systems and one f3 project:

  • Methane as vehicle fuel – a gate-to-wheel study (METDRIV)
  • Prospects for renewable marine fuels
  • Biogas in the transport sector – An actor and policy analysis
  • How can forest-derived methane complement biogas from anaerobic digestion in the Swedish transport sector? (f3 project)

The project report is written in Swedish with a short summary in English.

Facts

Manager
Anders Hjort, IVL

Contact
anders.hjort@ivl.se

Participants
Julia Hansson and Tomas Lönnqvist, IVL

Time plan
June 2018 - May 2019

Total project cost
250 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners and IVL

Project Manager: Anders Hjort

f3 Project  | Finished | 2018-06-01

An innovation policy framework and policy options for the development of biorefineries

This project investigates how different policy instruments contribute to the commercialization of future biorefineries and the production of renewable transport…

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This project investigates how different policy instruments contribute to the commercialization of future biorefineries and the production of renewable transport fuels in combination with other products. The project goals include: (i) a synthesis of existing international knowledge on policy instruments targeting innovation, up-scaling and deployment of new technology with a focus on biorefinery technologies and renewable transport fuels; (ii) the development of an innovation policy framework that can be used to analyze how different types of policy instruments contribute to R&D, up-scaling and the diffusion of mature technologies; and (iii) an assessment of potential policy options from a Swedish perspective. To promote innovation and industrial capacity all three above-mentioned phases of technological development need to be stimulated. In Sweden, there is a lack of policy instruments for scaling up innovative technology and for the further diffusion of more mature technology.

Facts

Manager
Hans Hellsmark, Chalmers

Contact
hans.hellsmark@chalmers.se

Participants
Julia Hansson and Tomas Lönnqvist, IVL // Patrik Söderholm, Bio4Energy (LTU)

Time plan
September 2016 - December 2017

Total project cost
1 529 350 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, IVL, LTU, Perstorp, Preem, Göteborg Energi AB and Lantmännen

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
42394-1

Project Manager: Hans Hellsmark

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2018-05-14

Methanol production via black liquor gasification with expanded raw material base

Effective utilization of by-products of biochemical fuel production is crucial for its development and there is a need to expand…

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Effective utilization of by-products of biochemical fuel production is crucial for its development and there is a need to expand the raw material base for black liquor gasification. These are the reasons for this projects’ aims to environmentally and techno-economically evaluate co-gasification of black liquor and by-products of biochemical fuel production (glycerol and fermentation residues) and pyrolysis of forest residues for the production of bio-methanol. The Swedish technical production potential of two different grades of methanol (crude methanol and grade AA) via the production chains will also be assessed.

The project complements two currently ongoing research projects at Luleå University of Technology where experimental studies regarding blending of the above materials in black liquor are carried out.

Facts

Manager
Joakim Lundgren, Bio4Energy (LTU)

Contact
joakim.lundgren@ltu.se

Participants
Lara Carvalho and Elisabeth Wetterlund, Bio4Energy (LTU) // Erik Furusjö, IVL and Bio4Energy (LTU) // Johanna Olofsson and Pål Börjesson, Lund University // Golnar Azimi, Perstorp Bioproducts AB

Time plan
August 2015 - October 2017

Total project cost
1 387 000 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, Bio4Energy, Lund University and Perstorp

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
40759-1

Project Manager: Joakim Lundgren

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2018-05-09

Electrolysis and electro-fuels in the Swedish chemical and biofuel industry: a comparison of costs and climate benefits

To reach the national goals of a fossil-independent vehicle fleet by 2030, a 100 % renewable power production by 2040…

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To reach the national goals of a fossil-independent vehicle fleet by 2030, a 100 % renewable power production by 2040 and a climate neutral society by 2045, it is essential that the production of renewa­ble fuels, the de-fossilisation of Swedish industry at large scale and the development of a more flexible electrical system including large-scale storage now gain momentum. One way that could contribute partly to an electrical system in balance and partly to an increased production of renewable substances, is to utilise the increasing access of renewable, low cost electricity for electrolysing water into hydrogen – so-called electro-hydrogen – and oxygen.

Renewable electro-hydrogen can be used as energy storage or as fuel in for example fuel cell vehicles, but may have its outmost potential in processes that replace fossil feedstock and/or energy carriers in various industrial processes such as steel, chemical and biofuel production. Furthermore, the electro-hydrogen can be used to bind larger CO2 emissions from e.g. biogas plants, steel or cement industry and via so-called electro-fuel processes (sometimes also called power-to-gas or power-to-fuel) generate valuable products such as methane and methanol in a circular economy. The different applications have different degrees of maturity, but are generally still far from a broad commercial penetration.

The aim of this project has been to provide a public, easily accessible summary of the conditions re­quired for electro-hydrogen to be considered as a viable alternative for de-fossilising various industrial sectors in Sweden. The analysis is based on a number of case studies focused on the Swe­dish chemical and biofuel industry and having the Swedish cement and steel industry as references for comparison of the demand for electro-hydrogen.

Facts

Manager
Anna-Karin Jannasch, RISE

Contact
anna-karin.jannasch@ri.se

Participants
Maria Grahn, Chalmers // Mattias Backmark and Linda Werner, Preem // Anna Berggren, Perstorp // Charlotte Lorentzen, Ecobränsle // Magnus Lundqvist, Swerea Mefos // Mikael Nordlander, Vattenfall // Mathias Thorén and Jonas Larsson, SSAB // Bodil Wilhelmsson, Cementa

Time plan
May - November 2017

Total project cost
250 000 SEK

Funding
RISE and Chalmers. The project has received external funding from the Chalmers and Preem Industrial Collaboration.

Project Manager: Anna-Karin Jannasch

f3 Project  | Finished | 2018-05-08

Transportation fuels from lignocellulose in a process combination

The continuous evaluation of business opportunities for Agroetanol has identified a patented pro­cess combination for the production of second-generation transportation…

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The continuous evaluation of business opportunities for Agroetanol has identified a patented pro­cess combination for the production of second-generation transportation fuels. According to previ­ous evaluations, this combination could produce such fuels from wood and straw at cost levels comparable to the present costs for first-generation fuels.

The overall process combines existing techniques and no basic R&D is required. Together with the dedicated production of transportation fuels without by-products and a minimum of waste product handling, this has prompted a joint study with the patent holder. The objective of the study is to evaluate the possibilities for the establishment of a demonstration unit at Agroetanol’s ethanol plant at Händelö.

Facts

Manager
Anders Holmbom, Lantmännen

Contact
anders.holmbom@lantmannen.com

Participants
Anders Östman, Cellolose Fuels

Time plan
June - September 2017

Total project cost
247 500 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners, Lantmännen and Cellulose Fuels

Project Manager: Anders Holmbom

f3 Project  | Finished | 2018-05-07

Gasification-based biofuels – Greenhouse gas emissions and profitability analysis with general and sector-specific policy instruments

Gasification-based biofuel production systems have a large potential to contribute to climate change mitigation in the transport sector. The commercial…

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Gasification-based biofuel production systems have a large potential to contribute to climate change mitigation in the transport sector. The commercial feasibility of renewable energy technol­ogies is affected by fossil fuel prices, the price of biomass and policy instruments, for example a cost for carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e).

The aim of this project has been to analyze and quantify the level of a sector specific greenhouse gas (GHG) emission cost (per CO2e) in transport required for making gasification-based biofuel pro­duction systems profitable under different future energy market scenarios. The analysis of the gasification-based systems builds upon the earlier work by the project participants and includes production systems of synthetic natural gas (SNG), methanol and Fischer-Tropsch fuels. The future energy market scenarios are based on the fossil fuel prices in the ”New Policy Scenario” and ”450 ppmv Scenario” presented in World Energy Outlook 2016. The project analysis also includes a comparison of the profitability and GHG emission re­duction potential from the gasification-based systems to systems where the same amount of bio­mass is used in conventional conversion technologies to produce electricity and where the electrici­ty is used in battery electric vehicles.

The results show that the level of the sector specific CO2e cost required to make the gasification-based systems profitable is not higher than the current level of CO2 tax in Swedish transport sector. Also, the results show that the systems where the biomass is used for electricity production and in BEV have higher profitability than the gasification-based systems. However, the electricity-based systems have a stronger dependency on heat sinks and a high price for delivered heat.

Facts

Manager
Kristina Holmgren, earlier at IVL

Contact
kristina.holmgren@vti.se

Participants
Tomas Lönnqvist, IVL // Thore Berntsson, Chalmers

Time plan
May 2016 - November 2017

Total project cost
250 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners and IVL. Additional funding has been provided by Göteborg Energi foundation for research and development.

Project Manager: Kristina Holmgren

f3 Project  | Finished | 2018-04-19

Integrated assessment of vehicle fuels with sustainability LCA – Social and environmental impacts in a life cycle perspective

The sustainability of biofuels for transport is often expressed as their possibility to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions compared to…

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The sustainability of biofuels for transport is often expressed as their possibility to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions compared to conventional fossil fuels. But the production and use of transport fuel s also result in other environmental impact and social/socioeconomic consequences.

This project has aimed at a Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA) for transport fuels based on different life cycle methods. An LCSA integrates environmental, social and economic aspects in one analysis. The project is a continuation of a previous project.

The targets of this new project have been to

  • deepen the analysis of social impact for the 3-4 fuel chains with high risks in the earlier project
  • try to integrate positive and negative social aspects
  • further develop the LCSA methodology and apply this on transport fuels
  • discuss the importance for policy development in the area.

Facts

Manager
Elisabeth Ekener, KTH

Contact
elisabeth.ekener@abe.kth.se

Participants
Julia Hansson, Mathias Gustavsson, Jacob Lindberg, Felipe Oliveira and Jonathan Wranne, IVL // Philip Peck, Lund University (IIIEE) // Aron Larsson, Stockholm University

Time plan
September 2014 - September 2016

Total project cost
1 997 500 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, KTH, IVL and Lund University

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
39120-1

Project Manager: Elisabeth Ekener

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2018-03-14

Vehicles and infrastructure for heavy long-haul transports fueled by electricity and hydrogen

A lot of research, development and demonstration efforts are directed towards electric roads and fuel cell vehicles and two of…

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A lot of research, development and demonstration efforts are directed towards electric roads and fuel cell vehicles and two of the major demonstration projects worldwide are situated in Sweden: Sandviken and Arlanda. This projects provides an updated view of the technical and economic devel­opment for long-haul road transports fuelled by electricity and hydrogen in a Swedish context. Several main actors involved in the electric road system technologies in the Swedish projects have been interviewed, as well as heavy vehicle manufacturers and hydrogen fuel suppliers.

Three different types of electric road systems – overhead conductive, rail conductive and dynamic inductive – have been studied together with fuel cells. Estimates for the present and future energy, vehicle and infrastructure costs have been derived from literature sources. Some adaptations and assumptions have been made for possible comparisons to the costs of conventional long-haul diesel lorries.

In the beginning of the considered time period (2017 to 2030), the vehicle costs of the new technol­ogies, especially for the fuel cell vehicles, were found to be much higher than for conventional diesel vehicles. Towards the end of this period, the differences were not as significant according to the cost projections. The infrastructure costs of the electric road systems were found to be high and the costs of the dynamic inductive solutions were the highest.

Facts

Manager
Stefan Grönkvist, KTH

Contact
stefangr@kth.se

Participants
Francesca Sartini, University of Pisa // Magnus Fröberg, Scania

Time plan
May 2016 - November 2017

Total project cost
233 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners, KTH and Scania

Project Manager: Stefan Grönkvist

f3 Project  | Finished | 2018-03-12

Knowledge synthesis on new value chains by thermochemical conversion of digestate for increased biofuel production in Sweden

To be able to replace fossil fuels with second-generation biofuels and reach the goal of a fossil-fuel independent vehicle fleet…

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To be able to replace fossil fuels with second-generation biofuels and reach the goal of a fossil-fuel independent vehicle fleet in 2030, it is important to utilize the raw material that today is digested more efficiently. The purpose of this project has been to investigate if residuals from biochemical conversion can be used as raw material, in a techno-economical way, for gasification for the production of biofuels, and if there are gaps in knowledge on this issue.

The value chain covered by the project includes the sub-steps digestate-digestate treatment-gasification-handling of ashes. The project’s aim has been to provide Swedish industry and government with a basis for evaluating if digestate from biogas production can be gasified and which values the suggested value chain can result in, compared to how the digestate and its corresponding value chain looks like today.

Photo: freeimages.com/Mihai Caliseriu

Facts

Manager
Anna-Karin Jannasch, RISE

Contact
anna-karin.jannasch@ri.se

Participants
Kent Davidsson and Sudhansu Pawar, RISE // Mikael Lantz, Lund University

Time plan
January - December 2017

Total project cost
500 000 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, RISE and Lund University

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
43682-1

Project Manager: Anna-Karin Jannasch

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2018-02-27

Marine feedstock based biofuels and ecosystem services

Climate change mitigation is prioritized in numerous national and international policy decisions and action plans, particularly in relation to the…

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Climate change mitigation is prioritized in numerous national and international policy decisions and action plans, particularly in relation to the transportation sector. Renewable energy sources are considered sustainable alternatives to the use of fossil fuels. Marine feedstocks like algae and sea squirts are depicted as interesting alternatives to more traditional biofuels produced from forest residues or agricultural crops; not competing with food and requiring less land area. However, prior to full-scale production, an all-embracing sustainability assessment is needed, screening possible impacts of marine-based biofuel production. For this, there is a need to identify the different ecosystem services affected.

This project has aimed at identifying and describing ecosystem services and appropriate indicators that are affected by production of marine feedstock based biofuels in Sweden.

Facts

Manager
Karin Hansen, earlier at IVL

Contact
karin.hansen@naturvardsverket.se

Participants
Karin Hansen, Roman Hackl, Anna-Sara Krång and Julia Hansson, IVL // Susanne Ekendahl och Johan Engelbrektsson, RISE

Time plan
January - December 2017

Total project cost
517 975 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, f3 partners, IVL and RISE

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
43679-1

Project Manager: Karin Hansen

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2018-02-15

Phosphorus recovery in algae-based biofuels

Replacing fossil fuels with sustainable fuel from biomass requires both innovative technological solutions and a feedstock that does not put…

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Replacing fossil fuels with sustainable fuel from biomass requires both innovative technological solutions and a feedstock that does not put too much strain on food production and land use. Hy­drothermal liquefaction, HTL, is a technology for producing biofuels that has been gathering increasing interest, and by using seaweed (macroalgae) as a feedstock it is a promising option that fulfils both previously mentioned criteria. Using macroalgae has the added benefit of remediating eutrophic coastal waters since the macroalgae during marine cultivation absorb some of the excess nutrients from the surroundings.

The main culprit in eutrophication is phosphorus, which is primarily used in fertilizers and ends up in the environment from agricultural runoff. After the HTL of the macroalgae, the phosphorus can be recovered and used to produce struvite, a natural fertilizer that can replace the conventional mineral fertilizer.

The purpose of this study has been iden­tify profitable and environmentally friendly technological solutions connecting phosphorous recov­ery with macroalgae processed with HTL and at the same time diver­sify the products outcome of biofuel production.

The project consisted of a comprehensive analysis of available phosphorus recovery technologies through a literature review and citation network analysis as well as modelling of one phosphorus recovery technology. Three different options of the chosen phosphorus recovery were assessed where the economic performance was evaluated by comparing the operating cost for the different options and the environmental im­pact was evaluated by comparing cumulative energy demand (CED), global warming potential (GWP) and eco-indicator99 (EI99).

Facts

Manager
Stavros Papadokonstantakis, Chalmers

Contact
stavros.papakonstantakis@chalmers.se

Participants
Andrea Gambardella, Johan Askmar and Yiyu Ding, Chalmers

Time plan
May - November 2017

Total project cost
250 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners and Chalmers

Project Manager: Stavros Papadokonstantakis

f3 Project  | Finished | 2018-02-05

Determination of potential improvements in bio-oil production (ImprOil)

An important route for renewable transportation fuels is to produce bio-oil from forest raw material through e.g. fast pyrolysis, which…

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An important route for renewable transportation fuels is to produce bio-oil from forest raw material through e.g. fast pyrolysis, which is then upgraded to fuel at an existing refinery. The oxygen content of the produced crude bio-oil determins the hydrogen demand to reduce the oxygen content to the required level from a refinery perspective and for use in engines. The H2 demand affects, in turn, the cost and the associated CO2 emissions of the bio-oil, as they are, to a large degree a result of the production route for hydrogen. This has been shown in an earlier project, Value chains for production of renewable transportation fuels using intermediates.

The purpose of this project has been to investigate alternative technologies that result in a lower oxygen content of the produced crude bio-oil, and alternative routes for production of hydrogen with a lower climate impact than hydrogen from natural gas. The different combined production routes is compared with respect to total cost, CO2-footprint, conversion yield and energy efficiency.

Facts

Manager
Marie Anheden, Formerly RISE

Contact
ida.kulander@ri.se

Participants
Ida Kulander, Karin Pettersson and Johan Wallinder, RISE // Lennart Wamling, Chalmers // Carl-Johan Hjerpe and Malin Fugelsang, ÅF Industri AB // Åsa Håkansson, Preem AB

Time plan
September 2016 - December 2017

Total project cost
1 405 000

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, Åf Industri AB and Preem

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
39587-2

Project Manager: Marie Anheden

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2018-01-26

Biofuels and ecosystem services

Climate change mitigation is high on the agenda in numerous national and international policy decisions and action plans, particularly in…

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Climate change mitigation is high on the agenda in numerous national and international policy decisions and action plans, particularly in relation to the transportation sector. Renewable energy sources are pointed out as sustainable alternatives to the use of fossil fuels. However, an all-embracing assessment of different environmental and social aspects related to fuel production is required in order to draw conclusions about the sustainability of different fuel options. In this context, an in-depth knowledge of the different ecosystem services affected is needed.

This project aims at fulfilling knowledge gaps by identifying and describing ecosystem services and their appropriate indicators which affect and are affected by biofuel production in Sweden. The aim has furthermore been to propose a conceptual framework to include ecosystem services in decision-making, in close collaboration with biofuel sector stakeholders.

Facts

Manager
Karin Hansen, earlier at IVL

Contact
julia.hansson@ivl.se

Participants
Julia Hansson, IVL // Danielle Maia de Souza, SLU // Gabriela Russo Lopes, Stockholm University

Time plan
August 2015 - September 2016

Total project cost
900 275 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, IVL and SLU

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
40770-1

Project Manager: Karin Hansen

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2018-01-17

Biofuels from biomass from agricultural land – land use change from a Swedish perspective

An international debate is taking place on indirect land use change (iLUC) triggered by biofuels, which could lead to large…

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An international debate is taking place on indirect land use change (iLUC) triggered by biofuels, which could lead to large emissions of greenhouse gases. The EU is expected to shortly decide about future subsidies and restrictions on the use of crops that, according to EU, can cause iLUC. Studies of iLUC caused by Swedish biofuel production are, however, lacking.

The purpose of this project has been to investigate how Swedish biofuels affect the use of land and also to study measures to minimize the risk of iLUC and trade-offs to sustainability in biomass production. The project was implemented in five parts:

  1. Literature review of iLUC models
  2. Analysis of land use statistics in Sweden
  3. Development of future scenarios for biofuels with a low risk of iLUC
  4. Case studies for the production of biofuels
  5. Development of advice to decision makers.

A summary in Swedish of background facts and conclusions based on two scientific articles (one published, the other forthcoming) has been published by Lund University in October 2017.

Facts

Manager
Serina Ahlgren, earlier at SLU

Contact
serina.ahlgren@ri.se

Participants
Lovisa Björnsson and Mikael Lantz, Lund University // Thomas Prade, SLU

Time plan
September 2015 - August 2017

Total project cost
2 619 607 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, SLU, Lund University, E.on, Lantmännen, Swedish Biogas International, Energigas Sverige, Partnership Alnarp and LRF (The Federation of Swedish Farmers)

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
40584-1

Project Manager: Serina Ahlgren

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2018-01-17

Comparison of diesel and gas distribution trucks – a life cycle assessment case study

This work presents a life cycle assessment (LCA) of a distribution truck for urban applications, with either a diesel or…

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This work presents a life cycle assessment (LCA) of a distribution truck for urban applications, with either a diesel or otto engine using different fossil and bio-based fuels. Impact of electrifica­tion is also briefly discussed. The impact assessment is done with both CO2-equivalent emissions and envi­ronmental damage cost assessment, using the Environmental Priority Strategy methodology (EPS) to provide impact on different perspectives and times when it comes to sustainability evaluation. This somewhat broader perspective, compared to conventional well-to-wheel analyses, can give better understanding of different environmental risks in technology development choices.

Facts

Manager
Per Hanarp, Volvo GTT

Contact
per.hanarp@volvo.com

Participants
Mia Romare, Volvo GTT

Time plan
September - December 2017

Total project cost
174 000 SEK

Funding
Volvo GTT

Project Manager: Per Hanarp

f3 Project  | Finished | 2018-01-10

Evaluation of biofuel production costs in relation to the new reduction obligation quota system

In the year 2017, the Swedish government proposed to introduce a reduction obligation for trans­portation fuel distributors. This would imply…

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In the year 2017, the Swedish government proposed to introduce a reduction obligation for trans­portation fuel distributors. This would imply an obligation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from fossil petrol and diesel through a gradual increased share of biofuels. The aim is to create im­proved conditions for phasing out fossil fuels through an increased proportion of biofuels with good greenhouse gas performance in a lifecycle perspective. The reduction obligation also means that not only production cost determines the overall economic performance of a biofuel production route, but also the greenhouse gas emissions. This is due to that biofuels with low greenhouse gas emissions can be blended in lower volumes than biofuels with worse greenhouse gas performance.

The main objectives of this work were partly to illustrate how the greenhouse gas performance of different biofuels relates to their economic value in the new reduction obligation system and partly to compare the resulting cost of greenhouse gas reduction for different types of biofuels.

The results show that of the biofuels available on the market today, the lowest reduction costs were obtained for biogas produced via digestion of waste as well as for sugarcane-based ethanol. Bio­diesel based on rapeseed oil results in the highest reduction costs. Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO) is currently produced from a large variety of feedstocks and thus results in a large reduction cost range, mainly due to the cost and greenhouse gas performance of the feedstock.

Emerging biofuels, so-called advanced biofuels, have the potential to achieve lower reduction costs than many of them produced via today’s production chains. This applies primarily to biofuels pro­duced by thermochemical conversion such as pyrolysis followed by refinery-integrated upgrading and gasification-based technology. However, in the cases where hydrogen is required for upgrading of liquids from pyrolysis or lignin polymerization, there are major cost reduction uncertainties, largely due to the origin of the hydrogen.

The project report is written in Swedish.

Project Manager: Erik Furusjö

f3 Project  | Finished | 2017-12-20

BeWhere – Stake-holder analysis of biofuel production in Sweden

Sweden has set ambitious targets for conversion to a fossil-free transportation sector. Advanced, so-called second generation, biofuels are an important…

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Sweden has set ambitious targets for conversion to a fossil-free transportation sector. Advanced, so-called second generation, biofuels are an important factor in order to achieve this. Large-scale production of biofuels from, for example, forest biomass involves a number of challenges related to geographical aspects, transportation, and integration with existing industries and energy systems.

In this project, which is a continuation of two previous projects (Optimal localisation of second generation biofuel production in Sweden part I and part II, the geographical location model BeWhere Sweden is used. The objective of the project has been to demonstrate and validate the model’s usefulness for relevant stakeholders, and to use the model to examine barriers and drivers for the implementation of new large-scale biofuel production in Sweden. To provide a more comprehensive representation of the prospects for biofuel production, the model is also complemented with agriculture-based biofuels.

Facts

Manager
Elisabeth Wetterlund, Bio4Energy (LTU)

Contact
elisabeth.wetterlund@ltu.se

Participants
Robert Lundmark och Joakim Lundgren, Bio4Energy (LTU) // Magdalena Fallde, Linköping University // Karin Pettersson and Johan Torén, SP (RISE) // Johanna Olofsson and Pål Börjesson, Lund University // Marie Anheden and Valeria Lundberg, Innventia (RISE) // Dimitris Athanassiadis, Bio4Energy (SLU) // Erik Dotzauer, Fortum // Björn Fredriksson-Möller, E.on // Lars Lind, Perstorp // Marlene Mörtsell, SEKAB

Time plan
September 2014 - October 2017

Total project cost
2 205 000 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, Bio4Energy (LTU + SLU), Linköping University, Lunds University, Chalmers, SP, Innventia, Chemrec, Sekab, Perstorp and E.on

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
39118-1

Project Manager: Elisabeth Wetterlund

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2017-11-08

FOCUS ON: Renewable transportation fuels – from technologic potential to practical use in society

It is beyond doubt that human activity affects the climate. Emissions of greenhouse gases have increased since the beginning of…

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It is beyond doubt that human activity affects the climate. Emissions of greenhouse gases have increased since the beginning of industrialization, and the atmospheric levels of the most important greenhouse gases, carbon dioxode, methane and nitrous oxide, are higher than ever. In order to halt, and, in the long run, turn the development towards a warmer climate around, greenhouse gas emissions need to decrease drastically. Both a decreased use of energy as well as a transition to renewable energy will be needed.

Focus On  | 

Barriers to an increased utilisation of high biofuel blends in the Swedish vehicle fleet

The aim of the Swedish government is a fossil fuel-free vehicle fleet to 2030. In order to meet future environmental…

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The aim of the Swedish government is a fossil fuel-free vehicle fleet to 2030. In order to meet future environmental goals and reduce the dependence on fossil fuels, high biofuel blends, such as ethanol and biogas, will likely be a substantial part of the fleet.

The aim of this project has been to develop a better understanding of the barriers that currently exists for an increased use of high blend ethanol (especially E85) and ethanol vehicles and by ex­tension other similar vehicle using high biofuel blends. This knowledge is important to provide decision makers with data and recommendations for which incentives and regulations must be created to be able to increase the use of high biofuel blends in Sweden.

Facts

Manager
Åsa Kastensson, earlier at Bio4Energy (LTU)

Contact
asa.kastensson@vattenfall.com

Participants
Pål Börjesson, Lund University // Joakim Lundgren, Bio4Energy (LTU) // Per Erlandsson, Lantmännen

Time plan
January 2015 - January 2017

Total project cost
1 927 119 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, Bio4Energy, Lund University and Lantmännen

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
39584-1

Project Manager: Åsa Kastensson

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2017-10-16

Methanol as a renewable fuel – a knowledge synthesis

Methanol use in various applications is on the raise globally and there are several examples on how methanol is used…

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Methanol use in various applications is on the raise globally and there are several examples on how methanol is used in the transport sector today. The main reasons to go the methanol route are that the production is comparably efficient and cost-ef­fective, and that use of methanol is carried out without noticeable problems. There are also several examples of where methanol as fuel is under advanced testing in various, sometimes novel, types of engines.

This project has aimed at creating a knowledge synthesis with a long-term perspective on the following:

  • earlier and current motivation to use or not to use methanol as an alternative fuel
  • experiences gained from earlier periods of methanol usage
  • reasons to why interest to use methanol as an automo­tive fuel has shifted through the past decades

The goal is to look forward and address methanol’s potential role as energy carrier/motor fuel in Sweden (and elsewhere).

Facts

Manager
Ingvar Landälv, Bio4Energy (LTU)

Contact
ingvar.landalv@ltu.se

Total project cost
250 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners

Project Manager: Ingvar Landälv

f3 Project  | Finished | 2017-09-18

Fresh and stored crops – a new way to organize all-year substrate supply for a biogas plant

Arable crops account for a large proportion of the identified potential for increased biogas production in Sweden. This project can contribute to…

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Arable crops account for a large proportion of the identified potential for increased biogas production in Sweden. This project can contribute to a better understanding of how crops can be used with lower costs.

The project has investigated if the substrate cost can be reduced by organizing the substrate supply in a new way, using both fresh and ensiled (stored) crops. The project has been conducted in cooperation with the Swedish biogas producer Gasum AB (formerly Swedish Biogas International, SBI) and contains two case studies based on the Gasum AB facilities in Örebro and Jordberga that has analyzed how fresh and stored crops should best be combined to minimize the cost. The analysis has been done by cost calculations and an improved optimization model for substrate supply during different times of the year.

Facts

Manager
Carina Gunnarsson, JTI (SP)

Contact
carina.gunnarsson@ri.se

Participants
Håkan Rosenqvist, JTI (SP) // Anneli Ahlström, Gasum AB // David Ljungberg, Thomas Prade and Sven-Erik Svensson, SLU

Time plan
July 2014 - March 2017

Total project cost
1 686 976 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, JTI (SP), Gasum AB and SLU

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
39122-1

Project Manager: Carina Gunnarsson

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2017-08-30

Industrial symbiosis and biofuels industry

Industrial symbiosis involves collaborations among diverse, and predominantly local and re­gional, actors that create additional economic and environmental value through…

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Industrial symbiosis involves collaborations among diverse, and predominantly local and re­gional, actors that create additional economic and environmental value through by-product ex­changes, utility and service sharing, and joint innovations. While the importance of Industrial symbiosis for the de­velopment of biofuels is commonly recognised hypothetically, this study aims at advancing under­standing of the actual contribution provided in two real life examples–one focusing on grain-based ethanol production and the other focusing on biogas production in a co-digestion unit.

Moreover, this study highlights the importance of organisational factors that help shape, and explain relevant organizational and inter-organizational behaviour relevant for emergence and development of suc­cessful symbiotic partnerships – here referred to as “social determinants”.

Facts

Manager
Murat Mirata, Linköping University

Contact
murat.mirata@liu.se

Participants
Mats Eklund, Linköping University // Andreas Gundberg, Lantmännen Agroetanol AB

Time plan
January - August 2017

Total project cost
150 000 SEK

Funding
Linköping University and Lantmännen

Project Manager: Murat Mirata

f3 Project  | Finished | 2017-08-23

B100 (Biodiesel)

Faktabladet är i dagsläget enbart tillgängligt på engelska. B100 is a diesel fuel consisting of 100% fatty acid methyl esters…

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Faktabladet är i dagsläget enbart tillgängligt på engelska.

B100 is a diesel fuel consisting of 100% fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). It is a nontoxic, biodegradable fuel that can be produced from a wide array of vegetable oils and fats. The choice of feedstock has impacts on the fuel quality. Since B100 is used as a pure fuel, it replaces use of fossil diesel with a more sustainable option. In Sweden, FAME – including B100 – is the second largest renewable fuel on the market. All B100 on the Swedish market is based on rapeseed methyl ester (RME) to apply with climate related requirements.

Primary area of use

B100 is used as fuel in diesel engine vehicles in the transportation sector. Vehicles that run on B100 must be approved for this by the vehicle manufacturer to ensure compatibility of materials and engine settings. Today, several trucks, buses and light transportation vehicles have been approved for this service. In Sweden, the market for B100 has grown rapidly during the last years, but it is still a quite unknown fuel in the rest of Europe. The European standard for biodiesel, EN 14 214, contains a climate table, regulating the fuels’ cold properties. Different grades are therefore sold depending on the climate zone of the distribution area. In Sweden, most grades allow operation down to -20°C.

B100 is a nontoxic fuel that is biodegradable if spilled into nature. However, the biodegradable properties have a negative impact on the storage time. B100 should therefore be consumed within six months from the production date to avoid problems with oxidation and polymerization that could plug engine filters.

Distribution system

B100 is a liquid fuel and has similar properties to fossil diesel, except that it is nonflammable. This results in fewer demands on the distribution system. Today, the distribution of B100 is primarily limited to direct deliveries to large customers with private filling stations. The number of public filling stations that add pumps for B100 fuel is however continuously increasing.

Feedstock and production

As pure FAME, B100 can be produced from a wide array of oils and fats. Due to the Nordic climate, rapeseed oil is used in Sweden. The balance between mono and polyunsaturated fats affects the fuel properties. Generally, unsaturated fatty acids have low melting points. In turn, a larger share of polyunsaturated fatty acids increases the oxidation tendency and hence shortens the storage time of the fuel. Therefore, climate zone and required filterability, etc., need to be considered when the feedstock or mix of feedstocks is chosen.

B100 is produced through transesterification of fatty acids and methanol. Oil and fat consist of triglycerides that are separated to form FAME and glycerin in a transesterification process by replacing the glycerol-backbone in the triglyceride with an alcohol, typically methanol, under the action of a catalyst (i.e. sodium hydroxide). The triglycerides and methanol then form straightchain methyl esters, which are separated and purified in several steps to meet the fuel specification. The methanol used in the production is typically of fossil origin, but it can also be produced from renewable raw materials. Glycerol is a byproduct from the biodiesel process, and depending on its purity, it is sold into different market segments.

The transesterification reaction for producing B100 (FAME/Biodiesel) from a vegetable oil.

Current production and use as fuel

The consumed FAME in Sweden during 2015 was 425 000 m³, which represented 31% of the liquid renewable fuels on the market (HVO, FAME and bioethanol). Out of this, 247 000 m³ was sold as low blends and 178 000 m³ was sold as B100. To fulfil the demand of the Swedish market, about 70% of the FAME was imported, mainly from Europe.

In Sweden there are two main production sites; Perstorp in Stenungsund, producing roughly 150 000 m³ RME per year and Ecobränsle in Karlshamn with a production capacity of almost 40 000 m³ RME per year. There are also many small Swedish production sites, for example Tolefors Gård in Östergötland, which produces roughly 400 m³ RME per year from used cooking oil.

FAME/biodiesel projects

Unclear political steering systems, land usage discussions and removal of tax incentives in Sweden have raised many concerns for the FAME industry the past years. Nonetheless, the global development of biodiesel continues, and new production plants are being built. Despite the uncertain political situation in EU, several European countries want to increase biodiesel use even more and in August 2015 a new European Standard, EN 16709, was approved, allowing B20 and B30 blends in fossil diesel (14-20% v/v or 24-30% v/v FAME in diesel fuel) for designated vehicles. However, this is not applicable in Sweden today; as the Swedish law for transportation fuels (Drivmedelslag 2011:319) does not allow marketing of diesel fuels containing more than 7% v/v of FAME.

Download factsheet

B100 (Biodiesel)

Fact sheet  | 

Techno-economic analysis of biomethane production with novel upgrading technology

The use of upgraded biogas as vehicle fuel is considered as one of the most efficient means of utilizing renewable energy to…

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The use of upgraded biogas as vehicle fuel is considered as one of the most efficient means of utilizing renewable energy to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions from the transportation sector. Biogas upgrading using current technologies is energy-intensive (consumes up to 30% of the energy of the gas).

Ionic liquid (IL, a liquid CO2 absorption solvent) has been proposed as a promising absorbent for biogas upgrading with lower energy consumption. Extensive research work has been conducted since 2001. However, there is a need for further techno-economic analysis. In this project, the IL performance for biogas upgrading will be evaluated and techno-economic analysis will be conducted.

During the course of the project, Yujiao Xie at Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, finished her Doctoral Thesis with the title CO2 separation with ionic liquids – from properties to process simulation. Some parts of the thesis were carried out in connection to the project.

Facts

Manager
Xiaoyan Ji, Bio4Energy (LTU)

Contact
xiaoyan.ji@ltu.se

Participants
Yujiao Xie and Chunyan Ma, Bio4Energy (LTU) // Johanna Björkmalm, Karin Willquist and Johan Yngvesson , SP // Ola Wallberg, Lund University

Time plan
December 2014 - December 2016

Total project cost
1 345 900 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, Bio4Energy (LTU), Sp and Lund University

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
39592-1

Project Manager: Xiaoyan Ji

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2017-08-07

Biofuel stakeholders cooperate in the project series BeWhere Sweden

Renewable transportation fuels is a hot topic today. The government has decided that in 2045, the Swedish energy supply should…

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Renewable transportation fuels is a hot topic today. The government has decided that in 2045, the Swedish energy supply should be sustainable, resource efficient and with no net emissions of greenhouse gases. One step on the way is a fossil-independent vehicle fleet already in 2030. In other words – high ambition targets.

To be able to realise full-scale investments in Swedish advanced biofel production based on waste or lignocellulose, the issue needs immediate and wide-ranging attention. The project series BeWhere Sweden has investigated which aspects that have the largest impact on cost-efficiency in forest-based biofuel production. Focus has been on developing a model for geographic location of production plants. f3 has given its support to the work from start, and soon the final report from the third phase of the project, financed within the collaborative research program “Renewable tranpsportation fuels and systems”, will be published. Despite the end of the project, the model however continues to exist and generate insights.

f3 Stories  | 

FAME, Fatty acid methyl esters

Fatty acid methyl ester, FAME, is a nontoxic, biodegradable biodiesel that can be produced from a wide array of vegetable…

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Fatty acid methyl ester, FAME, is a nontoxic, biodegradable biodiesel that can be produced from a wide array of vegetable oils and fats. It is used both as a blending component in fossil diesel and as a pure fuel. It is then called B100 (see separate fact sheet). FAME, together with Bioethanol, is the leading renewable liquid fuels on a global basis. In Sweden, FAME is the second largest renewable liquid fuel on the market. All FAME on the Swedish market is based on rapeseed methyl ester (RME) to comply with climate related requirements.

Primary area of use

Fatty acid methyl ester, FAME, generally goes under the name biodiesel and is used as fuel in diesel engine vehicles. It is normally used as a blend-in component in fossil diesel to increase the renewable content of the fuel. The current European diesel standard allows up to 7% v/v of FAME in diesel fuel without any modifications in vehicles or the distribution system. FAME is fully miscible with fossil diesel and apart from increasing the renewable content, it improves the lubricating properties. However, FAME is sensitive to cold climate and different grades are therefore sold depending on the climate zone of the distribution area. In Sweden, most grades allow operation down to -20°C.

FAME can also be used as a pure fuel, called B100 (see separate fact sheet). Pure FAME is nontoxic and biodegradable if spilled into nature. However, the biodegradable properties have a negative impact on the storage time, and pure FAME should therefore be consumed within six months to avoid problems with oxidation and polymerization. Vehicles that run on pure FAME must be approved for this by the vehicle manufacturer to ensure compatibility of materials and engine settings. Today, several trucks, busses and light transportation vehicles have been approved for the use of pure FAME. In Sweden the market for B100 has grown rapidly during the last years, but knowledge about the fuel has now quite spread to the rest of Europe.

Distribution system

FAME is a liquid fuel and does not require any modification to the distribution systems when blended into fossil diesel. Nearly all diesel distributed today at filling stations in Sweden contains roughly 5-7 % v/v FAME, depending to some extent on seasonal and geographical conditions.

Feedstock and production

most common feedstock in Europe is rapeseed and sunflower oil. In the US soybean, corn or rapeseed oil are most common, while palm oil is used in Asia. Generally, FAME can be produced from any fatty acid source, meaning that algae, jatropha, animal fats and other waste oils can be used. However, the fatty acid composition of the feedstock determines the properties of the final product. Generally, unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids have low melting points. On the other hand, too much polyunsaturated fatty acids increase the oxidation tendency and hence shortens the storage time of the fuel. Therefore, climate zone, required filterability, etc. must be considered in the choice of feedstock or feedstock mix.

FAME is produced through transesterification of fatty acids and methanol. Oil and fat consist of triglycerides that separate to form FAME and glycerin in a transesterification process by replacing the glycerol-backbone in the triglyceride with an alcohol, typically methanol, under the action of a catalyst (i.e. sodium hydroxide). The triglycerides and methanol then form straight-chain methyl esters that are separated and purified in several steps to meet the fuel specification. The methanol used in the production is typically of fossil origin, but it can also be produced from renewable raw materials. Glycerol is a byproduct from the biodiesel process and depending on its purity, it is sold in different market segments.

The transesterification reaction for producing FAME from a vegetable oil.

In 2013, 293 000 m³ of FAME were consumed in Sweden. Of this 240 000 m³ was sold in low blends and 42 000 m³ was sold as pure FAME, B100. To fulfil the demand of the Swedish market, FAME is also imported. The amount of FAME imported has increased during the last three years. FAME is mainly imported from Lithuania, Germany, the Netherlands, Denmark, Norway and Italy. Svenska Petroleum och Biodrivmedels Institutet, SPBI, has reported that low blend diesel with FAME represented 2,7 % of the the total use of fuel in the Swedish transport sector in 2012 (on energy basis). The corresponding figure for pure FAME, B100, is 0,4 %.

The largest producer of FAME/biodiesel globally is USA with a production of roughly 5 billion liters in 2013, followed by Germany, Brazil and Argentina.

Current production and use as fuel

The consumed FAME in Sweden during 2015 was 425 000 m3, representing to 31% of the liquid renewable fuels on the market (HVO, FAME and bioethanol). Out of this, 247 000 m3 was sold as low blends and 178 000 m3 was sold as pure FAME, B100. To fulfil the demand of the Swedish market, about 70% of the FAME was imported, mainly from Europe.

The European Union, EU (28), is the largest producer of FAME globally with a production of roughly 12 700 000 m3 in 2014. Germany, France, The Netherlands and Spain are the main producers. EU is followed by US, which had a production of 8 000 000 m3 in 2015. South America produced about 6 900 000 m3 and Asia Pacific (APAC) roughly 5 400 000 m3 in 2014.

In Sweden there are two main production sites of RME, the basis for FAME; Perstorp in Stenungsund, producing roughly 150 000 m3 RME per year and Ecobränsle in Karlshamn with a production capacity of almost 40 000 m3 RME per year. There are also many small Swedish production sites, for example Tolefors Gård in Östergötland that produces roughly 400 m3 RME per year from used cooking oil.

FAME/biodiesel projects

Unclear political steering systems, land usage discussions and removal of tax incentives in Sweden have raised many concerns for the FAME industry the past years. Nonetheless, the global development of biodiesel continues, and new production plants are being built. Despite the uncertain political situation in EU, several European countries want to increase biodiesel use even more and in August 2015 a new European Standard, EN 16709, was approved, allowing B20 and B30 blends in fossil diesel (14-20 % v/v or 24-30 % v/v FAME in diesel fuel) for designated vehicles. However, this is not applicable in Sweden today; as the Swedish law for transportation fuels (Drivmedelslag 2011:319) does not allow marketing of diesel fuels containing more than 7 % v/v of FAME.

Fact sheet  | 

From visions to smart ICT – Local transitions to renewable transportation

There is large uncertainty regarding how to succeed in the transition to fossil free fuels. In municipalities and regions, there…

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There is large uncertainty regarding how to succeed in the transition to fossil free fuels. In municipalities and regions, there are uncertainties regarding what to choose for procurements today, as well as for the long-term planning.

This project has aimed at supporting local capacity to develop fossil free fuel transport systems, with improved information on renewable fuels in a systems perspective and development of smart ICT solutions. Through local case studies as well as international literature reviews, the project has analyzed how visions and strategies can be used to strengthen the understanding of the actions needed, what information is needed in different situations and how available ICT solutions support decision-making.

The analysis is based on scientific theories with different systems perspectives: ICT systems for the transport sector, life cycle assessment and strategies for sustainable development.

A scientific publication is beeing prepared within the project.

Facts

Manager
Cecilia Sundberg, SLU

Contact
cecilia.sundberg@slu.se

Participants
Anna Kramers, KTH // Kes McCormick, Tareq Emtairah, Charlotte Leire, Alvar Palm and Nicholas Dehod, Lund University (IIIEE) // Göran Albjär, Uppsala County Board // Camilla Winqvist, Heby municipality

Time plan
July 2015 - December 2016

Total project cost
1 337 082 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, SLU, KTH, Lund University, Uppsala County Board and Heby municipality

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
40769-1

Project Manager: Cecilia Sundberg

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2017-06-27

The role of electrofuels: a cost-effective solution for future transport?

Electrofuels are synthetic hydrocarbons produced from carbon dioxide and water with electricity as the main source. They are interesting for…

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Electrofuels are synthetic hydrocarbons produced from carbon dioxide and water with electricity as the main source. They are interesting for several reasons, namely as they may play an important role as transport fuels in the future, could be used to store intermittent electricity production, and because they provides an opportunity for biofuel producers to increase the yield of hydrocarbons/biofuels from the same amount of biomass.

The purpose of the project is to deepen the knowledge of electrofuels by

  • mapping and analyzing the technical potential for recycling of carbon dioxide from Swedish biofuel and combustion plants
  • mapping the economic potential
  • analyzing the conditions under which electrofuels are cost-effective compared to other alternative fuels in order to reach climate targets.

Facts

Manager
Maria Grahn, Chalmers

Contact
maria.grahn@chalmers.se

Participants
Selma Brynolf, Chalmers // Julia Hansson, IVL

Time plan
September 2014 - May 2016

Total project cost
1 062 200 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, IVL and Scania

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
39121-1

Project Manager: Maria Grahn

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2017-06-27

Bio-SNG production by means of biomass gasification combined with MCEC technique

Biomass gasification is an attractive technology that efficiently converts forest biomass, biomass-based wastes and other types of renewable feedstocks into…

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Biomass gasification is an attractive technology that efficiently converts forest biomass, biomass-based wastes and other types of renewable feedstocks into transportation fuels, chemicals or elec­tricity. However, one important bottleneck for commercialisation of the technology in biomass gasification plants is the choice of engineering solutions for the downstream product gas cleaning and conditioning, before using the produced synthesis gas. Gas cleaning and conditioning technologies are capital intensive, and the investment costs for these technologies in biomass gasification production sys­tems are initially very large, leading to large business risks. One way to promote the commercialisation of biomass gasification is to invest in small to medium-scale plants, where the total costs are more reasonable and the financial risks are lower.

The main aim of this study has been to make a preliminary evaluation of the technical and economic feasi­bility of combining biomass gasification with molten carbonate electrolysis cell technol­ogy (MCEC) in systems for production of biomass-based substitute natural gas (bio-SNG). The study is based on a literature survey and a conceptual techno-economic investigation of using a MCEC as a gas cleaning and conditioning process step in a biomass gasification system for bio-SNG production. To enable a comparison with a real case, the GoBiGas plant was selected as a reference case. Five different sce­narios were evaluated in relation to energy and economic performance.

The project results are positive with regard to integrating a MCEC. Introducing a MCEC in the gas cleaning and conditioning process of a biomass gasification system provides with the opportunity for process intensification with a potential integration of three process units into one.

Mass and energy balances show that the production of bio-SNG can be boosted by up to 60% when integrating a MCEC, compared to the same biomass input in a stand-alone operation of a plant similar to GoBiGas. Additionally, the economic assessments re­vealed price ranges for biomass, SNG and renewable electricity, allowing for a wider margin in terms of the Investment Opportunity index for the considered process configurations, as com­pared to the stand-alone SNG plant.

Facts

Manager
Klas Engvall, KTH

Contact
kengvall@kth.se

Participants
Carina Lagergren, Göran Lindbergh and Chunguang Zhou, KTH // Sennai Mesfun, Joakim Lundgren and Andrea Toffolo, Bio4Energy (LTU)

Time plan
January 2016 - February 2017

Total project cost
250 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners, KTH and Bio4Energy (LTU)

Project Manager: Klas Engvall

f3 Project  | Finished | 2017-06-07

Overview of the proposed changes to the Renewable Energy Directive, RED

On November 30th, 2016, the European Parliament, as part of its so called Winter Package*, issued a…

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On November 30th, 2016, the European Parliament, as part of its so called Winter Package*, issued a proposal for an update of the directive on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources (the Renewable Energy Directive, RED). The update of this directive, often referred to as RED II, is in May 2017 still a proposal and is going through the legislative process, where the text will be negotiated, before finally being adopted and the directive will be entered into force.

f3’s main purpose is to develop and communicate scientifically based knowledge about renewable transportation fuels and their sustainability. Thus, the parts of the RED II relevant for the development and regulation of renewable transportation fuels, and the extent to which these have been altered, compared to the former RED have been compiled.

Major changes from former RED

The RED launched in 2009 established an overall policy for the production and promotion of energy from renewable sources in the EU. For the transport sector, all EU countries must ensure that at least 10% of their transport fuels come from renewable energy sources by 2020. The directive also introduced a European sustainability criteria for renewable transportation fuels. The RED was later, after extensive debate, complemented by the so called iLUC directive in 2015, in order to address indirect land use change emissions and to prepare the transition towards advanced biofuels. Below, the main changes in the proposed RED II, compared to the former directives, are summarized:

Article 3: The target for 10% renewable energy in the transportation sector (RES-T) is removed after 2020. This means that there is no specific target for the transportation sector after this date, instead the total target for the renewable energy share of 27% in gross final consumption by 2030 is to be met by a non-defined combination of measures within all energy sectors (electricity, heating and cooling, and transportation). The target is a union-wide target. However, each Member State must attain a minimum national share of renewable energy in gross final consumption as set by the earlier national commitments (corresponding to 10-49% in 2020 and also listed in Annex I).

Article 7: The cap on biofuels and bioliquids produced from food or feed crops**, introduced through the iLUC directive in 2015, is gradually reduced from 7% of final consumption of energy (as per Member State) in 2021 in road and rail transport, to 3.8% in 2030, following the trajectory set out in Annex X. Member States may, however, set a lower limit and may also distinguish between different types of biofuels, bioliquids and biomass fuels, for instance by setting a lower limit for biofuels produced from oil crops. To count towards the renewable energy targets the contribution of biofuels, bioliquids and biomass fuels must meet further sustainability and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission saving criteria.

Article 16: An establishment of a permit granting process for (all) renewable energy projects with one designated authority (“one-stop-shop”) to reduce complexity and increase efficiency and transparency. Also, a maximum time limit for the permit granting process is set.

Article 25: An EU-level obligation is established for fuel suppliers to provide a certain share of low-emission and renewable fuels, including advanced biofuels and other biofuels and biogas produced from feedstock listed in Annex IX, renewable electricity, renewable liquid and gaseous transport fuels of non-biological origin, and waste-based fossil fuels.The share of low-emission and renewable fuels should be at least equal to 1.5% in 2021 and 6.8% in 2030.The switch to advanced biofuels is promoted by a specific sub-mandate, within which their yearly contribution should be at least 0.5% in 2021, and increase to reach at least 3.6% by 2030. Advanced biofuels are defined as being produced from feedstock listed in Part A of Annex IX.The share of biofuels produced from organic wastes and residues with mature technologies, as included in Annex IX Part B, is capped to 1.7%.The 6% life-cycle GHG emission reduction target is not continued after the end of 2020 and the RED II would not directly amend the FQD (Fuel Quality Directive).Member States shall put in place national databases that ensure traceability of fuels and mitigate the risk of fraud.

Article 26: The existing EU sustainability criteria is reinforced and extended to biomass used also for other bioenergy purposes than transportation fuel, i.e. for heating/cooling and electricity production.Streamlining of the sustainability criterion applying to agricultural biomass (to reduce the administrative burden).Stricter criterion for peatland protection.Introduction of a new risk-based criterion for forest biomass. According to this, woody raw material should come only from forests that are harvested in accordance with the principles of sustainable forest management. Operators should take the appropriate steps in order to minimize the risk of using unsustainable forest biomass for the production of bioenergy.The country of origin of the forest biomass must meet LULUCF (Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry)requirements set according to decisions adopted under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and Paris agreements.Increased requirements for GHG saving performance to 70% for new plants for biofuels for transportation (80% for biomass-based heating/cooling and electricity – only above 20 MW). These thresholds are a prerequisite for public support and inclusion in the fulfilling of renewable energy targets and obligations. Existing support schemes for biomass-based electricity should however be allowed until their due end date for all biomass installations.The sustainability criteria and the greenhouse gas emission criteria should apply regardless of the geographical origin of the forest and agricultural biomass.

Article 27: Article 27 provides a clarification on the mass balance system and adaption to cover biogas co-digestion and injection of biomethane in the natural gas grid.

Annex V: Default values for GHG emission savings for biofuels and bioliquids in the Annex V are updated. For more mature biofuels (such as ethanol and biodiesel based on food and feed crop), these values have, in general, increased compared to former default values. For future biofuels, the default values are instead, in general, slightly decreased. For all biofuels, a more detailed division upon different biofuel production pathways are provided. Biogas is moved to Annex VI.

Annex VI: A new Annex VI is added to cover a common GHG accounting methodology for biomass fuels for heat and power (as well as biomethane for transport), including default values for GHG emission savings.

Annex IX: In Annex IX the feedstocks (mainly for advanced biofuels) which should be considered for meeting the new fuel-suppliers’ obligation target are listed. New to the list in Part B is molasses. Every two years the Commission shall evaluate the feedstocks listed in the Annex allowing for the possibility to add but not remove feedstocks from the list.

Facts

Manager
Ingrid Nyström, Chalmers Industriteknik Industriell Energi AB

Contact
ingrid.nystrom@chalmersindustriteknik.se

Participants
Ulrika Claeson-Colpier, Chalmers Industriteknik

On November 30th, 2016, the European Parliament, as part of its so called Winter Package, issued a proposal for an update of the directive on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources (the Renewable Energy Directive, RED). The update is often refered to as RED II. This PM summarizes the parts of the RED II relevant for the development and regulation of renewable transportation fuels, and the extent to which these have been altered, compared to the former RED.

Footnotes in the PM:

* The Winter Package, or the Clean energy for all Europeans package, also includes revised versions of the Energy Efficiency Directive, the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive, recasts of the Internal Electricity Market Directive (and Regulation) and the ACER Regulation as well as proposals for a Regulation of Risk-Preparedness in the Electricity Sector and Repealing the Security of Supply Directive, and for a Regulation on the Governance of the European Union.

** Starch-rich sugars and oil crops produced on agricultural land as a main crop excluding residues, waste or lignocellulosic material.

Project Manager: Ingrid Nyström

f3 Project  | Finished | 2017-05-16

Assessing positive social impacts – organizing and structuring the data collection

This project aims at examining the availability of data on positive social impacts for renewable vehicle fuels. The data collection…

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This project aims at examining the availability of data on positive social impacts for renewable vehicle fuels. The data collection focused on four different transportation fuels from different geographical regions and results are presented as the social impact factor ʽjob creationʼ. Results are compared with litterature.

The project is part of a general aim to integrate data in the either the existing databases SHDB and PSILCA, or in a separate database software.

Facts

Manager
Elisabeth Ekener, KTH

Contact
elisabeth.ekener@abe.kth.se

Participants
Mudit Chordia, KTH

Time plan
June - November 2017

Total project cost
250 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners and KTH

Project Manager: Elisabeth Ekener

f3 Project  | Finished | 2017-05-10

Dimethyl ether, DME

Dimethyl ether (DME) can be produced from coal, natural gas or biomass and it is used for a variety of…

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Dimethyl ether (DME) can be produced from coal, natural gas or biomass and it is used for a variety of purposes including as an aerosol propellant and chemical precursor. DME is an attractive alternative for diesel substitution due to its high cetane number and low tail-pipe emissions. Since it is in gaseous form under normal conditions, it cannot be blended with diesel. BioDME is a so called second generation, or advanced, biofuel. BioDME production via gasification of black liquor has been successfully demonstrated on pilot scale, including long-time fleet tests in heavy duty vehicles.

Primary area of use

DME is currently used primarily blended with liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) for home heating and cooking (mostly in China), as an aerosol propellant in hairspray and other personal care products, as a refrigerant, and as a feedstock for the production of several chemicals, most commonly dimethyl sulphate. As an aerosol propellant and refrigerant DME does not deplete the ozone layer like the chlorofluorocarbons and freons it replaces. Similar physical properties means that LPG infrastructure can easily be modified to handle DME, enabling wider spread.

DME is also an attractive diesel fuel substitute, due to good combustion characteristics, a high cetane number and a low octane number (see “Properties” info box). DME combusts without creating soot, the main material responsible for PM 2.5 particulate emissions. Further, combustion of DME produces no sulphur oxides at all, and any nitrogen oxides generated are simple to remove in the absence of the particulates.

DME used in conventional compression ignition engines requires a new fuel storage and injection system compared to when using liquid diesel fuels. Typically, DME is pressurized to about 5 bar being in liquid phase at normal temperature. When used as a fuel, DME is in a liquid phase all the way from the tank to the combustion chamber. The injection pump in a DME truck goes up to about 500 bar compared to about 1400 bar for regular diesel engines.

This is possible as the DME is easier to atomize resulting in an improved combustion process. DME is not corrosive, although some elastomers may swell in contact with DME. Another benefit is that the noise level of a DME engine is lower than in a conventional diesel engine.

The energy content of DME (LHV, Lower heating value) is 19.3 MJ/litre (28.8 MJ/kg), roughly 70% of the energy content of fossil-derived diesel. Thus, the fuel tank size must be bigger to enable the same driving range as for diesel vehicles. Furthermore, DME has poor lubricity, demanding special additives to avoid excessive wear in engines.

Feedstock and production

DME is currently mainly produced by means of methanol dehydration according to the following reaction:

2 CH3OH (Methanol) → CH3OCH3 (DME) + H2O

It is also generated directly from synthesis gas from thermochemical gasification of coal or through natural gas reforming.

Recent developments in gasification technologies provide the opportunity to also use biomass based fuels such as by-products from the paper and pulp industry, forest and agricultural residues, solid municipal waste and other renewable feedstocks. Using thermochemical biomass gasification the feedstock is first converted into a synthesis gas (syngas) stream consisting mainly of CO, CO2, H2O and H2. After cleaning and conditioning of the syngas in order to obtain a gas suitable for the synthesis reactions, DME is synthesised catalytically via methanol. Each of these steps can be carried out in a number of ways and various technologies offer a spectrum of possibilities which may be most suitable for any desired application.

Distribution and storage systems

DME is liquefied at moderate pressures and it can be handled like LPG due to its similar properties. Existing on- and off-shore infrastructure for LPG could therefore be used for transportation, storage, and distribution of DME with minor modifications.

Current production

The current global production of (fossil) DME is approximately 5 million tons per year, with the majority of production in China from coal-derived methanol. Commercial production facilities are also located in Japan, Germany, the Netherlands, Russia, South Korea, Turkey and the United States, with the first large-scale plant in the Americas (in Trinidad and Tobago) scheduled for  completion in 2018. China’s National Development and Reform Commission forecasts an annual DME production capacity of 20 million tons by the year 2020.

BioDME projects

BioDME production from black liquor, a lignocellulosic by-product from the pulping process, was successfully demonstrated at the LTU Green Fuels (formerly Chemrec) pilot plant in Piteå, Sweden (2011-2016). During the time in operation, about 1,000 tons of DME and methanol was produced in the facility, which has been operating for over 10,000 hours with biofuel production. The produced DME was used for field-testing with ten heavy duty trucks (Volvo Trucks) that were run in commercial traffic using biofuels produced in the pilot plant. Operation in the plant was terminated in 2016.

Currently no other DME projects based on fully renewable feedstocks are ongoing globally.

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Dimethyl Ether. DME

Fact sheet  | 

Methanol

Methanol is the simplest form of alcohol and it is produced via synthesis gas (H2 and CO) mainly derived from…

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Methanol is the simplest form of alcohol and it is produced via synthesis gas (H2 and CO) mainly derived from fossil feedstocks, such as natural gas and coal. Approximately 60% of the global methanol demand is currently used in the chemical industry, but the fuel and energy markets are increasing steadily and represent around 40% of the global use. Bio-methanol is a so called second generation or advanced biofuel and can be used blended with petrol, as marine fuel, or in fuel cells. Compared to conventional fossil based production of methanol, bio-methanol is currently produced at small scale.

Primary area of use

Today methanol is mainly used for production of chemicals like formaldehyde, acetic acid and MTO (methanol-to-olefins). Furthermore, through intermediate chemicals, many common products are produced from methanol, such as paints, antifreeze, plastics, and propellants.

Methanol can be used as a transportation fuel in several ways: blended with petrol, as a precursor to methyl tertiarybutyl ether (MTBE) which is used as an octane enhancer in petrol, in the  transesterification process when making FAME (fatty acid methyl ester) biodiesel, and as a diesel replacement after conversion to dimethyl ether (DME) or oxymethyl ether (OME). Methanol demand for energy purposes has been increasing steadily over the last decade, driven mainly by growing demand as a transportation fuel in China, where methanol currently represents 7% of the total transportation fuel use.

Methanol has a high octane number making it a good alternative to fossil petrol, which has been demonstrated for e.g. M15, M85 and M100. The EU allows low blending up to 3% in petrol, but this is currently not commonly used. When the blend-in level exceeds 15%, modifications are required, e.g. higher fuel injection to compensate for the lower energy density, modification to the ECU (Engine Control Unit), as well as material modifications to endure the corrosiveness of methanol. Emissions in the form of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons are lower from methanol compared to petrol, and methanol contains very low levels of impurities of sulphur or metals. The energy content (Lower heating value, LHV) is 15.8 MJ/litre (or 19.8 MJ/kg), slightly less than half of that of petrol.

Due to the high hydrogen content, methanol is an excellent hydrogen carrier than can be converted to hydrogen for usage in fuel cells without prior fuel pre-treatment. Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC) as well as High Temperature Polymer Eloctrolyte Membrane (HTPEM) fuel cell technologies have the potential of fuel efficiencies of around 40%.

There is also significant interest for methanol as a marine bunker fuel, due to international regulatory changes and cost advantages relative to other fuels. Methanol is sulphur free with low emissions and can be produced to lower cost than marine distillate fuel (when produced from fossil sources).

Feedstock and production

Methanol can be synthesised from a wide range of raw materials via two production steps. First, the feedstock (currently mainly fossil fuels like natural gas and coal) is converted into a synthesis gas consisting of CO, CO2, H2O and H2 through catalytic reforming or partial oxidation. In the second step methanol is synthesised catalytically. Each of these steps can be carried out in a number of ways using different technologies. The methanol process has a high selectivity leading to high production efficiency.

Recent developments in gasification technology provide opportunities to shift the use from fossil based feedstock to biomass, agricultural waste, municipal solid waste, and other lignocellulosic resources.

Distribution and storage systems

The technology for distributing and storing methanol is very similar to the current systems used for petrol and diesel, including pipelines, barges, chemical tankers, rail tankers and trucks. Material components must however be replaced to endure the corrosiveness of methanol. In Sweden, some distribution systems are adapted to alcohols, and systems adapted for E85 can also store M85 or GEM fuels (gasoline-ethanol-methanol).

Small risks are associated with the transportation and distribution of methanol. Methanol is highly toxic to humans and can cause blindness or even death on ingestion. Methanol is classified like petrol or diesel regarding toxicity, but is nonmutagenic and methanol vapour does not involve any health risks under practical conditions. Methanol biodegrades very rapidly in aerobic as well as anaerobic conditions and it will not persist in the environment. The half-life in groundwater is several hundred days shorter for methanol in comparison to petrol components.

Biomethanol projects

In Edmonton, Canada, Enerkem operates a commercial scale plant producing 38 million liters per year of methanol from municipal waste. A similar facility is planned in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, involving a number of European partners.

In Iceland, Carbon Recycling International is producing renewable methanol via CO2 captured from geothermal power generation and hydrogen produced via electrolysis. The production capacity is 5 million liters per year.

BioMCN in the Netherlands produces and sells industrial quantities of bio-methanol, by converting biogas from waste digestion into methanol. The annual production capacity of bio-methanol is around 250 million litres, with plans to further expand the renewable share in the future.

Methanol production via gasification of black liquor has also been successfully demonstrated at pilot scale at the LTU Green Fuels plant in Piteå, Sweden, but operation was terminated in 2016.

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Methanol

Fact sheet  | 

European collaboration for transition fo renewable transportation fuels

Successful development of renewable transportation fuels in large-scale demands collaborative research and innovation efforts, both on national level and European…

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Successful development of renewable transportation fuels in large-scale demands collaborative research and innovation efforts, both on national level and European level. But the conditions for development, production and use of renewable fuels in Sweden and the Nordic countries are not that well-known in Europe. By sharing knowledge and experiences within European networks and activities and taking part in drafting research programs, possibilities for Swedish stakeholders to contribute to a sustainable transport system are realised. Platform f3, a national advocacy platform supporting collaboration between Swedish and European stakeholders, plays a vital role in this.

– For a single country to make an impact in the field of sustainable fuels on a European level, several criteria must be fulfilled. It takes preserverence, resources and field competence, you need a basis in national industry and research, and, finally, an adequate platform for your statement to reach out. Through our assignment from Vinnova (Sweden’s Innovation Agency), combined with our long-term collaboration within the centre network in general, platform f3 has a very good chance to meet these criteria, says Ingrid Nyström, senior advisor and responsible for international collaboration at the f3 centre office.

f3 Stories  | 

Public procurement as a policy instrument to support the diffusion and the use of renewable transport fuels

Many municipalities in Sweden have requirements on green cars in the procurement of municipal vehicles and some also have requirements…

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Many municipalities in Sweden have requirements on green cars in the procurement of municipal vehicles and some also have requirements on electric cars. This project has ana­lysed how green public procurement has been used in the transport sector in order to answer questions such as which potential procurement has to promote renewable fuels, what the practical experiences are, to what extent public procurement is used strategically, and how the policy instrument can be developed.

The methodological approach has been comparative case studies of the municipalities Malmö and Östersund and regions Skåne and Jämtland. The empirical material comes from a combination of document studies and semi-structured qualitative interviews with procurers, environ­mental strategists, public transport strategists, politicians and representatives of private transport operators.

Consisting of three parts, the project deliveries present

  1. an overall analysis of public procurement,
  2. an analysis of experience of procurement through case studies, and
  3. a dialogue with stakeholders.

Together, they aim to increase the understanding of the challanges with green public procurement and how these have been handeled in a few selected cases. Even if differences in political, geographical and infrastructural aspects apply for different cities and/or regions, and, as a result of this, the specific design of procurement requirements, the study has been able to point to some general policy implications concerning laws and regulations, cost, political goals and backing and actor cooperation. The results from the project hereby contribute with knowledge on how the use of public procurement can be improved.

Facts

Manager
Jamil Khan, Lund University

Contact
jamil.khan@miljo.lth.se

Participants
Malin Aldenius and Henrik Norinder, Lund University // Jenny Palm and Fredrik Backman, Linköping University

Time plan
September 2014 - March 2017

Total project cost
2 298 543 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, Lund University and Linköping University

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
39113-1

Project Manager: Jamil Khan

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2017-04-26

Optimization of biofuel supply chains based on liquefaction technologies

Traditional bioenergy supply chains design considers a centralized facility around which the bio­mass is collected. In the centralized supply chain…

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Traditional bioenergy supply chains design considers a centralized facility around which the bio­mass is collected. In the centralized supply chain design the benefits from economies of scale are counterbalanced by rising upstream transport costs as a higher scale requires a larger feedstock collection radius. Distributed supply chains configurations (i.e. including a pre-treatment step in which the biomass is densified) are often proposed to reduce the upstream transportation costs. It is hypothesized that such configuration allows for further upscaling and can hence decrease bioenergy production costs, particularly when using liquefaction technologies which are able to convert bio­mass into a transportable biocrude with a much high energy and bulk density compared to biomass.

This project has explored the preconditions under which distributed supply chain configurations (based on hydrothermal liquefaction, HTL) are preferred over centralized supply chains. A spatially ex­plicit optimization model based on Swedish data on biomass supply and price, intermodal transport infrastructure, competing demand, and potential conversion sites (including integration benefits) was evaluated at different biofuel demands.

It was found that distributed supply chains may reduce upstream transport cost. Nonetheless, the additional costs for conversion and intermediate transpor­tation associated with distributed supply chains generally leads to a preference for centralized sup­ply chains at biofuel demands below 75 PJout/yr (21 TWh/yr). Distributed supply chains were shown to be useful in cases in which the feedstock cost-supply curves are steep, biofuel production beyond 75 PJout/yr is targeted, or the available biomass resource base is almost fully utilized.

Facts

Manager
Elisabeth Wetterlund, Bio4Energy (LTU)

Contact
elisabeth.wetterlund@ltu.se

Participants
Karin Pettersson, Chalmers/SP // Sierk de Jong and Ric Hoefnagels, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, University of Utrecht

Time plan
November 2015 - October 2016

Total project cost
250 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners and Bio4Energy (LTU)

This work in this project was conducted as part of the Renewable Jet Fuel Supply Chain and Flight Operations (RENJET) project that ran between 2013-2016 with funding from EIT Climate-KIC. The RENJET project partners were Utrecht University, Imperial College London, SkyNRG, KLM and Amsterdam Airport Schiphol. The objective of RENJET was to lay the foundations for upscaling production of biofuels for the aviation industry through scientific research and demonstration projects. The f3 study with its analysis of different supply chain configurations for the production of forest-based jet fuel was performed as a case study over Sweden.

Project Manager: Elisabeth Wetterlund

f3 Project  | Finished | 2017-04-05

Environmental and socio-economic benefits from Swedish biofuel production

The Swedish Energy Agency reported in 2014 a greenhouse gas emissions reduction of 1.95 M tonnes of CO2-eq due to…

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The Swedish Energy Agency reported in 2014 a greenhouse gas emissions reduction of 1.95 M tonnes of CO2-eq due to the replacement of fossil fuels with biofuels. However, a narrow focus on CO2 fails to capture the value that biofuel production may have. Additional benefits from the Swedish biofuel industry accrue in both environmental and socio-economic spheres.

This project aims to identify the aggregated environmental benefits from biofuel production by-products due to replaced conventional products (e.g. fertilizers, materials, etc.) and utilities and services (e.g. integration with other industries and district heating) in addition to the socio-economic benefits through a screening and review of job creation and assessment methods for other benefits. The project has resulted in increased knowledge on the overall benefits resulting from biofuel production, which may enable the creation of more advanced policy instruments to support future biofuel production.

The project deliveries consist of a summary report, one scientific paper and a separate supporting analysis.

Facts

Manager
Michael Martin, IVL

Contact
michael.martin@ivl.se

Participants
Elisabeth Wetterlund, Bio4Energy (LTU) // Philip Peck, Lund University // Roman Hackl and Kristina Holmgren, IVL

Time plan
July 2015 - December 2016

Total project cost
781 341 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, IVL, Bio4Energy and Lund University

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
40771-1

Project Manager: Michael Martin

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2017-04-03

Electrofuels from biological processes – A knowledge synthesis

Sweden aims to have a 100% renewable power production by 2040. This will primarily be achieved by largely expanding the…

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Sweden aims to have a 100% renewable power production by 2040. This will primarily be achieved by largely expanding the intermittent power production with for example wind power. However, an increased proportion of wind power also requires increased access to energy storage and balance and/or regulating power. Sweden also has other environmental and cli­mate goals and ambitions to strive for, such as a fossil-independent transport sector in 2030, a car­bon-neutral society in 2045 and acheiving a leading position in taking care of and recycling waste in a circular economy.

The combination power-to-gas and biogas production can contribute to reach these goals in different ways. By enabling for a more flexible electricity system and, at the same time utilize the available biomass (e.g. manure and bio-degradable waste) more efficiently, more renewable fuels and/or chemicals can be produced from the same amount of biogas substrate. The concept is based on converting low-cost renewable electricity, via electrolysis, into hydrogen (power-to-gas). In turn, hydrogen is further reacted with carbon dioxide in raw biogas in so-called electro­fuel processes.

There are both thermochemical and biological electrofuel processes for methane production. There are also biological gas fermentation for the production of liquid electrofuels, i.e. bio-alcohols. Among today’s biogas producers the interest in electrofuel processes is growing because of their potential to open up for more profitable biogas plants at the same time as the plants could become more product flexible and less susceptible to market fluctua­tions. However, it is difficult to get a grip on what the techno-economic performance and degree of maturity of the pro­cesses really are, particularly concerning biological electrofuel processes.

This knowledge synthesis has aimed to meet this need. It includes in-situ, ex-situ biological methanation and gas fermentation, and uses thermochemical methanisation as a reference. The possibilities to combine and/or to replace conventional biogas upgrading with the different electrofuel processes are also investigated and discussed.

The report is written in Swedish with an English summary.

Facts

Manager
Anna-Karin Jannasch, RISE

Contact
anna-karin.jannasch@ri.se

Participants
Karin Willqvist, RISE

Time plan
August 2016 - January 2017

Total project cost
250 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners and RISE

Project Manager: Anna-Karin Jannasch

f3 Project  | Finished | 2017-03-28

EU sustainability criteria for biofuels

The EU Renewable Energy Directive (RED) establishes that a minimum of 10% biofuels or other renewable fuels for transport shall…

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The EU Renewable Energy Directive (RED) establishes that a minimum of 10% biofuels or other renewable fuels for transport shall be used in every Member State by 2020. The Fuel Quality Directive (FQD) is aimed towards fuel suppliers, obliging them to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with 6% by 2020. Only biofuels meeting the sustainability criteria regarding net GHG savings, biodiversity and land use can be counted towards the targets. In 2015, the two directives were amended by the Indirect Land Use Change (ILUC) Directive, which amongst other strives to reduce indirect GHG emissions from biofuel production.

The EU Directives

The Renewable Energy Directive, RED, (Directive 2009/28/EC), was adopted by the EU in 2009. It mandates that all Member States shall have 10% (on energy basis) biofuels in the transport sector by 2020. In order for a biofuel to be accounted within the national reporting, it must meet a number of sustainability criteria as described in RED. Biofuels must also meet the sustainability criteria to receive financial support, such as tax exemptions.

The Fuel Quality Directive, FQD, (Directive 2009/30/EC) was also adopted in 2009. It sets requirements on fuel specifications, but also obliges fuel suppliers to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. By 2020 every sold unit of energy must reduce life cycle GHG emissions by at least 6%, compared to the EU-average fossil fuel in 2010. FQD gives the fuel suppliers a number of options to obtain this 6% reduction, e.g. via reductions in oil refineries or use of biofuels and alternative fuels. The biofuels must meet the same sustainability criteria as in RED.

In 2015, amendments to RED and FQD were introduced with the Directive on Indirect Land Use Change, ILUC, (Directive (EU) 2015/1513) that introduces ILUC values for biofuels, and stricter sustainability criteria compared to RED and FQD. Interpretation of the complex ILUC Directive is neccessary since it will be individually implemented in each Member State no later than September 2017 This text is based on the preliminary interpretations of the Swedish Energy Agency, available in January 2017 (Source: Markets for biofuels 2016 (ER 2016:29) and Markets for biofuels 2015 (ER 2015:31), available in Swedish).

The amendments introduced by the ILUC Directive affect biofuel development in several important ways:

Biofuels based on food crops can only represent 7% of the 10%-target (set in RED), which reduces the incentive to support these fuels.Member states must report GHG emissions from changes in land use due to biofuel production, but these values can exceed the threshold set in the sustainability criteria.The ILUC Directive promotes so called advanced biofuels, e.g. biofuel based on algae, waste, manure, sewage sludge as well as ligno-cellulosic and non-food cellulosic material. Member states should introduce a non-binding sub-target for advanced fuels, a guideline value of 0.5% is given. In addition, these fuels can be counted twice towards the 10%-target.Electrical road transport fueled by renewable energy can be counted five times and rail-bound transport fueled by renewable energy can be counted 2.5 times towards the target.

The sustainability criteria

To be counted as sustainable, RED states that raw material for biofuel production cannot be taken from primary forest, nature protection areas or highly biodiverse grassland. Land with high carbon stocks such as wetland or peatland can only be used under certain circumstances. A new Commission Regulation (No 1307/2014) from 2015 helps to define grasslands, human interaction and highly biodiverse grassland in order to prevent negative effects on grasslands due to biofuel production.

The RED requires a 35% GHG emission saving from the use of biofuels. However, from January 1st 2018, GHG emission savings from the use of biofuels produced in old production units must be at least 50%, according to the ILUC Directive. For units where biofuel production started after October 5th 2015, the threshold is 60%. The biofuel values are compared to a baseline of 94.1g CO2 eq/MJ for fossil fuels, introduced in an amendment (EU 2015/652) to FQD in 2014.

Social and economic sustainability criteria are not mandatory for a biofuel producer to meet. However, every two years the European Commission has to report on the impact of increased demand for biofuels on food prices, the respect of land-use rights and whether main producer countries have ratified international labour conventions. The European Commission can thereafter propose corrective action.

Implementation of sustainability criteria

The economic operators, in most Member States identified as the companies that pay fuel tax, are responsible for showing that the sustainability criteria have been fulfilled. They are obliged to have a control system that keeps track of the different batches of biofuels, where the raw material is taken from, and the sustainability properties of each batch. Independent auditors inspect and approve the quality of the control systems.

The sustainability criteria apply to biofuels and bioliquids (i.e. liquids produced from biomass that are used for purposes other than fuel, e.g. electricity generation or heating). This means that biogas used for electricity and heating is not included. Solid biofuels are presently not included.

Sweden has implemented the sustainability criteria in law (Act 2010:598), regulations and guidelines. The FQD is implemented in the law (Act 2011:319). The work of implementing the ILUC Directive and the FQD amendment in to Swedish law is ongoing. The Swedish Energy Agency is the supervisory authority to which the economic operators must report yearly.

GHG calculations

The Directives include a list of default GHG values for segments of the biofuel production chain (cultivation, process, transports). The economic operators can choose to use the default values (if the biofuel chain corresponds to those listed in the Directives), their own calculated actual values, or a combination of default and actual values. Calculation of actual values is made according to life cycle assessment methodology and rules described in the Directives annexes. The GHG calculations include emissions from cultivation, process, transport, and distribution.

Emissions of possible by-products that may arise in the calculation are allocated to the different products, based on their energy content (the lower heating value). There is also a number of emissions that can be subtracted e.g. if improved agricultural management binds more carbon in soil or if excess electricity is produced in the biofuel plant. There is also a GHG bonus if raw material is cultivated on severely degraded land. The ILUC Directive introduces a set of default values for indirect land use change which must be reported, but they are not included in the comparison against the threshold values.

Summary of the default values for a number of biofuel production pathways, with the reduction targets marked (reduction compared to fossil fuel emissions of 94,1 g CO2 eq/MJ).

Fact sheet  | 

Enabling the transition to a bio-economy: Innovation system dynamics and policy

This research project has focused on the following question: “What promotes and hinders transition pathways to the development and deployment…

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This research project has focused on the following question: “What promotes and hinders transition pathways to the development and deployment of integrated biorefineries in Sweden?” Contributing to the literature on sustainability transitions, the project examines the role of incumbent and emergent industries, policy regulations, and regional context in a transition to biorefineries and biofuels. The project seeks to answer the following research sub-questions:

  1. How do different Swedish firms and industries (incumbent and emergent) react to the opportunities and threats posed by a biorefinery transition?
  2. How is the development and deployment of integrated Swedish biorefineries shaped by framework conditions and policy regulations and to what extent is there a need for change to facilitate a transition?
  3. To what extent are Swedish biorefinery transition pathways influenced by different regional contexts?

By comparing Swedish and international biorefineries, this will provide a thorough examination of the constraining factors and development perspectives for integrated biorefineries in Sweden.

Several scientific articles have been produced as interim deliveries within the project.

Facts

Manager
Lars Coenen, earlier at Lund University

Contact
lars.coenen@unimelb.edu.au

Participants
Fredric Bauer, Teis Hansen, Kes McCormick and Yuliya Voytenko, Lund University // Hans Hellsmark, Chalmers // Johanna Mossberg, SP/Chalmers Industriteknik IE

Time plan
July 2014 - October 2016

Total project cost
2 000 000 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, Lund University, SP and Chalmers

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
39112-1

Project Manager: Lars Coenen

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2017-01-23

Methane as vehicle fuel – a gate-to-wheel study (METDRIV)

Today, the global interest in methane as a transportation fuel is growing rapidly due to the expanded recovery of shale…

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Today, the global interest in methane as a transportation fuel is growing rapidly due to the expanded recovery of shale gas. The use is also expanding in Sweden, but there are several technical solutions regarding upgrading, distribution and final use in vehicles, which are not yet fully commercialized.

The METDRIV project analyses different technical solutions and system solutions of methane as a vehicle fuel from a gate-to-wheel perspective, including comparisons between bio-based  (anaerobic digestion and thermal gasification) systems and natural gas (fossil) systems. The objectives have been to describe under which conditions the systems are preferable, and to identify knowledge gaps where more research and development is needed. The analysed parameters are greenhouse gas performance, energy efficiency, and costs. Finally, recommendations are given to commercial actors and policy makers regarding which solutions and systems that should be promoted from a socio-economic perspective.

Facts

Manager
Pål Börjesson, Lund University

Contact
pal.borjesson@miljo.lth.se

Participants
Mikael Lantz, Jim Andersson, Lovisa Björnsson, Christian Hulteberg and Helena Svensson, Lund University // Joakim Lundgren and Jim Andersson, Bio4Energy (LTU) // Björn Fredriksson-Möller, E.on // Magnus Fröberg and Eva Iverfeldt, Scania // Per Hanarp and Anders Röj, Volvo // Eric Zinn, Göteborg Energi

Time plan
July 2014 - June 2015

Total project cost
2 408 305 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, Lund University, Bio4Energy (LTU), AB Volvo, Scania, Göteborg Energi and E.on.

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
39098-1

Project Manager: Pål Börjesson

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2017-01-01

A comparative analysis of P2G/P2L-systems for the combined production of liquid and gaseous biofuels

Power to gas (P2G) means that power is used to split water into hydrogen and oxygen by electrol­ysis. The technology…

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Power to gas (P2G) means that power is used to split water into hydrogen and oxygen by electrol­ysis. The technology has sparked a lot of interest as it enables storage of electrical power in energy gas and it could thereby be efficient for storage of excess electricity from re­newable wind, solar, or wave power. The hydrogen itself can either be used directly as a fuel or raw material, or allowed to react further with carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide into a bio­fuel or biochemical, for example methane or methanol. When the end-product is a liquid, the technology is called Power to Liquid (P2L).

Today, there is one commercial P2L-plant on Iceland and around 40 pilot and demonstration P2G/P2L-plants in Europe. There is not yet any P2G/P2L plant in Sweden, but with a growing interest, several studies have been carried out evaluating the possibilities and potential benefits of the technology with respect to conditions and locations in Sweden. In November 2016, an EU project was initiated with the aim to establish and evaluate a P2methanol pilot plant in Luleå in which carbon dioxide rich blast furnace gas from SSAB’s steel production would be combined with renewable hydrogen from intermittent electricity production.

The purpose of this project has been to identify, analyse and suggest different possibilities for P2G/P2L in Norrbotten with respect to the regional electricity market and hydrogen demands, having the bio­refinery infrastructure in Piteå as a starting point. The analysis consideres both current conditions and dif­ferent future scenarios and is a continuation of an ÅF-study from 2015 that pointed out Piteå-Luleå-Norrbotten as one of the three most appropriate locations for demonstrating P2G/P2L in Sweden.

Facts

Manager
Anna-Karin Jannasch, RISE (formerly SP)

Contact
anna-karin.jannasch@ri.se

Participants
Roger Molinder, Magnus Marklund and Sven Hermansson, SP // Erik Furusjö, Bio4Energy (LTU) // Erik Persson, Piteå Municipality // Stefan Nyström, Preem

Time plan
April - September 2016

Total project cost
250 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners, SP, SP ETC, Bio4Energy (LTU), Piteå Municipality and Preem

Project Manager: Anna-Karin Jannasch

f3 Project  | Finished | 2016-12-19

Implications of EU regulation on Swedish biofuel stimulus

The use of biofuels in Sweden has increased dramatically during the last decade and the country is now one of…

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The use of biofuels in Sweden has increased dramatically during the last decade and the country is now one of the leadning member states in the EU. Sweden has ambitious nation­al targets for the transport sector and the ambition to continue being a leading country for biofuel use. This requires policies that justify long-term investment in biofuel production facilities and refueling infrastructure.

Although Swedish policy is in line with EU directives and state aid guidelines it has, however, at times, suffered from friction with the EU. This project has set out to give an overview of complex EU legislation and its implications for Swedish stimulus measures for biofuel development.

Among the regulations described and analysed are the Renewable Energy Directive, the ILUC Directive and the EU state aid guidelines.

Facts

Manager
Kersti Karltorp, earlier at SP

Contact
kersti.karltorp@ju.se

Participants
Jorrit Gosens, SP

Time plan
January - June 2016

Total project cost
245 200 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners, SP and Lantmännen

The following persons have given input to the project work: Andreas Gundberg, Lantmännen Agroetanol, Emmi Jozsa, Swedish Energy Agency, Anna Wallentin, the Ministry of Finance and Johanna Ulmanen, SP.

Project Manager: Kersti Karltorp

f3 Project  | Finished | 2016-10-25

Examining systemic constraints and drivers for production of forest-derived transport biofuels

Diversification of forest industry activities into transport fuels is important for Swedish climate and energy policy goal achievement, and biofuel…

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Diversification of forest industry activities into transport fuels is important for Swedish climate and energy policy goal achievement, and biofuel proponents also claim that it is important for Swedish forest industry competitiveness. There is significant ongoing research effort on biofuels for road transport and extensive experimentation on several technical platforms has been conducted. These different platforms each inter-relate in different ways with the forest sector and transportation fuel processing/value-adding industries. As of 2016, it remains unclear how many of these will emerge from niche applications or experimentation into the market mainstream.

Decisions regarding which particular forest-derived transport biofuels to pursue, and how best to pursue them, are complex and are influenced by many factors. This project has examined systemic constraints and drivers for expansion of forest-derived transport biofuels in Sweden. Through literature reviews, interviews and web-surveys, the project has delivered updated and more nuanced understanding of the positions/views of potential and existing 1st and 2nd generation transportation biofuel producers regarding

  • areas of synergy or competition for resources or political support
  • key strategies for leading actors in forest, fuel & petrochemical sectors
  • general ‘viability perceptions’ for leading fuel-engine systems/pathways.

The study provides an improved knowledge for decision-making to policy makers, industry and researchers regarding areas where policy is a help/hinder to desired progress, the structural function of important drivers and barriers, and about differences between strategies in the field and commonly held scientific beliefs.

Facts

Manager
Philip Peck, Lunds universitet

Contact
philip.peck@iiiee.lu.se

Participants
Yuliya Voytenko, Lunds universitet // Stefan Grönkvist and Tomas Lönnqvist, KTH // Julia Hansson, IVL

Time plan
August 2014 - May 2016

Total project cost
1 326 002 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, Lund University, KTH and IVL

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
39116-1

Project Manager: Philip Peck

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2016-10-12

Accumulated impacts from increased biofuel consumption in Sweden

Through ambitious targets and goals, Sweden has surpassed targets set by the EU for biofuel con­sumption and is a European…

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Through ambitious targets and goals, Sweden has surpassed targets set by the EU for biofuel con­sumption and is a European leader in the consumption of biofuels. Correspondingly, the use of biofuels in Sweden has increased rapidly since 2000. In 2014 biofuels corresponded to roughly 12% of transportation fuels.

In the context of identifying the environmental implications of Swedish biofuel consumption, this project has reviewed the origins of fuels, and raw materials used to produce the fuels from 2000-2014. This was done to identify and provide a comprehensive review of environmental implications that biofuel consumption (including imports and domestic production) of fuels have both in Sweden and abroad using life cycle assessment.

The results suggest that the increase in biofuel consumption has been met largely in part through the introduction and expansion of HVO, an increasing biogas production and consumption market and the imports of raw materials and fuels from Europe and other nations abroad. The environmental assessments illustrate that while GHG emissions may have been reduced in Sweden by the use of biofuels, the origin of the emissions has shifted from Sweden to other coun­tries abroad; due largely in part to an increased use of biofuels and raw materials from abroad.

In summary, the project illustrate that although policy has been designed to promote sustaina­ble transportation fuels, the implications on regions exporting fuels and raw materials for Swedish consumption in addition to the generation goals set by the Swedish Parliament, should be reviewed in order to avoid problem shifting and promote domestic production.

Facts

Manager
Michael Martin, IVL

Contact
michael.martin@ivl.se

Participants
Tomas Rydberg, Felipe Oliveira and Mathias Larsson, IVL

Time plan
February - September 2015

Total project cost
156 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners and IVL

Project Manager: Michael Martin

f3 Project  | Finished | 2016-10-04

Value chains for production of renewable transportation fuels using intermediates

This project compares forest raw-material value chains for conversion to transportation biofuels, with respect to energy efficiency, climate impact and…

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This project compares forest raw-material value chains for conversion to transportation biofuels, with respect to energy efficiency, climate impact and costs. The focus is on the comparison between a value chain with an added process step to produce an intermediate biofuel product, and a scenario in which the entire conversion from raw material to product is handled in one integrated step at one place. Conversion to an intermediate product with higher energy density has benefits for transportation and handling of biomass when final conversion takes place at a large central unit, but could also be a disadvantage in terms of for instance lower overall yield of transportation fuel. It is therefore important to study the whole chain from raw material to product to investigate how factors such as transport, possibilities to integration, yields and size affect the overall outcome.

Facts

Manager
Marie Anheden, earlier at Innventia

Contact
marie.anheden@vattenfall.com

Participants
Christian Ehn and Valiera Lundberg, Innventia // Karin Pettersson, Chalmers // Malin Fuglesang and Carl-Johan Hjerpe, ÅF Industri AB // Åsa Håkansson, Preem AB // Ingemar Gunnarsson, Göteborg Energi AB

Time plan
December 2014 - March 2016

Total project cost
1 491 000 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, Innventia, ÅF Industri AB, Göteborg Energi AB and Preem AB

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
39587-1

Project Manager: Marie Anheden

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2016-08-29

HEFA/HVO, Hydroprocessed Esters and Fatty Acids

HEFA (Hydroprocessed Esters and Fatty Acids), also called HVO (Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil), is a renewable diesel fuel that can be…

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HEFA (Hydroprocessed Esters and Fatty Acids), also called HVO (Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil), is a renewable diesel fuel that can be produced from a wide array of vegetable oils and fats. The term HEFA or HVO is used collectively for these biogenic hydrocarbon-based renewable biofuels. HVO is free of aromatics and sulfur and has a high cetane number. It is a so-called drop-in fuel, meaning that it is chemically equivalent to fossil diesel fuel and can be used in existing diesel engines without technical blend walls. One challenge that the production of HVO is facing is to find enough suitable and sustainable feedstock.

Primary area of use

HVO is an attractive alternative fuel due to the fact that it is  chemically equivalent to petroleum diesel and can be used in diesel engines without the blend walls or modifications required for e.g. biodiesel. However, European diesel standards limit the HVO blend due to density limits and the use of 100% HVO must be approved by the vehicle manufacturer. HEFA can also be used for biojet fuel in a blend with petroleum fuels of up to 50%. Several airlines have done trials with biojet fuels in commercial flights.

The fact that cold properties of HVO can result in clogged fuel filters and injectors may be a limiting factor. However, through isomerization of the HVO, the cloud point of the fuel can be adjusted, lowering the temperature at which wax in the fuel becomes solid.

Distribution system

HVO is a liquid fuel and distributed as low blends in fossil diesel that are sold at the fuel companies’ filling stations. Since HVO can be blended with fossil diesel, investments in new transport or distribution system are not necessary.

Preem sells HVO in a blend with biodiesel and fossil diesel, which is marketed as Evolution Diesel. Besides Preem, fuel companies such as OKQ8 (DieselBio+), St1 (CityDiesel) and Statoil (Miles Diesel) provide HVO blends of diesel based on imported HVO mainly from Europe. The OKQ8 diesel, BioMax, with 100% HVO, is currently undergoing tests.

Feedstock and production

HVO can be produced from many kinds of vegetable oils and fats. This includes triglycerides and fatty acids from vegetable oils, (e.g. rapeseed, soybean and corn oil), tall oil, (a co-product from the pulp and paper industry) in addition to the use of animal fats.

The simplified production process of HVO from vegetable oil.

HVO is produced through the hydrotreating of oils, in which the oils (triglycerides) are reacted with hydrogen under high pressure in order to remove oxygen. The hydrocarbon chains produced are chemically equivalent to petroleum diesel fuel. Propane is typically produced as a by-product. Investment costs are much higher for HVO than biodiesel production, which requires large scale production plants to allow the production to be economic. Production may be carried out in stand-alone plants producing only HVO or in integrated plants together with fossil fuels.

Raw materials for HVO production in Sweden are primarily of Swedish and European origin, but are also imported from countries outside of Europe. All HVO must fulfill the sustainability criteria set out in the Renewable Energy Directive (RED). RED sets sustainability criteria for biofuels and bioliquids identical to the Fuel Quality Directive. Availability of sustainable feedstock can be a limiting factor for HVO production, as many raw materials occur in limited amounts and may be subject to competing application areas. Of the HVO sold on the Swedish market, the raw material consists of 35% slaughterhouse wastes, 23% vegetable or animal waste oils, 22% crude tall oil, 15% palm oil and 5% animal fat. Globally, vegetable oil and palm oil are used to a larger extent.

The HVO produced in Sweden is currently (2016) based mainly on crude tall oil. The esterified tall oil used in production comes from SunPine in Piteå, which is thereafter hydrogenated to HVO at the Preem refinery in Gothenburg together with fossil raw material.

Current production and use as fuel

The sold amounts of HVO in Sweden have increased rapidly from 45 million litres in 2011 to approximately 439 million litres in 2014.

In 2015, roughly 160 million litres of HVO were produced in Sweden by Preem. The company is currently the only Swedish producer and reports that their Evolution diesel, containing up to 50% HVO, reduces fossil CO2 emissions by up to 46%. Preem recently extended their production capacity to 220 million litres, and is currently investigating new raw materials in addition to crude tall oil.

Globally, the installed capacity was about 3.8 billion litres per year in 2014. Neste Oil is the largest producer and is using waste fats and vegetable oils such as palm oil, rapeseed oil and soybean oil as feedstock. Production of HVO occurs in Singapore, Europe and the USA.

Future developments

Several actors have announced their plans to start up or expand HVO production, among them Diamond Green Diesel in the USA, who are expanding their production capacity to over 1 billion litres per year in 2018. The feedstock will be animal fats and used cooking oil.

Since feedstock availability is one of the main challenges for HVO production, there is ongoing research on new resources, for example algae oil, camelina oil and jatropha oil. In Sweden, the potential of lignin for biofuel production have raised interest. Lignin is an abundant resource which could be suitable for biogasoline production, which is however not in a strict since a HVO fuel.

Fact sheet  | 

Biogas/Biomethane/SNG

Biomethane is a gaseous fuel which consists of mainly methane. Biomethane is normally produced by upgrading (purifying) biogas. Biogas is…

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Biomethane is a gaseous fuel which consists of mainly methane. Biomethane is normally produced by upgrading (purifying) biogas. Biogas is the raw gas formed by anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge, food waste, manure etc. Before use in vehicles, biogas is always upgraded to biomethane. Biomethane can also be produced synthetically, e.g. by gasification of biomass followed by methanation; it is then called  SNG (Synthetic Natural Gas or Substitute Natural Gas).

Primary area of use

Biomethane can be used as a transport fuel, often as a mixture of biomethane and natural gas with fossil origin. Other areas of use are heat and power production, and as raw material for chemical products. The dominating use of biogas in many countries is for electricity production without prior upgrading to biomethane.

Methane is an ideal fuel for the Otto engine, but it can achieve an even higher energy efficiency if used in an engine that uses the Diesel cycle combustion process. However, the high ignition temperature of methane is a challenge in the Diesel combustion cycle and requires additional ignition assistance, usually in the form of a small pilot injection of diesel fuel. This type of engine is called a dual fuel engine. Although it has the potential of achieving higher efficiencies than the Otto engine, it comes with higher  complexity and cost.

There are two ways in which biomethane (or natural gas of fossil origin) can be stored in the vehicle fuel tanks: as compressed natural gas (CNG) at approx. 200 bar and ambient temperature, or as liquefied natural gas (LNG) at approx. 10 bar and -125°C.  Today CNG is much more common than LNG. LNG is suitable for heavy trucks that need to carry large amounts of fuel due to their long driving distances. Sometimes, fuel made of 100% biomethane is called compressed biogas (CBG) and liquefied biogas (LBG), but the terms CNG and LNG are generally usedirrespective of the biomethane content.

Feedstock and production

Biogas typically contains 60% methane and 40% carbon dioxide. It is produced through anaerobic digestion of easily degraded biomass (e.g. sugars, fatty acids, proteins). It is a naturally occurring process where microbial communities degrade biomass into hydrogen, carbon dioxide and acetic acid, synthesizing methane from these intermediates. Also, slow anaerobic digestion naturally takes place in landfills containing organic waste and the collected biogas of this type is denoted landfill gas. Several types of biomass can be used to produce biogas: the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and industrial waste, wastewater treatment sludge, agricultural residues,  manure and energy crops. Before injection into a natural gas grid and/or use in vehicles, biogas needs to be upgraded to  approximately 97% methane and purified from contaminants such as siloxanes and sulfur.

SNG can be produced by thermochemical gasification, achieved by heating biomass to high temperatures (>700°C) without combustion. The intermediate product is a synthesis gas consisting of methane, hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Depending on the type of gasification process, the composition of the synthesis gas differs and thus its suitability for methanation (the final process step where methane is formed from hydrogen and carbon monoxide). Alternatively, other fuels than methane can be produced from the synthesis gas, e.g. diesel, methanol or petrol. The raw material for thermochemical gasification is lignocellulosic biomass including energy crops and residues from forestry and agriculture; coal can also be used as raw material, though in that case the result is of course not a biofuel.

SNG can also be produced from carbon dioxide and hydrogen. For a low carbon footprint, the hydrogen is produced by electrolysis using renewable electricity. Carbon dioxide can e.g. be supplied from a conventional biogas upgrading plant. Other hydrocarbon fuels such as diesel, methanol and petrol can be synthesized in a similar way; all such fuels are usually denoted electrofuels.

Current production volumes

The use of biomethane as a vehicle fuel, which is small compared to bioethanol and biodiesel, is concentrated to Europe, more specifically to Sweden, Germany, Switzerland, the Netherlands, and Austria. European statistics for biomethane used as vehicle fuel are difficult to find, probably because the volumes are still very small and the final use is difficult to trace when biomethane is co-distributed with natural gas in a gas grid. According to the Swedish Energy Agency, production volumes for upgraded biogas in Sweden amounted to 1 TWh during 2014, of which almost all was used in the transport sector. This is equivalent to 9% of the biofuel use, and 1.1% of total use of fuels for domestic transport in Sweden. Even though the production of biomethane for use in vehicles is limited in Europe today, there is a large  production of raw biogas that potentially could be upgraded to biomethane. The biogas production in Europe amounted to 156 TWh (primary  energy) during 2013 (EurObserv’ER 2014).

System of distribution

Biomethane may be distributed from production site to fuel station by road transport either under high pressure (CNG) or in a liquefied state (LNG). Compressed biomethane may also be injected in the natural gas grid which in turn supplies many fuel stations (although that is not common in Sweden).

SNG projects in Europe

GoBiGas (Göteborg Energi) in Gothenburg, Sweden. A demonstration plant producing biomethane by gasification of forest residues with 20 MW SNG output is in operation since 2014.

Audi/ETOGAS plant in Werlte, Germany. The plant uses hydrogen from intermittent wind power and carbon dioxide from biogas upgrading to produce biomethane which is injected into the natural gas grid. The corresponding amount of methane is sold to Audi car owners.

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Biogas/Biomethane/SNG

Fact sheet  | 

Life cycle assessments of arable land use options and protein feeds

This summary is an extended abstract for a Master of Science in Energy Environment Management thesis performed at Linköping University,…

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This summary is an extended abstract for a Master of Science in Energy Environment Management thesis performed at Linköping University, the Department of Management and Engineering, written by Malin Karlsson and Linnea Sund.  The thesis was supervised by Sandra Halldin at Lantmännen Agroetanol, a member of f3.

Introduction

The last three decades have been the warmest of the last 1400 years in the northern hemisphere. Human influence on the climate is clear and the on-going climate changes have had widespread impacts on the environment and the economy (IPCC, 2015). Agricultural activities are estimated to be responsible for one-third of climate change, partly because of deforestation and the use of fertilisers (Climate Institute, n.d.). The beef production is also a major contributor to climate change, and the beef consumption worldwide is increasing, raising the demand for animal feed (Dalgaard, et al., 2008). One of the reasons why the beef production has such a large environmental impact is the large area of arable land required in order to grow animal feed (Larsson, 2015). The population growth and the climate change will probably lead to a decrease in available arable land in parts of the world (Zhang & Cai, 2011), which means it is more important than ever to use the arable land existing today in the best possible way from a climate change perspective.

Biofuels, such as bioethanol and rape methyl ester (RME), are produced with the hope to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from a life cycle perspective, since biofuels can replace fossil fuels in the transportation sector. As the availability of arable land is limited, the greenhouse gas reduction per hectare of land and year is an important measure of sustainability when producing biofuels (Börjesson, et al., 2013). Lately, using arable land for biofuel production has been criticized for competing with food production and leading to indirect land use changes, i.e. the production of biofuels in Europe leading to changed land use and greenhouse gas emissions somewhere else in the world. At the same time, a significant part of the European arable land is used as fallow (Eriksson, 2013), land that could have been used to produce food or biofuels. These aspects opens up for a discussion – how should the arable land be used to contribute as little as possible to climate change?

When producing bioethanol from wheat and RME from rapeseed, the co-products Dried Distillers Grain with Solubles (DDGS) and rapeseed meal are also produced. These co-products can be used as protein sources in animal feed and substitute imported soybean meal, which means less land is required to grow soybeans (Börjesson, et al., 2010). However, different protein feeds have different protein content, and soybean meal contains more protein than DDGS and rapeseed meal which means a smaller amount of soybean meal is required to provide the animals with their daily protein intake compared to the two other protein feeds (Bernesson & Strid, 2011). The question remains which of the three protein feeds that contributes the least to climate change.

Aim and method

The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the climate impact from different arable land use options and protein feeds  aimed for cattle. This has been made by executing two life cycle assessments (LCAs). The first LCA aimed to compare the following three arable land use options:

Cultivation of wheat used for production of bioethanol, carbon dioxide and DDGSCultivation of rapeseed used for production of RME, rapeseed meal and glycerineFallow in the form of long-term grassland

The second LCA aimed to compare the three protein feeds DDGS, rapeseed meal and soybean meal. In the LCA of arable land, the functional unit 1 ha arable land during one year was used and the LCA had a cradle-to-grave perspective. The LCA of protein feeds had the functional unit 100 kg digestible crude protein and had a cradle-to-gate perspective, hence the use and disposal phases of the feeds were excluded.

Bioethanol, DDGS and carbon dioxide produced at Lantmännen Agroetanol, Norrköping, were investigated in this study. The production of RME, rapeseed meal and glycerine were considered to occur at a large-scale plant in Östergötland, but no site-specific data was used. Instead, general data of Swedish production was used in the assessment. The wheat and rapeseed cultivations were considered to take place at the same Swedish field as the fallow takes place.

The protein feed DDGS was produced at Lantmännen Agroetanol and the rapeseed meal was assumed to be produced at a general large-scale plant in Sweden. In the soybean meal scenario, a general case for the Brazilian state Mato Grosso was assumed and no specific production site was investigated. Data required for the LCAs was retrieved from literature, the LCI database Ecoinvent and from Lantmännen Agroetanol.

In the LCA of arable land use options, system expansion was used on all products produced to be able to compare the wheat and rapeseed scenarios with the fallow scenario. In the LCA of protein feeds, system expansion was used on co-products. The products in the arable land use options and the co-products in the protein feed scenarios are considered to replace the production and use of products on the market with the same function.

Results and conclusion

The result shows that the best arable land use option from a climate change perspective is to cultivate wheat and produce bioethanol, carbon dioxide and DDGS. This is since wheat cultivation has a higher yield per hectare compared to rapeseed and therefore a bigger amount of fossil products and feed ingredients can be substituted. To have the arable land in fallow is the worst option from a climate change perspective, since no products are produced that can substitute alternative products. Furthermore, the result shows that DDGS and rapeseed meal are to prefer before soybean meal from a climate change perspective, since soybean meal has a higher climate impact than DDGS and rapeseed meal. This can be explained by the smaller share of co-products produced in the soybean meal scenario compared to the DDGS and rapeseed meal scenarios. Since the production and use of co-products leads to avoided greenhouse gas emissions (since they substitute alternatives), the amount of co-products being produced is an important factor. A sensitivity analysis was also executed testing different system boundaries and variables critical for the result in both LCAs.

The conclusion of this study is that arable land should be used to cultivate wheat in order to reduce the total climate impact from arable land. Furthermore, it is favorable for the climate if DDGS or rapeseed meal are used as protein feeds instead of imported soybean meal.

Facts

Participants
Malin Karlsson and Linnea Sund, Linköping University

References in the summary

Bernesson, S. & Strid, I., 2011. Svensk spannmålsbaserad drank - alternativa sätt att tillvarata dess ekonomiska, energi - och miljömässiga potential, Uppsala: Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).

Börjesson, P., Tufvesson, L. & Lantz, M., 2010. Life Cycle Assessment of Biofuels in Sweden, Lund: Lund University.

Börjesson, P., Lundgren, J., Ahlgren, S. & Nyström, I., 2013. Dagens och framtidens hållbara biodrivmedel, s.l.: f3 The Swedish Knowledge Centre for Renewable Transportation Fuels.

Climate Institute, n.d. Agriculture.

Dalgaard, R. et al., 2008. LCA of Soybean Meal. Int J LCA, 13(3), pp. 240-254.

Eriksson, M., 2013. Mat eller Motor - Hur långt kommer vi med vår åkermark? Stockholm: Macklean Strategiutveckling AB.

IPCC, 2015. Climate Change 2014 - Synthesis Report, Switzerland: u.n.

Larsson, J., 2015. Hållbara konsumtionsmönster - analyser av maten, flyget och den totala konsumtionens klimatpåverkan idag och 2050, s.l.: Naturvårdsverket.

Zhang, X. & Cai, X., 2011. Climate change impacts on global agricultural land availability. Environmental Research Letters, 18 March. Volume 6.

f3 Project  | Finished | 2016-06-30

Sustainable biofuels today and in the future

In 2012 f3 was asked to contribute to the official report of the Swedish Government “Fossilfrihet på väg” (Fossil independency…

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In 2012 f3 was asked to contribute to the official report of the Swedish Government “Fossilfrihet på väg” (Fossil independency on the way, SOU 2013:84) by summarizing the current state of the art knowledge about production of biofuels and sustainability aspects such as energy and land efficiency and greenhouse gas performance and costs, preferably from a Swedish perspective. The f3 contribution was published in June 2013 with the title “Dagens och framtidens hållbara biodrivmedel” (Sustainable biofuels today and in the future).

During 2016 a new report was compiled, based on the work of the 2013 publication. This report includes facts and figures updated in correspondance to new research results and is available in English.

Facts

Manager
Ingrid Nyström, Chalmers Industriteknik Industriell Energi AB

Contact
ingrid.nystrom@chalmersindustriteknik.se

Participants
Pål Börjesson, Lund University // Serina Ahlgren, SLU // Joakim Lundgren, LTU

Time plan
The contribution to the government official report was produced and published in the spring of 2013. The updated compilation report was published in May 2016.

Project Manager: Ingrid Nyström

f3 Project  | Finished | 2016-05-20

Flexibility in ethanol-based lignocellulose biorefineries

This project has produced a knowledge synthesis addressing flexibility in ethanol-based biorefinery processes using lignocellulosic feedstocks from the Swedish forestry…

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This project has produced a knowledge synthesis addressing flexibility in ethanol-based biorefinery processes using lignocellulosic feedstocks from the Swedish forestry and agricultural sectors. The flexibility of biorefinery operations is important as it determines their capacity to respond to fluctuations in feedstock supply and market demands. Here, the flexibility of feedstocks, processes, volumes and products, referred to as manufacturing flexibility, is reviewed. Particular emphasis has been given feedstock and product flexibility.

Increasing the product flexibility of a biorefinery is one means of reducing the risks associated with uncertainties in the future biofuel demand. A number of non-fuel products can be generated in a flexible biorefinery and there is future market potential in e.g. polyhydroxyalkanoates, lactic acid and other organic acids. Further, single-cell proteins may be produced with a number of microorganisms, using lignocellulosic sugars, simple nutrients and equipment similar to that of second generation ethanol plants.

It is concluded that a vast number of options to increase manufacturing flexibility in biorefinery operations exist. Although the present report does not include assessments of these options from a techno-economical perspective, it is indispensable that such analyses are made in conjunction with a scrutiny of the effects on the production as a whole, and the interdependency of the different processing steps in relation to the prerequisites of each biorefinery facility.

Facts

Manager
Robin Kalmendal, earlier at SP

Contact
robin.kalmendal@vgregion.se

Participants
Rickard Fornell and Karin Willqvist, SP // Björn Alriksson, SP Processum

Time plan
September 2015 - February 2016

Total project cost
250 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners

Project Manager: Robin Kalmendal

f3 Project  | Finished | 2016-05-10

Overview of value flows in the present Swedish forest-based industry

The intensified focus on bio-based economy has revived the interest in forest industry as a very important factor in the…

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The intensified focus on bio-based economy has revived the interest in forest industry as a very important factor in the achievement of the transition away from an economy based in fossil raw materials. The sustainable use of the natural resources and their ecosystem services is an important constituent of the bioeconomy. The objective of this project has been to give an overall view of the economic values related to the main physical biomass flows through the Swedish forest industry, and to discuss the implication for these value flows at the introduction of large-scale transportation fuel production from forest biomass. Thereby it aims to provide a better understanding for the bioeconomy structure, the values added within it and the options for renewable motor fuel production, by applying a “follow the money” approach.

The approach has been to combine existing information on physical feedstock flows with economic data from available statistics and literature. Through interviews and collection of more detailed statistics, data on production, market prices and value chains were compiled for three selected products: softwood kraft pulp, dissolving grade cellulose and ethanol.

The general conclusion from the project is that biorefining is about finding the optimal combination of feedstock requirements, processing cost, process flexibility, product mix and product properties.  Biorefining with integrated production of several products is generally found to be more efficient and with better economic performance than separate production. Integration with interdependence of several processes, however, increases the technical complexity and puts new demands on the businesses.

Facts

Manager
Jonas Joelsson, SP Processum

Contact
jonas.joelsson@processum.se

Participants
Dimitris Athanassiadis, SLU

Time plan
March - June 2015

Total project cost
178 000 SEK

Funding
f3:s parter

Project Manager: Jonas Joelsson

f3 Project  | Finished | 2016-02-25

How can forest-derived methane complement biogas from anaerobic digestion in the Swedish transport sector?

Forest-derived methane may contribute significantly to a vehicle fleet independent of fossil fuels by 2030. There is sufficient technical knowledge…

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Forest-derived methane may contribute significantly to a vehicle fleet independent of fossil fuels by 2030. There is sufficient technical knowledge about energy conversion methods and several Swedish actors have investigated and prepared investments in production facilities, but the technology is not commercially mature yet and it needs support during a development period. The combination of varying investment possibilities due to market changes, and the unpredictable development of policy instruments supporting production and use of renewable energy, is a major reason to why potential investments are postponed.

The use of upgraded biogas in the transport sector has increased continuously since its introduction in 1996. Upgraded biogas is complemented by natural gas to meet the vehicle gas demand. A voluntary agreement among the distributors maintains a minimum biogas share that corresponds to 50 %. The biogas share is much higher today (74 % by volume, average January-August 2015) and some large end-users use pure upgraded biogas.

Studies of the practical production potential show that the current vehicle gas demand could be met entirely with upgraded biogas. However, an increased demand will eventually require other production pathways based on other feedstocks. Gasification of forest biomass is one such pathway.

This project has conducted a literature study and an interview study with three industry actors to answer the question “How can forest derived methane complement biogas from anaerobic digestion in the Swedish transport sector?” For example, results from the study point out that

  • In order to attract investments in forest-derived methane, the vehicle gas market must continue to increase. To invest in a large-scale facility implies too large a risk given the size of the current demand and the uncertainties of the future market.
  • If methane should be able to play an increasingly important role in a future transportation sector, the gasification technology needs policy support during a development period.
  • The predictability of policy support is perceived as low. The predictability is more important than the specific type of policy instrument to attract investments.

Facts

Manager
Stefan Grönkvist, KTH

Contact
stefangr@kth.se

Participants
Tomas Lönnqvist and Thomas Sandberg, KTH

Time plan
November 2014 - June 2015

Total project cost
250 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners and KTH

Project Manager: Stefan Grönkvist

f3 Project  | Finished | 2016-02-18

Biogas from agricultural wastes and residues – Where and how much?

In the last years the number of gas-fuelled vehicles has increased rapidly in Sweden. The purpose of this project has…

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In the last years the number of gas-fuelled vehicles has increased rapidly in Sweden. The purpose of this project has been to estimate how much upgraded biogas could be produced from manure and agricultural harvest residues in Sweden and the EU.

This is done by building a model of the technical and economic conditions for biogas production, taking the geographical distribution of biogas substrates into account. The model has a finer resolution than in previous studies, allowing an overall techno-economical judgment of investment and operations costs for digestion and upgrading as well as transports of substrates and digestate. The result of the project is a map of the potential for biogas production from agricultural residues and manure in Europe. A more detailed analysis is also performed for Sweden, in collaboration with representatives from academia, government and industry.

 

Facts

Manager
Martin Persson, Chalmers

Contact
martin.persson@chalmers.se

Participants
Christel Cederberg and Göran Berndes, Chalmers // Rasmus Einarsson and Johan Torén, SP // Emma Kreuger, Lund University

Time plan
September 2014 - October 2015

Total project cost
803 052 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, Chalmers, SP and Lund University

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
39124-1

Project Manager: Martin Persson

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2016-01-07

The method’s influence on climate impact assessment of biofuels and other uses of forest biomass

There are potentially significant climate benefits with fuels derived from Swedish forest biomass. The assessment of these benefits strongly depends…

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There are potentially significant climate benefits with fuels derived from Swedish forest biomass. The assessment of these benefits strongly depends on methodological choices and assumptions regarding substituted products and alternative uses of the biomass. This project aims at studying how biofuels’ potential climate benefits depend on these choices and assumptions. Different methods for climate impact assessment are evaluated in life cycle assessments of biofuels, and comparisons are made with alternative uses of Swedish forest biomass: building materials, textile fibres and chemicals.

The project is needed both to improve methods for the  assessment of climate impact and to strengthen decision making influencing Swedish biofuel production.

Results