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Since 2010, f3 has financed a large number of researh projects. The projects were funded within the former networking organisation f3 Swedish Knowledge Centre for Renewable Transportation Fuels, and within the collaborative research program Renewable transportation fuels and systems that f3 financed jointly with the Swedish Energy Agency between 2014 and 2021.

Use the search box below to find project-related reports and summaries. The library also contains fact sheets and other material published by f3.

The majority of project reports are written in English, with a Swedish summary.

Recorded events

Recordings from webinars and conferences where research results are presented (mainly in Swedish) are available on Youtube. Visit the f3 Youtube channel.

Sorting of publications

Most efficient use of biomass – for biofuels or electrofuels?

How is the European energy system affected by different biofuel blending requirements for liquid fuels in the medium and long…

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How is the European energy system affected by different biofuel blending requirements for liquid fuels in the medium and long term?

The results of this study suggest that cost-effective system solutions that reach the emission targets for the year 2040 may mean that the need for liquid fuels for the transport sector is still based on fossil raw materials. For 2060, the emissions target will be reached with the help of electrofuels and by compensating the use of fossil-based liquid fuels via negative emissions.

In these time perspectives, requirements for 20 percent mixing of biofuels in liquid fuels would increase the total energy system cost by 2-14 percent in 2040 (10-66 billion Euros). In 2060, a 50 percent blending requirement would increase the cost by 4-8 percent (18-40 billion Euros). The explanation for the increase in 2060 is the limited availability of biomass and that the production of biofuels, via the Fischer Tropsch process, results in higher costs than if the biomass had been used for industrial heat and cogeneration.

The researchers point to ways to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from the energy system as a whole that are cheaper than blending requirements. To avoid lock-in effects in a future with the conditions described by the model, the development of flexible biorefineries is important. They can adjust their production to respond to market needs.

The system costs have been developed using an energy system model covering all energy sectors in Europe: electricity, heating, transport, industrial heat and chemicals. The study assumes that the demand for liquid carbon-based fuels decreases sharply over time, from 30 percent of primary energy demand in 2040 to 15 percent in 2060.

The reduced demand is based on expectations of reduced costs for electricity and hydrogen production, that there will be significant electrification of the transport and industrial sectors and that part of the fuel demand will be met by hydrogen. It is assumed that carbon dioxide capture and storage is integrated with biomass use for power and industrial heat, and with biofuel production. Liquid biofuels from solid biomass are assumed to be produced via the Fischer Tropsch process.

The researchers assume that compared to the 1990-year level, there will be a requirement for 80 percent lower carbon dioxide emissions from the EU’s energy and transport system in 2040, and that the reduction requirement in 2060 will be 105 percent, i.e., negative emissions corresponding to 5 percent of the emissions for 1990.

Results were presented (in Swedish) in a webinar on 22 March, 2022. A recording is available here:

Facts

Manager
Fredrik Hedenus, Chalmers

Contact
hedenus@chalmers.se

Participants
Markus Millinger, Göran Berndes and Lina Reichenberg, Chalmers // Tom Brown and Elisabeth Zeyen, Technische Universität Berlin

Time plan
1 July 2020 - 31 December 2021

Total project cost
2 253 000 SEK

Funding
The Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partner organisations, Chalmers and KIT.

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
50460-1

The project has a reference group including representatives from Preem, Göteborg Energi, Energiföretagen, Södra and Fossilfritt Sverige.

Project Manager: Fredrik Hedenus

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2022-10-05

Routes for production of transportation fuels via deoxygenated bio oil

A comparison between four process paths for using hydrogen to remove oxygen from bio-oil, a raw material for fuel that…

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A comparison between four process paths for using hydrogen to remove oxygen from bio-oil, a raw material for fuel that can be used in existing biorefineries, shows that one process, called IH2, has unmatched system efficiency.

Bio-oil can be produced e.g. from forest residual biomass. As a bio-based raw material for producing drop-in fuel in the form of petrol and diesel, it is a suitable choice because it can be used in the refinery process in the same way as ordinary fossil crude oil. However, the oxygen content in it must first be removed. This can be done through hydrodeoxygenation (HDO), meaning that hydrogen is added to react with the oxygen in the bio-oil and form water. To achieve the climate target by 2045, the process would require between 0.17–0.42 million tonnes of hydrogen annually.

HDO and its efficiency can significantly affect the entire process, the yield and efficiency. Analyzes of techno-economic and climate performance of all four studied process paths show that one process, the IH2 process, is superior. In the IH2 process, pyrolysis of residual biomass, HDO and hydrogen production are integrated into one whole. This gives it a system efficiency of 60 percent; the corresponding figure for the other studied processes is around 25 percent.

Efficient utilization of carbon in biomass is a key factor for the production of bio-based products. In the HDO process, carbon efficiency is generally low. More than 50 percent of the carbon is lost in the form of carbon dioxide. However, if incentives for negative emissions are introduced, for example by integrating bio-CCS with biofuel production, production of HDO bio-oil will become attractive.

Compared with the use of fossil crude oil, the IH2 process presents the opportunity to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 91-96 percent with bio-based fuels.

The price of drop-in fuels produced from bio-oil where the oxygen has been removed with IH2 technology will be 56–75 percent lower than the current market price for fossil-based fuels.

The IH2 process has already been demonstrated commercially. More research is needed to improve the performance of the other processes.

Results were presented in a webinar on 3 May, 2022:

At KTH, a webbsite has been created for the project. 

Facts

Manager
Shareq Mohd Nazir, KTH Royal Institute of Technology

Contact
smnazir@kth.se

Participants
Klas Engvall, Lucio Rodrigo Alejo Vargas and Shivani Ramprasad Jambur, KTH // Simon Harvey, Chalmers // Elin Svensson and Pontus Bokinge, CIT Industriell Energi // Rolf Ljunggren, Cortus Energy AB

Time plan
1 July 2020 - 31 January 2022

Total project cost
1 764 000 SEK

Funding
The Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partner organisations, KTH, Chalmers and Cortus Energy.

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
50466-1

A focus group with members from relevant industry will be tied to the project.

Project Manager: Shareq Mohd Nazir

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2022-06-23

Sulfur-Free MARine LIgnin FuEls (SMARt LIFE)

A new fuel based on residual products from the forest could minimize shipping’s emissions of both sulfur and carbon dioxide,…

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A new fuel based on residual products from the forest could minimize shipping’s emissions of both sulfur and carbon dioxide, tests on a lab scale show.

In a typical Nordic sawmill, raw material equivalent to half of the logs become by-products. That has great potential to fully or partially meet the criteria as a raw material for fuel that can replace heavy fuel oil.

Through a new technology for the treatment of wood residues, based on so-called organosolve fractionation, cellulose and sulfur-free lignin from forest biomass can be isolated. The cellulose can be used to produce the ethanol contained in ethylene glycol, which in turn can be mixed with lignin to produce a fuel called LinEG (organosolv lignin/ethylene glycol).

The research group has developed the technology for producing LinEG on a lab scale and evaluated the fuel’s properties in a test engine to investigate the possibility of using it as a drop-in fuel in ships.

The results show that further development work is required for LinEG to be able to function as a drop-in fuel and to make it commercially interesting.

Some challenges are

  • The relatively low calorific value of the LinEG fuel requires double volumes compared to heavy fuel oil.
  • The ethylene glycol used in this study to make the fuel is fossil based. However, it can be produced sustainably, for example via fermentation of cellulose.
  • LinEG fuel is expected to be more expensive than low-sulfur fossil fuel oil, but cheaper than HVO fuel.
  • There is currently no large-scale facility for organosolve fractionation of forest biomass, which is an important prerequisite for an industrial implementation.

The full final report is postponed due to scientific publication. Contact the project manager if you want to know more.

Results from the project were presented in English in a webinar on 2 June 2022:

Facts

Manager
Dimitris Athanassiadis, Swedish University of Agriculture (SLU) and Bio4Energy

Contact
dimitris.athanassiadis@slu.se

Participants
David Agar, SLU // Paul Christakopoulos, Ulrika Rova and Leonidas Matsakas , Bio4Energy/LTU // Martin Tunér, Lund University // Joanne Ellis, SSPA

Time plan
September 2019 - April 2022

Total project cost
2 309 544 SEK

Funding
The Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, SLU, Luleå University of Technology, Lund University, SSPA Sweden and Sveaskog.

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
48358-1

The final report can be distributed on request.

Project Manager: Dimitris Athanassiadis

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2022-06-17

The connection between policies and biofuel production and consumtion in Europe and how it affects Sweden

The reduction mandate in Sweden works well. It has led to expansive use of biofuels with high greenhouse gas performance…

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The reduction mandate in Sweden works well. It has led to expansive use of biofuels with high greenhouse gas performance and by far the largest emission reductions in the transport sector within the EU.

The project has compared policy instruments, production and consumption of biofuels in the 27 EU countries and analyzed the connections and how Sweden is affected.

The results show that the Swedish reduction mandate works well, as it specifically steers towards reduced greenhouse gas emissions.

Increasing levels of reduction will mean an increased need for biofuels with high greenhouse gas performance, while demand for this type of biofuel is also likely to increase in the rest of the EU and the rest of the world.

Sweden currently imports more than half of the biofuels. In order to have access to the biofuels needed to meet the reduction mandate at a sustainable price, it will be crucial that there is sufficient supply of sustainable raw materials and that production capacity is expanded as demand within the EU increases.

Project conclusions in summary:

  • The reduction mandate, which steers towards using biofuels with high greenhouse gas performance, works better than mixing mandates based on volume or energy.
  • Blend-in mandates spur national consumption, but not necessarily production.
  • Competition for biofuels and the raw materials from which they are produced, may increase with increased climate ambitions within the EU.
  • Fuel producers in Sweden and other EU countries are actively developing new technologies and working to ensure the supply of raw materials.
  • New production facilities, in Sweden as well as other EU countries, are being designed to be able to switch other bio-products as the electrification of the road transport sector reduces the need for biofuels.
  • New production facilities based on established technology are located mainly in the vicinity of existing infrastructure, but for new technologies, facilities can be established where a knowledge base has been built up through R&D activities.

Results from the project were presented (in Swedish) in a webinar on 12 May 2022:

Facts

Manager
Liv Lundberg, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden

Contact
liv.lundberg@ri.se

Participants
Jonas Zetterholm, Olivia Cintas and Sujeetha Selvakkumaran, RISED

Time plan
3 August 2020 - 31 December 2021

Total project cost
820 748 SEK

Funding
The Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partner organisations, Chalmers, Lantmännen, Preem, RISE, Scania and St1 Sweden.

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
50479-1

The project's working group also includes representatives from industry - both producers and users - and researchers involved in biofuels in Sweden. The group, consisting of Lantmännen, E.on, Scania, Preem, St1 and Chalmers, will provide the project with business specific insights, ideas and other relevant input on a regular basis.

Project Manager: Liv Lundberg

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2022-06-03

Climate impact of car travel moving towards climate neutrality

In order to reduce the transport sector’s fossil carbon dioxide emissions and achieve politically set goals, both increased electrification and…

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In order to reduce the transport sector’s fossil carbon dioxide emissions and achieve politically set goals, both increased electrification and increased use of biofuels in Swedish car traffic are required.

Here, the development of Swedish car traffic up to 2060 is modeled. To achieve the climate goals, a combination of two strategies is needed: A transition to electrification, possibly accelerated by a ban on the sale of new cars with internal combustion engines, and a reduction mandate to blend in blending biofuels.

Combining an early sales ban with ambitious policy instruments for increased use of biofuels can reduce cars’ fossil carbon dioxide emissions by more than 70 percent by 2030. The indicative level for 2045, which should be close to zero emissions from car traffic, is only achieved by combining an early ban (in 2025 or 2030) with increasing biofuel use at least until 2030, according to this study,

Without the support of policy for rapid electrification (for example through sales bans), car traffic’s emissions of fossil carbon dioxide depend to a much greater extent on how the blending of biofuels develops over time.

The global average temperature increases linearly with fossil carbon dioxide emissions and lasts for hundreds of years. When using biofuels, there is not the same linear relationship between global warming and the biogenic carbon dioxide emitted from cars’ exhaust pipes. The temperature impact of Swedish car traffic, when both fossil and biogenic emissions are taken into account, thus depends on the origin of carbon dioxide emissions.

The turnover time of the biomass, i.e., the time that the carbon atoms in the biomass would have remained in the biogenic carbon stock if they had not been used as an energy raw material, is also important for how large the contribution to heating will be. The shorter the turnover time of the biomass used, the less effect it will have on the temperature.

Results were presented (in Swedish) in a webinar on 26th April 2022:

Facts

Manager
Göran Berndes, Chalmers

Contact
goran.berndes@chalmers.se

Participants
Daniel Johansson and Johannes Morfeldt, Chalmers // Julia Hansson and Sofie Hellsten, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

Time plan
15 June 2020 - 30 November 2021

Total project cost
2 123 000 SEK

Funding
The Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partner organisations, Chalmers and IVL.

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
50434-1

The project has a reference gruop consisting of Jakob Lagercrantz, the Swedish 2030-secretariat; Anna Elofsson head secretary for SOU 2019:04 (The Swedish Government Inquiry on the phase-out of fossil fuels and a petrol and diesel car sales ban); Anna Widerberg and Andrea Egeskog, Volvo Cars; Tomas Kåberger, Swedish Climate Policy Council and Anette Cowie, IEA Bioenergy and University of New England, Ausrtalia. The reference group will mainly be involved in teh scenario construction and assessment.

Project Manager: Göran Berndes

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2022-06-03

Mitigating environmental impacts from biomass production by producing more biomass

Changes in land use combined with multifunctional production systems can reduce the negative environmental effects of agriculture while increasing biomass…

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Changes in land use combined with multifunctional production systems can reduce the negative environmental effects of agriculture while increasing biomass production.

Demand for biofuels and bio-based materials increases the pressure on agriculture to produce biomass. Intensified land use can lead to more common negative effects such as erosion, nitrogen leakage, loss of soil carbon and floods.

The problem can be alleviated with the help of multifunctional production systems, which means that perennial crops are grown in a way and place that counteracts the negative environmental effects of intensive agriculture in the landscape. These systems provide society with double benefits: more biomass and reduced environmental problems.

The project has studied three multifunctional systems and how they can be implemented to solve several of agriculture’s most common environmental problems, at the same time as the produced biomass can be harvested for e.g., biofuel production. The three systems are large-scale deployment of riparian buffers and windbreaks consisting of short-rotation coppice (willow and poplar plantations) and perennial grass in rotation with annual crops.

The spatial models are based on high-resolution data and have been applied to 81,000 individual landscapes across the EU and the UK. This way, it is possible to identify individual landscapes where multifunctional systems can be particularly advantageous, while at the same time it is possible to study the effects of implementation at European level. Large-scale deployment of grass in rotation with annual crops can provide soil organic carbon sequestration at levels possibly exceeding 10% of total annual GHG emissions from agriculture in EU27-UK.

Implementing multifunctional systems on a large scale requires local markets for biomass and the possibility of compensation for delivered environmental benefits. This is exemplified in a case study of an existing CHP plant in Skåne. The CHP plant utilizes lignocellulose from energy crops for bio-oil production. It could fill almost its entire need for biomass raw material from local plantings on buffer strips and in filter zones, as well as poplar cultivation on abandoned arable land.

Read the press release from Mid Sweden University announcing publication of the latest scientific article from the project.

Facts

Manager
Göran Berndes, Chalmers

Contact
goran.berndes@chalmers.se

Participants
Christel Cederberg, Chalmers // Oskar Englund, Mid Sweden University and Englund GeoLab AB // Pål Börjesson, Lund University

Time plan
July 2019 - December 2021

Total project cost
1 978 134 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, Chalmers, Englund GeoLab AB and Lund University

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
48364-1

Part of the dissemination in the project was carried out within IEA Bioenergy Task 45 - Climate and sustainability effects of bioenergy within the broader bioeconomy.

Project Manager: Göran Berndes

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2022-05-23

Multi filling stations

Future multi-filling stations that produce and/or sell hydrogen together with other fuels could facilitate the introduction of renewable hydrogen. Hydrogen…

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Future multi-filling stations that produce and/or sell hydrogen together with other fuels could facilitate the introduction of renewable hydrogen.

Hydrogen can play an important role in reducing the environmental impact of heavy road transport. The introduction can be facilitated if the hydrogen is sold at existing filling stations, which already have a functioning infrastructure and customers.

The project has evaluated the cost and climate performance of four different system solutions for production, distribution and storage of hydrogen. Two are centralized large-scale hydrogen production via water electrolysis or steam reforming of biomethane (SMR) requiring distribution through dedicated distribution channels, and two are on-site hydrogen production via electrolysis and SMR (decentralized production).

The analysis indicates that the most cost-effective alternative is to produce hydrogen with electrolysis on site at a slightly larger filling station, with the capacity to annually provide 10 GWh of hydrogen. This corresponds to approximately 800 kg of hydrogen/day. The production price per kg of hydrogen will then be 75 SEK, with an electricity price of 1 SEK/kWh. However, a competitive cost for hydrogen should be around 50 SEK per kg with respect to the purchase price of a hydrogen vehicle, which today is still higher than that for a corresponding diesel vehicle.

In general, the analysis shows that the systems with the larger capacity present a lower price per kg of hydrogen. It also shows that that electrolysis of water is cheaper than reforming biomethane when the electricity price is 1 SEK/kWh, and the price for biomethane is 0,7 SEK/kWh in central production and 0.9 SEK/kWh at the pump.

However, reforming of biomethane results in lower net emissions of greenhouse gases compared with electrolysis, as the Swedish mix of biomethane contains fertilizer, which results in negative emissions when fertilizer is used in a biogas plant instead of conventional handling in agriculture.

Results from the project were presented (in Swedish) in a webinar on 29 March, 2022:

Facts

Manager
Anders Hjort and Anton Fagerström, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

Contact
anders.hjort@ivl.se

Participants
Karl Jivén, Johan Rootzén, Adam Lewrén, Theo Nyberg, Mirjam Särnbratt and Sofia Poulikidou, IVL // Pontus Bokinge and Stefan Heyne, CIT Industrial Energy

Time plan
15 June 2020 - 31 December 2021

Total project cost
2 800 000 SEK

Funding
The Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners organisations, AB Borlänge Energi. E.on Biofor Sverige AB, Gasum AB, IVL, Metacon AB, Neste AB, Nilsson Energy, Powercell Sweden AB, Sandviken municipality, Trollhättan Energi and Volvo Technology AB.

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
50324-1

The projects has a reference group consisting of representatives of fuel producers, filling stations, technology providers and users. These are E.on, Volvo, Borlänge Energi, Powercell, Metacon and Sandviken
Pure Power.

Project Manager: Anders Hjort and Anton Fagerström

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2022-03-29

Climate-positive and carbon-efficient bio jet fuels, are they possible? – a systematic evaluation of potential and costs

Combining aviation fuel production with CCS can eliminate the climate impact from aviation. Producing biofuels from biomass means that only…

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Combining aviation fuel production with CCS can eliminate the climate impact from aviation.

Producing biofuels from biomass means that only part of the carbon atoms from the biomass end up in the product. The rest of them are often emitted as carbon dioxide directly in the production process. This does not only mean that the climate benefits from biofuels decrease and a carbon debt is created, a connection that often in focus in discussions about the sustainability of biofuels. It also tends to make the use of biomass inefficient, compared to a case in which all biogenic carbon atoms were to be included in products replacing for example fossil fuels.

Future conversion technologies and use of biomass are expected to require high carbon utilization and/or negative CO2 emissions to be legitimate and competitive in the long run. To capture and store a part of the carbon in biomass raw material also opens up for the possibility of producing CO2 negative bio jet fuel that could compensate for non-CO2 climate impacts that constitute an additional climate impact due to emissions at high altitudes. This could help to reach flight transports with potentially little or no total climate impact.

This project makes a systematic evaluation of the possibilities of increasing utilization of biogenic carbon of the raw material through an increased yield of carbon in bio jet fuel and/or storage of carbon. Various technologies are evaluated for carbon efficiency, climate and costs, with/without CO2 capture and use (BECCU) or storage (BECCS).

The overall project goal is to develop a knowledge and decision basis to support the development towards a sustainable aviation sector with regard to both R&D and commercial implementation technology. The project is an extension of the ongoing project Future-proof biofuels through improved utilization of biogenic carbon – carbon, climate and cost efficiency (K3), that studies road transport.

Results from the study were presented (in Swedish) in a webinar on 24 March 2022:

Facts

Manager
Erik Furusjö, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden

Contact
erik.furusjo@ri.se

Participants
Johan M. Ahlström, RISE // Elisabeth Wetterlund and Yawer Jafri, Bio4Energy (LTU Luleå University of Technology) // Harri Heiskanen, Neste

Time plan
1 August 2020 - 31 December 2021

Total project cost
595 000 SEK

Funding
The Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partner organisations, Bio4Energy (LTU), Neste AB, RISE and SkyltMax.

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
50482-1

Stakeholders from industry will be involved in the project's working group.

Project Manager: Erik Furusjö

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2022-03-23

Future-proof biofuels through improved utilization of biogenic carbon – carbon, climate and cost efficiency (K3)

Often, only a fraction of the biomass feedstock carbon ends up in the product in biofuel production. This means, in…

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Often, only a fraction of the biomass feedstock carbon ends up in the product in biofuel production. This means, in the short run, that the climate benefits of biofuels are reduced since the carbon dioxide that remains unused contributes to the carbon debt, a critical subject in the overall discussion about biofuel sustainability. In a longer run, this leads to inefficient use of the carbon dioxide, compared to a scenario in which 100 percent of the biogenic carbon would be utilized in a product and replace, for example, fossil fuels. Future technologies for biomass conversion and utilization can be expected to need to show high carbon efficiency or facilitate negative emissions in order to be legitimate and competitive. According to the IPCC, this will be necessary if emission reductions and measures to reduce energy and land use are no enough to limit the global warming to 1,5 degrees Celsius.

This project will perform a systematic evaluation of possibilities to increase the utilization and utility of biogenic carbon in biofuel production, by increasing the proportion of biogenic carbon that ends up in products, or by storing part of the carbon. One of the prominent methods when it comes to technologies for negative emissions is BECCS/BECCU, Bio-Energy with Carbon Capture and Storage/Utilization. Sweden has been identified as a suitable country for implementation of BECCS in the near future, with high potential for negative emissions specifically in the pulp and paper industry.

In the project, a range of biofuel production tracks will be evaluated and compared regarding carbon, climate, and cost efficiency, with as well as without carbon dioxide capture followed by utilization (BECCU) or storage (BECCS). The aim is to produce a knowledge-based decision support regarding technology selection in the short as well as longer term regarding “future-proof” biofuels with production processes that don not “waste” biogenic carbon.

Results from the study were presented (in Swedish) in a webinar on 24 March 2022:

Facts

Manager
Elisabeth Wetterlund, Bio4Energy (LTU)

Contact
elisabeth.wetterlund@ltu.se

Participants
Erik Furusjö and Johanna Mossberg, RISE // Simon Harvey, Chalmers // Christian Hulteberg, SunCarbon // Peter Axegård, C-Green // Monica Normark, SEKAB // Conny Johansson, Stora Enso // Harri Heiskanen, Neste // Andreas Gundberg, Lantmännen Agroetanol // Ragnar Stare, Arvos Schmidsche-Schack GmbH

Time plan
July 2019 - December 2021

Total project cost
3 626 190 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, LTU, Arvos Schmidsche-Schack GmbH, C-Green, Lantmännen Agroetanol, Neste, SEKAB, Stora Enso and SunCarbon.

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
48363-1

Project Manager: Elisabeth Wetterlund

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2022-03-23

Biofuels from fast growing deciduous trees – a synthesis study from biomass to fuels

Sweden has very good conditions for large-scale plantations of poplar or other fast-growing deciduous trees that could be harvested as…

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Sweden has very good conditions for large-scale plantations of poplar or other fast-growing deciduous trees that could be harvested as a biomass base for fuel.

The study has mapped production capacity per hectare under different cultivation conditions and available areas. It has also investigated physical properties and suitability for fuel production of the produced biomass. An evaluation of the economy through the biofuel production line is included.

The results show that poplar has a high biomass production capacity. On arable land, the annual production for southern and central Sweden is about 8.4 tonnes of dry matter per hectare, while in northern Sweden it is around 6 tonnes.

In total, there are approximately 478,000 hectares of open land that is not used for food production and approximately 1.3 million hectares of planted arable land (spruce fields) where fast-growing deciduous trees could be planted. If 25% of the arable land and 5% of the fertile forest land are used, where forested arable land is included, poplar plantations can generate a large addition of biomass.

A plant with a raw material capacity of 443,000 tonnes of dry matter biomass per year can contribute with 1.3 TWh, corresponding to 150,000 cubic meters of biofuel. This can be compared with the total Swedish need for biofuels in 2030 being estimated at 5.6 million cubic meters according to the Swedish Energy Agency.

In terms of transport distance for the biobased raw material and proximity to relevant industry, the best location for a bio-refinery seems to be in Västra Götaland.

Results from the project were presented (in Swedish) in a webinar on 7 April, 2022:

Facts

Manager
Henrik Böhlenius, SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences

Contact
henrik.bohlenius@slu.se

Participants
Per-Ove Persson, Persson f.N.B. AB // Marcus Öhman, Bio4Energy (Luleå University of Technology, LTU)

Time plan
1 July 2020 - 31 December 2021

Total project cost
2 193 000 SEK

Funding
The Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partner organisations, Bio4Energy (LTU), Persson f.N.B. AB and SLU.

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
50468-1

The project has had a reference group with participants from Norra Skog, the Swedish Board of Agriculture (Jordbruksverket), Höganäs, Skogssällskapet, Preem och private land owners.

Project Manager: Henrik Böhlenius

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2022-03-14

Is liquid biogas part of the solution to greenhouse gas emissions from shipping?

Within a couple of years, there may be a real opportunity for shipping to exchange fossil LNG for renewable liquid…

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Within a couple of years, there may be a real opportunity for shipping to exchange fossil LNG for renewable liquid methane from Swedish biogas plants.

The number of vessels operating with LNG, liquefied natural gas, is steadily increasing due to environmental benefits and economic reasons. From LNG, carbon dioxide emissions per unit of energy is lower than for fossil bunker oil. Also, LNG contains very little sulfur. The shipping sector shows great interest in taking the next transitional step – to replace fossil LNG with renewable LBM, liquefied Bio Methane, a collective name for liquid methane produced via various renewable production techniques.

The report shows that a sufficient domestic production of LBM for the vessels that bunker in Swedish ports is fully realizable. In a few years, the annual demand from the shipping sector is estimated at 4–5 TWh. With consistent investments, the current Swedish production of about 2 TWh per year can be more than tenfold until 2045. The conditions are that the annual production of liquid biomethane increases by more than 1 TWh, corresponding to up to ten new major Swedish biogas plants per year.

The research group has carried out detailed analyzes of current and planned production capacity as well as potential future bio- and electromethane production. The life cycle analyzes of production and use in shipping show good climate performance, also for electromethane production, which is included in such an analysis for the first time.

The conditions for Swedish biogas production have recently improved through the decision to introduce a subsidy for biogas production. If shipping is also incorporated into the EU’s emissions trading system, the cost of renewable LBM in comparison with LNG can be leveled out and become more economically competitive. Besides a simplified permit process, such stimulus measures need to be stable and long-term for the expansion of Swedish biomethane production to take off and be implemented.

Results were presented (in Swedish) in an open webinar on 15 March 2022. A recording is available here:

Facts

Manager
Karl Jivén, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

Contact
karl.jiven@ivl.se

Participants
Anders Hjort, Emelie Persson, Tomas Lönnqvist, Mirjam Särnbratt and Anna Mellin, IVL // Elin Malmgren and Selma Brynolf, Chalmers

Time plan
15 June 2020 - 31 december 2021

Total project cost
1 830 000 SEK

Funding
The Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partner organisations, Energigas Sverige, Energikontor Sydost, Furetank Rederi AB, Gasum AB, Innovatum AB, IVL, Svensk Rederiservice AB and Tärntank Ship Management.

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
50435-1

The project has a reference group consisting of representatives from Furutank Rederi AB, Tärntank Ship Management AB, The Swedish Shipowners’ Association, Gasum AB, Energigas Sverige, Biogas Väst and Energikontor Sydost. The group will be extended.

Project Manager: Karl Jivén

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2022-03-01

Impacts on producers and customers of conflicting rules for LCA

Life cycle analysis (LCA) is an important tool for many transport sector stakeholders. Here, three relevant frameworks with life cycle…

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Life cycle analysis (LCA) is an important tool for many transport sector stakeholders. Here, three relevant frameworks with life cycle perspectives are applied to eight different fuels. The comparison highlights important differences in the methods.

The focus of the study is not the result of the life cycle analyzes of the fuels themselves, but the comparison between the rules in EU’s Renewable Energy Directive (RED), the Environmental Product Declaration (EPD) and the Product Environmental Footprint (PEF) methodology.

LCA calculations of eight fuels, such as ethanol from maize and HVO from used cooking oil, with detailed details in process data, methodological variations and assumptions, highlight several major differences between the three frameworks.

The differences appear in modeling of waste management, which can have great significance for the results when the biofuel is produced from waste. The frameworks also differ in what type of approaches they allow for modeling processes with several products. This is significant when the fuel is co-produced with other products. More differences can be seen in how the electricity supply is modeled and how system boundaries are handled.

The study emphasizes the importance of transparency and knowledge that LCA is not an individual method but a family of methods. Product-specific rules for renewable fuels in the form of Product Environmental Metal Footprint Category Rules (PEFCR) and Product Category Rules (PCR) could increase harmonization between the studied LCA methods.

The project was presented (in English) in a webinar on 14 December 2021. A recording is available here:

Facts

Manager
Tomas Rydberg, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

Contact
tomas.rydberg@ivl.se

Participants
Sofia Poulikidou, IVL // Tomas Ekvall, TERRA // Sara Palander, Swedish Life Cycle Center (Chalmers) // Miguel Brandao, KTH // Katarina Lorentzon, RISE

Time plan
15 June 2020 - 31 December 2021

Total project cost
2 035 392 SEK

Funding
The Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partner organisations, BASF, Fordonsgas Sverige, IVL, Lantmännen, NTM (Network for Transport and Measures), Scania, SEKAB, St1, Drivkraft Sverige (formerly SPBI) and Volvo Technology.

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
50481-1

Project Manager: Tomas Rydberg

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2022-02-24

Future fuel choices for low-carbon shipping, aviation and road transport

The introduction of renewable fuels in the shipping and aviation sectors is crucial to reduce the transport sector’s total carbon…

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The introduction of renewable fuels in the shipping and aviation sectors is crucial to reduce the transport sector’s total carbon dioxide emissions. Here, it is studied which renewable fuels are most efficient from a cost and climate perspective.

The project analyzes a large number of scenarios in the time perspectives 2030 and 2045 for different future fuel alternatives for aviation and shipping in Scandinavia. Each scenario is a combination of different conditions that affect the transport sector, such as development and cost for different technologies.

The results show that significant electrification is climate and cost-effective for both passenger and freight transport by road. Biofuels also seem to play a key role. In all scenarios, biomass-based fuels are a cost-effective way of reducing the carbon dioxide emissions of shipping and aviation. To some extent, electrofuels present a good alternative and the environmental and climate impact from these have therefore been studied in more detail.

What will be the climate- and cost-effective fuel and technology mix of the future for the transport sector, specifically shipping and aviation, depends on the development of several important factors: general availability of sustainable biofuels, development of propulsion systems (cost, performance, and use), other sectors’ demands for electricity and hydrogen-based alternatives, and expansion of electricity production with low carbon dioxide emissions. The outcome may also depend on carbon dioxide capture and storage from biomass, so-called bio-CCS, as well as the design and implementation of transport and energy policy and targets.

On 10 March, 2022, results were presented in a webinar (in Swedish):

Facts

Manager
Julia Hansson, IVL

Contact
julia.hansson@ivl.se

Participants
Erik Fridell and Martin Hagberg, IVL // Selma Brynolf, Maria Grahn, Elin Malmgren and Karna Dahal, Chalmers

Time plan
August 2019 - December 2021

Total project cost
1 990 000 SEK

Funding
The Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners and Chalmers.

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
48357-1

The project has a stakeholder reference group with members from the most relevant authorities and business companies in the concerned sectors.

Project Manager: Julia Hansson

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2022-02-15

Renewable fuels for waterborne public transport

In Sweden, renewable fuels have been used in public transport applications for years with one exception: ferry traffic. Some initiatives…

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In Sweden, renewable fuels have been used in public transport applications for years with one exception: ferry traffic. Some initiatives including HVO fuels and electric and hybrid ships exist, but in order to achieve the Swedish national environmental and climate objectives, as well as regional and municipal environmental goals for public transport, there is a need to implement fossil free fuels on a larger scale. Waterborne public transport has a great potential to contribute to the urban environment and to relieve road and rail-bound public transport.

This project analyses suitable renewable fuels for different vessel types, shipping services and conditions. The overall goal is to increase knowledge and propose measures that can be used in procurement and implementation of fossil free ferries, leading to reductions of greenhouse gas emissions, hazardous air pollutants and particles.

Facts

Manager
Linda Styhre, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

Contact
linda.styhre@ivl.se

Participants
Karl Jivén, IVL // Karl Garme, KTH Royal Institute of Technology

Time plan
1 September 2020 - 31 October 2021

Total project cost
250 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partner organisations.

Project Manager: Linda Styhre

f3 Project  | Finished | 2022-02-11

Circularity and security of supply – Development of methodology

Today, renewable fuels are commonly attributed a value mainly based on climate benefits. A newly developed method puts a price…

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Today, renewable fuels are commonly attributed a value mainly based on climate benefits. A newly developed method puts a price on a broader range of benefits that are important for society.

What is a safer supply of fuel worth to society? What values do circular production systems add? The project has developed and evaluated methods to provide decision-makers with more nuanced decision basis.

Four value chains for renewable fuels and energy carriers were selected to exemplify the application of the methods: HVO produced from tall oil, ethanol from forest residues, Swedish-produced electricity and biogas from household food waste.

The analysis of security of supply shows that global fuel supply disruptions are estimated to result in billions in losses for the Swedish economy. Domestic production of renewable fuels can to some extent mitigate the effects and increase security of supply.

The analysis of the circularity of production systems was complicated due to the vague, broad and complex nature of the concept of circular economy. The project recommends further studies going more into the depth of the methodology.

In the combined assessment of climate benefit, security of supply and circularity, climate benefit matters considerably. However, the value of non-climate-related benefits may be much greater than this study shows.

Socio-economic values from land use, health and job opportunities can also be weighed in a further method development, as well as energy supply for critical societal functions such as healthcare.

On 8 March 2022, the project results were presented (parts of it in English) in a webinar. A recording is available here:

Facts

Manager
Tomas Lönnqvist, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

Contact
tomas.lonnqvist@ivl.se

Participants
Anton Fagerström, Mark Sanctuary and Sofia Poulikidou, IVL // Roozbeh Feiz and Axel Lindfors, Linköping University

Time plan
15 June 2020 - 29 oktober 2021

Total project cost
1 623 002 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners organisations, Biofuel Region, Biogas Öst, E.on, Energigas Sverige, IVL, Lantmännen and Stockholm Public Transport (SL).

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
50396-1

The project has a focus group with members from industry and sectors that could be direct users of the results: Lantmännen, Stockholm Public Transport, Energigas Sverige, Biogas Öst, E.on, Biofuel Region and Region Gotland.

Project Manager: Tomas Lönnqvist

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2022-02-03

Electric and fuel cell powered construction transports in cities – Analysis of systems set-up

Load capacity is important when it comes to bulk freight vehicles operating in cities and urban areas. For these types of…

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Load capacity is important when it comes to bulk freight vehicles operating in cities and urban areas. For these types of transports to become fossil-free, battery-electric vehicles (BEV) and vehicles with hydrogen-powered fuel cells can be an alternative.

A survey of the state-of-the-art shows that there are suitable commercial models and types of electric and fuel cell vehicles available, and that more are on their way to the market.

By synthesizing knowledge and experience from studies on heavy bulk transport assignments in urban areas in Stockholm, it is shown that vehicles with alternative fuels or energy storage provide lower greenhouse gas emissions, energy costs and in several cases lower energy consumption than conventional diesel vehicles.

In a comparison, BEV theoretically perform well ​​based on energy, environmental and economic aspects. But the choice of vehicle also needs to take into account the vehicle load capacity. Compared to BEV with heavy batteries, fuel cell-equipped heavier trucks can take on board larger amounts of energy in the form of hydrogen, without affecting the vehicles’ maximum load weight.

To facilitate a transition to electric and fuel cell-powered vehicles, the energy infrastructure, including the location of hydrogen filling stations and charging stations, needs to be designed with movement patterns and driven distances of bulk transports in mind.

Interviews with transport operators show that there is a great need to clarify what the performance, energy consumption, climate impact and the economic conditions look like for the battery-electric powered and hy­drogen fuel cell powered trucks.

Facts

Manager
Ingrid Nordmark, TFK - TransportForsK

Contact
ingrid.nordmark@tfk.se

Participants
Joachim Andersson and Peter Bark, TFK

Time plan
15 June 2020 - 31 October 2021

Total project cost
750 000 SEK

Funding
The Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partner organisations, AB Volvo, Parator Industri, Skanska Asphalt and Concrete, The Swedish Association Road of Transport Companies, The Swedish Confederation of Transport Enterprises, and Vattenfall.

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
50453-1

A focus group with representatives from the co-funding industry companies will contribute to several of the projects' work packages, providing input to e.g. the case studies and analyses.

Project Manager: Ingrid Nordmark

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2022-01-19

Sustainable HVO production potential and environmental impact

Several domestic raw materials are suitable to produce HVO fuels. The outtake could increase, but the potential is not sufficient…

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Several domestic raw materials are suitable to produce HVO fuels. The outtake could increase, but the potential is not sufficient to fully cover the current demand.

Hydrogen-treated vegetable oil (HVO) is the single largest biofuel in Sweden, but only seven percent of the HVO used in Sweden is based on Swedish raw materials.

The project has identified twelve raw materials that can be produced under Nordic conditions and estimated the raw material potential for a possible HVO production in Sweden.

Two of the raw materials, the oilseed crop Camelina and GROT (branches and tops from forestry), were selected for analysis of climate performance and techno-economic conditions. The results show that fatty acids from these raw materials can be extracted at a competitive price and with relatively low climate emissions from cultivation, harvesting and conversion to HVO.

When grown as a cover crop, winter Camelina has a relatively low potential. However, it could increase production from agricultural land, reduce erosion and benefit pollinators. Experimental cultivation can be the next step in further exploring the possibility of increasing the production of fatty acids in Swedish agriculture.

GROT has high potential and is a relatively cheap raw material. To utilize it, the technology for converting lignocellulose into fatty acids must become commercially mature.

The project report also states that an increased outtake of GROT risks reducing the amount of stored carbon, which is crucial for the climate performance of the fuel produced. The project therefore recommends a further analysis of the entire forest system.

A recording of a webinar were the project results are presented (in Swedish) is available here:

Facts

Manager
Hanna Karlsson, SLU

Contact
hanna.e.karlsson@slu.se

Participants
Torun Hammar and Kajsa Henryson, SLU // Sofia Poulikidou, IVL // , Neste // , Preem AB

Time plan
January 2019 - December 2021

Total project cost
1 303 628 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, SLU, IVL, Neste and Preem AB

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
46980-1

Project Manager: Hanna Karlsson

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2021-12-09

Policy measures for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the Swedish vehicle fleet

This factsheet is currently only available in Swedish. Sverige har som mål att transportsektorn ska ha minskat utsläppen av växthusgaser…

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This factsheet is currently only available in Swedish.

Sverige har som mål att transportsektorn ska ha minskat utsläppen av växthusgaser med 70% till 2030 (jämfört med år 2010), och att Sveriges nettoutsläpp av växthusgaser ska vara noll till år 2045. För att uppnå detta mål finns ett antal styrmedel. Här beskrivs några nationella styrmedel inriktade mot att minska fordonens användning av fossila drivmedel och utsläpp av växthusgaser. [1]

Styrmedlen syftar dels till att främja inköp av mindre miljöpåverkande fordon (till exempel fordonsskatten), dels till att styra mot minskad användning av fossila drivmedel i hela fordonsflottan (till exempel reduktionsplikten). Utformning och val av styrmedel påverkas både av nationella mål och överordnade regelverk (framför allt EU-direktiv, se nedan). [2]

Fordonsskatten och systemet med bonus-malus

Fordonsskatten infördes 1922 och med huvudsyftet att få in intäkter till de samhällsekonomiska kostnader som trafiken ger upphov till. Sedan dess har den i ökande utsträckning utformats för att styra mot inköp av mer energieffektiva och mindre miljöpåverkande fordon. Idag bestäms fordonsskatten för nyare personbilar och andra lätta fordon av hur mycket koldioxid (CO2) de släpper ut. För personbilar består skatten av två delar: ett grundbelopp och en koldioxidkomponent. Koldioxidkomponenten innebär att ju mer CO2 per km en bil släpper ut över 111 g, desto högre blir skatten. Sedan Bonus-malus-systemet infördes år 2018 är koldioxidkomponenten högre de tre första åren och gäller för fordon som släpper ut mer än 90 g CO2/km.

Fordonsskatten beräknas baserat på utsläppsvärden från avgasröret på fordonet, vilket innebär att ingen skillnad görs mellan användning av fossila eller biobaserade drivmedel. Bakgrunden till detta är att fordonsskatten främst använts för att styra mot effektivare fordon.

För dieseldrivna bilar tillkommer ett miljötillägg och ett bränsletillägg (för äldre fordon bränslefaktor) varje år. Bakgrunden till dessa tillägg är dels högre kväveoxid- och partikelutsläpp från dieselbilar, dels att beskattningen av diesel som bränsle historiskt varit lägre än för bensin vilket därmed kompenseras. Äldre lätta fordon (bilar registrerade före 2006 och lätta fordon före 2011) samt tunga fordon beskattas baserat på tjänstevikt. Motorcyklar har en fast skattesats.

Bonus-malus

Syftet med Bonus-malus, som gäller från den 1 juli 2018, är att öka andelen miljöanpassade fordon. Systemet ger en bonus till bilar och lätta fordon med en låg koldioxidkomponent, och en höjd fordonsskatt (malus) till fordon med hög koldioxidkomponent. Reglerna för bonus-malus uppdaterades i april 2021, då bonusen för fordon som inte släpper ut någon CO2 från avgasröret, exempelvis rena elbilar och vätgasbilar, höjdes från 60 000 till 70 000 kr. Samtidigt sänktes gränsen för att kunna få en bonus från 70 till 60 g CO2/km. Sedan april 2021 är den högsta bonusen för fordon med utsläpp över 0 g CO2/km (exempelvis gasbilar) 45 000 kr. Under flera år har ansökningarna om klimatbonus varit så många att pengarna som Transportstyrelsen fått för utbetalning tagit slut i förtid. 2021 inträffade detta i augusti. Ytterligare medel har tidigare skjutits till varje år.

Malus gäller de tre första åren för nya bensin- och dieseldrivna personbilar klass I och II, lätta bussar och lätta lastbilar och tillämpas på fordon som släpper ut över 90 g CO2/km vid blandad körning (95 g CO2/km för fordon som togs i bruk innan 1 april 2021). Även elhybrider som släpper ut över 90 g CO2/km vid blandad körning omfattas av systemet. Inom bonus-malus-systemet undantas fordon som drivs med alternativa drivmedel från förhöjda koldioxidbelopp, vilket framför allt påverkar bilar som drivs av fordonsgas eller etanol (E85).

För tunga fordon finns idag inget bonus-malus-system eller andra generella nationella styrmedel för att styra mot mindre miljöpåverkande fordon (se dock avsnittet om EU-direktiv nedan).

Bilar som omfattas av bonusen inom systemet kallas även klimatbonusbilar. Begreppet miljöbil används i flera olika sammanhang med olika definitioner. Framför allt används det idag för att styra myndigheternas fordonsupphandling. Denna miljöbilsdefinition sammanfaller idag med klimatbonusreglerna.

Figur 1. Utveckling över tid av växthusgasutsläpp fördelat mellan olika fordonsslag. Den streckade linjens markering av en 70-procentig minskning av 2010 års utsläppsnivåer är målet för utsläppen för samtliga transportslag tillsammans.

Förmånsbeskattning

Många i Sverige använder en förmånsbil genom sitt arbete. Förmånsbilar är en skattepliktig förmån och förmånsvärdet avgör hur mycket användaren behöver betala i skatt. Fram till januari 2020 fanns en miljöbilsreducering som innebar att elbilar, hybrider och gasbilar kunde få upp till 10 000 kr lägre förmånsvärde. Men eftersom miljöbilar ofta är dyrare än fossildrivna bilar innebar det att de fick ett högre förmånsvärde. När miljöbilsreduceringen slopades bestämdes att miljöbilens förmånsvärde därför ska beräknas baserat på marknadspriset för en fossilbil av liknande eller motsvarande modell. I juli 2021 höjs förmånsvärdet på alla bilar vilket innebär att användarna får betala mer i skatt.

Drivmedelsskatten

Syftet med drivmedelsskatten är dels att minska användningen av bränslen som ger upphov till föroreningar (främst CO2), dels att få in skatteintäkter. Drivmedel som är skonsammare för miljön är dyrare att tillverka, men för att priset för dessa inte ska vara högre, kompenseras de genom lägre skattesatser. Ett drivmedel blir normalt skattepliktigt när det tillverkas, bearbetas eller förs in till Sverige.

Drivmedelsskatten delas upp i energiskatt och koldioxidskatt. Energiskatten varierar med vilken miljöklass bränslet har. För bensin finns Miljöklass 1 och 2 och för diesel finns Miljöklass 1, 2 och 3.

För biodrivmedel är huvudregeln enligt EU:s direktiv att ett ersättningsbränsle ska beskattas på samma sätt som det bränsle det ersätter. En liter etanol som ersätter en liter bensin ska därmed beskattas med samma skatt och på samma sätt som bensin. I enlighet med tidsbestämda undantag från EU-reglerna har Sverige rätt till skattebefrielse på biodrivmedel om Sverige kan bevisa att detta inte snedvrider konkurrens på marknaden. Inom ramen för undantaget kan nedsättningen utformas så att biodrivmedlets produktionskostnadsnackdel elimineras.

Sverige har statsstödsgodkännande från EU till den 31 december 2021 och bibehåller skattenedsättningar på dessa produkter samt har ansökt om förlängning ytterligare ett år. Från och med den 1 juli 2018 begränsades avdragsmöjligheten så att bara rena eller höginblandade biodrivmedel (>98 %) får full skattebefrielse (100% befrielse från både energiskatt och koldioxidskatt). Exempel är etanol i E85 och ED95, RME/FAME, HVO och biogas. Låginblandade biodrivmedel får ingen skattenedsättning utan deras användning styrs i stället genom införandet av reduktionsplikten.

Reduktionsplikt

För att minska utsläppen av växthusgaser genom ökad användning av biodrivmedel införde regeringen reduktionsplikt för bensin och diesel från 1 juli 2018. Det innebär att drivmedelsleverantörer årligen måste minska växthusgasutsläppen från bensin och diesel med en viss procentsats genom att blanda in biodrivmedel. Reduktionsplikten gäller enbart för bensin och diesel.

Reduktionsplikten innebär ett mer långsiktigt styrmedel jämfört med tidigare skattenedsättning, eftersom det beslutades från början att systemet, med successivt höjda kvoter, ska gälla fram till 2030. Dock fattades inte beslut om de specifika kvotnivåerna längre än till 2020.

År 2020 var reduktionsnivåerna 4,2% för bensin och 21,0% för dieselbränsle. 2021 års nivåer gäller från och med den 1 augusti 2021. Reduktionsnivåerna ska öka linjärt årligen för att nå 28,0% respektive 65,7% år 2030. Beslutet omfattar också en kontrollstation 2022 samt förbud mot att använda palmolja för att uppfylla reduktionsplikten, om inte denna är certifierad för att säkerställa låg risk för indirekta växthusgasutsläpp. Om fordonsflottan elektrifieras i högre grad kan 2030-målet nås med en lägre reduktionsplikt.

EU-direktiv och framtida utveckling av styrmedel

Huvudsyftet med de nationella styrmedlen är att styra mot svenska mål. Utformningen påverkas dock i hög grad också av direktiv och förordningar från EU. För de styrmedel som tas upp ovan är det framför följande EU-direktiv och förordningar som inverkar:

  • Bränslekvalitetsdirektivet (Fuel Quality Directive, 2009/30/EC) som ställer krav på drivmedelsleverantörerna att minska sina utsläpp av växthusgaser.
  • Förnybartdirektivet (Renewable Energy Directive, 2009/28/EC) som sätter mål för andel förnybara energi i transportsektorn och hållbarhetskrav för biodrivmedel.
  • EU-förordningar som ställer krav på varje fordonstillverkares genomsnittliga utsläppskrav för deras nybilsförsäljning, där kraven enbart tar hänsyn till utsläpp från avgasröret. Sådana krav finns sedan länge på bilar, men kommer även att införas för tunga fordon från 2025. Från januari 2020 får nya bilar i genomsnitt släppa ut max 95 g CO2/km.
  • Direktivet om främjande av rena och energieffektiva vägtransportfordon (Clean Vehicles Directive, 2009/33/EC), som definierar vilka fordon som ska räknas som miljöbilar vid offentlig upphandling och som också utgår från utsläpp vid avgasröret.

Dessa direktiv, liksom utvecklingen av svenska styrmedel, uppdateras och utvecklas löpande.

På nationell nivå har Sveriges riksdag sagt ja till regeringens förslag om införande av reduktionsplikt för flygfotogen. Förslaget trädde i kraft den 1 juli 2021.

I juni 2021 presenterades en utredning om utfasning av fossila drivmedel i inrikes transporter och arbetsmaskiner. I den föreslås en utfasning till 2040, ett förstärkt fokus på nollutsläppskrav från nya personbilar, lätta lastbilar och tunga fordon, samt förändringar av reduktionsplikten. Ett nollutsläppskrav innebär i praktiken att personbilar med förbränningsmotor fasas ut i nybilsförsäljningen. Det bedöms kunna utgöra en värdefull och tydlig signal till tillverkare och konsumenter samt tjäna som underlag för den nationella styrningen. I flera andra länder förs diskussioner om hur förbud mot försäljning av nya bilar med förbränningsmotorer skulle kunna utformas.

I juni 2021 presenterade regeringen också ett förslag till att ändra miljöbilsdefinitionen för myndigheters upphandling, vilket skulle medföra att till exempel gasbilar inte längre omfattas.


[1] Det finns fler mål och många andra styrmedel som påverkar transportsektorn och därmed fordonsflottans växthusgasutsläpp. Dessutom påverkar styrmedlen varandra. Här tas bara utformningen av styrmedel (inte effekten) upp och bara sådana som är nationella och direkt inriktade mot fordonseffektivitet och bränsleval.

[2] Styrmedlens detaljerade utformning är ofta komplex. Beskrivningen är därför delvis förenklad och speglar situationen och kunskapsläget i augusti 2021. För exakt information, se referenser.

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Hydrogen

The factsheet is currently only available in Swedish. Vätgas, H2, är en flexibel energibärare med många möjliga tillämpningar och en…

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The factsheet is currently only available in Swedish.

Vätgas, H2, är en flexibel energibärare med många möjliga tillämpningar och en av dem är som drivmedel i fordon. Vätgas kan tillverkas av vatten, fossila bränslen eller biomassa. Vid dess användning, till exempel i en bränslecell eller genom förbränning, bildas inte koldioxid utan istället vatten. Användning av vätgas som drivmedel kan därmed bidra till att reducera växthusgasutsläpp och utsläpp av partiklar från transporter. Likt användningen av el i batterifordon beror vätgasens klimatpåverkan till stor del på hur den tillverkas.

Användning

Vätgas, H2, används idag främst framställning av ammoniak samt för oljeraffinering. Framöver väntas en rad nya tillämpningar av vätgas. De tydligaste exemplen med potentiellt stora volymer är som industriråvara, till exempel för stålproduktion, som energilager, som drivmedel och som råvara för framställning av andra drivmedel. Vätgas är exempelvis en central komponent vid tillverkning av HVO (eng. hydrogenated vegetable oil) och elektrobränslen.

Det finns idag två modeller av vätgasbilar på den svenska marknaden, Hyundai Ix35 och Toyota Mirai. Dessa bilar använder sig av bränsleceller för att konvertera den kemiska energin i vätgasen till elektricitet för att sedan driva en elmotor av samma sort som finns i elbilar. Sådana bränsleceller kan nå nära den dubbla verkningsgraden som vissa förbränningsmotorer.

Bränslecellstekniken är speciellt attraktiv som ett alternativ till rena batterifordon för tillämpningar som kräver längre räckvidd och tung last, eller där den relativt korta tanktiden är en betydande fördel. Bränsleceller i lastbilar och bussar kan därför vara de marknader som växer fram först. I synnerhet har tunga lastbilar med bränsleceller väckt stort intresse. Toyota, Hyundai och Daimler tillsammans med Volvo Lastvagnar hör till aktörer som satsar på området. I Göteborg rullar vätgasdrivna sopbilar från Scania.

I Sverige finns i dagsläget fem vätgastankstationer: Arlanda, Göteborg, Sandviken, Umeå och Mariestad. Fram till 2023 har danska Everfuel planer för ytterligare femton stationer varav tio tillsammans med OKQ8. Även andra aktörer har planer i olika skeenden, till exempel REH2, Orange Gas och Hynion.

Vätgas kan bli ett alternativ inom flyget och sjöfarten eftersom drivmedlets energidensitet är av yttersta vikt i flygplan och fartyg (då i flytande form eller kemiskt bunden, se nedan). Här har till exempel Airbus presenterat tre koncept för vätgasflygplan under samlingsnamnet ZEROe.

Produktion

Enligt IEA, International Energy Agency, tillverkades ungefär 117 miljoner ton vätgas under 2018. 98 procent av denna vätgas producerades från fossila energikällor, främst från naturgas (s.k. grå vätgas) i Europa och USA och främst från kol (s.k. svart eller brun vätgas) i Kina.

Tillverkningen resulterar i stora direkta utsläpp av koldioxid (CO2) per producerad mängd vätgas; runt 10 kg CO2/kg H2 med naturgas och 19 kg CO2/kg H2 med kol. Dessa utsläpp är i huvudsak koncentrerade till stora anläggningar, vilket skulle kunna underlätta avskiljning och geologisk lagring av koldioxiden, CCS (carbon capture and storage). På grund av otillräckliga ekonomiska incitament tillämpas dock inte CCS i någon större utsträckning idag. Vätgas tillverkad från fossila källor med CCS kallas ibland blå vätgas.

Vätgas kan tillverkas via en process som kallas elektrolys, där vatten spjälkas till vätgas med hjälp av elektricitet. Biprodukter från elektrolys av vatten är syrgas (O2) samt värme. Om elektriciteten som tillförs processen har genererats från fossilfria energikällor kan vätgas produceras med mycket låga utsläpp av växthusgaser. Detta kallas grön vätgas. Om elektriciteten däremot produceras via förbränning av fossila bränslen är vattenelektrolys oattraktivt från ett växthusgasperspektiv på grund av de stora omvandlingsförlusterna. Som jämförelse blir växthusgasutsläppen lägre om vätgasen i så fall produceras direkt från fossila bränslen, utan att de fossila bränslena först förbränts för att producera elektricitet.
Idag finns det finns flera etablerade vattenelektrolystekniker, och alternativa tekniker befinner sig i olika utvecklingsstadier. Den globala installerade kapaciteten är endast runt 100–200 MW (baserat på ingående eleffekt), men stora tillskott väntas inom de kommande åren. I EU:s vätgasstrategi finns ett mål på 40 GW installerad vattenelektrolyseffekt till 2030.

Vätgas kan också tillverkas från biomassa, även om det generellt inte tillämpas industriellt idag. De två mest lovande produktionsvägarna är förgasning av lignocellulosa eller massaindustrins svartlut samt reformering av biometan. Den senare teknologin är mycket lik produktionen av vätgas från naturgas.

Lagring

Vätgas är den lättaste av alla molekyler: vid rumstemperatur och atmosfäriskt tryck upptar ett kg vätgas cirka 11 m3. För att praktiskt kunna använda vätgas som drivmedel måste dess energidensitet ökas så att den kan lagras i ett fordon. Det kan ske genom kompression eller förvätskning, där den senare tekniken leder till en högre energidensitet. Båda teknikerna är energikrävande, särskilt förvätskningsprocessen som kräver omkring 30 procent av vätgasens energiinnehåll.[1] I dagens vätgasfordon lagras vätgasen som komprimerad gas vid ett mycket högt tryck: 350 bar i lastbilar och 700 bar i personbilar.

Tekniker för att kemiskt omvandla vätgasen till olika mer hanterbara substanser för lagring undersöks också. Att lagra vätgas i ammoniak, metanol, metan eller så kallade flytande organiska vätgasbärare (eng. liquid organic hydrogen carriers, LOHCs), kan komma att bli relevant i vissa tillämpningar i framtiden, till exempel som drivmedel inom sjöfarten eller flyget.

Potential och hinder

Vätgas är attraktivt för användning inom många olika tillämpningar, varav drivmedel är en. För tillfället utvecklas användning av vätgas främst inom industrisektorn. Potentialen för ett mer samhällsövergripande genombrott avgörs både av tillgången på vätgas, möjligheterna till lagring och transport av vätgas, samt den politiska inriktningen.

Användningen av vätgas i bränslecellsfordon begränsas idag av höga kostnader för bränslecellen och vätgastanken såväl som för själva vätgasen. Utbyggnaden av infrastruktur för vätgastankning är också en kritisk faktor samt den närliggande konkurrenssituationen med batterifordon, i synnerhet för lättare fordon. Komplicerade och oförutsägbara tillståndsprocesser ses också som ett betydande hinder för vätgasen. Det finns även ett behov av att informera och utbilda om säkerhetsaspekter, framför allt utanför industrin.

 

[1] I förvätskningsanläggningar med dagens bästa tillgängliga teknik går det åt ungefär 10 kWh el/kg vätgas som förvätskas (lägre värmevärde H2=33 kWh/kg H2 -> 10/33=0.3).

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Drop-in the tank or a new tank? A comparison of costs and carbon footprint

This project has carried out a comparison of climate benefits, resource efficiency and costs for biofuels produced from residual products…

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This project has carried out a comparison of climate benefits, resource efficiency and costs for biofuels produced from residual products from the forest.

Twelve biofuels – eight drop-in fuels and four single-molecule fuels – have been compared from a Swedish perspective, from raw materials to use in cars and trucks.

The cost calculations include production costs (including raw materials), distribution costs (including infrastructure) and the vehicles, and reflect commercially mature technologies with some exceptions that may require further development.

It is not possible to give a straight answer as to whether drop-in or single-molecule fuels is the preferred strategy for Sweden. However, the comparison presents decision-makers with knowledge on which fuels are the most promising, thereby letting them make well-informed decisions about, for example, investments and the design of instruments by weighing different factors against each other.

These fuels are most promising in terms of climate benefits, resource efficiency and costs:

  • Cars: Drop-in fuels such as petrol from lignin and hydropyrolysis perform well. Other good alternatives are single-molecular fuels in the form of methanol, DME and methane, drop-in fuels in the form of petrol based on rapid pyrolysis and the three types of diesel fuels based on hydrogen treatment and upgrading.
  • Trucks: Single-molecule fuels in the form of methanol and DME and drop-in fuels in the form of diesel based on lignin and based on hydropyrolysis perform well. Other interesting fuel alternatives are LBG in diesel engines (single-molecule fuel) and diesel based on rapid pyrolysis and hydrogen treatment (drop-in fuels).

The single molecule fuels studied are ethanol, DME, methane and methanol. The drop-in fuels studied are gasification-based petrol, FT diesel, diesel and petrol from the pretreatment and upgrading of lignin, diesel and petrol from pyrolysis and hydrotreating upgrades, bio-oil-based diesel and petrol from hydropyrolysis. A comparison with certain electrical fuels (fuels produced with electricity, water and carbon dioxide) is also included in the study.

The study is based on a literature review. Existing studies have been updated as needed and a dialogue with industry representatives has been conducted.

The project results were presented in a webinar (in Swedish) available here:

Facts

Manager
Tomas Lönnqvist, IVL

Contact
tomas.lonnqvist@ivl.se

Participants
Julia Hansson, IVL // Patrik Klintbom, Erik Furusjö, and Kristina Holmgren, RISE

Time plan
September 2019 - June 2021

Total project cost
1 732 500 SEK

Funding
The Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, E.on Biofor Sweden, Lantmännen Agroetanol, Scania CV AB, Södra, Volvo Personvagnar and Volvo Technology AB.

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
48361-1

A reference group connected to the project consisted of members from Lantmännen, Södra, E.on Biofor, Volvo, Volvo Cars, Scania and Adesso Bioproducts.

Project Manager: Tomas Lönnqvist

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2021-08-23

Implications of electrifying municipal transportation systems: Regional consequences for biogas production

The project has explored the consequences at a system level of an increasing number of regional public transport companies choosing…

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The project has explored the consequences at a system level of an increasing number of regional public transport companies choosing electrification over already developed biogas systems. To date, this has been studied to a limited extent.

By studying the current discourse in the media, in academic literature and among social actors, the project approached the issue in a new way.

The discourse analysis has been used to describe a possible transition path and to create a quantitative and dynamic model of the current biogas fleet in Stockholm’s inner city. Subsequently, the environmental and socio-economic consequences of the electrification were assessed.

The results show that the discourse was generally correct. The electrification of the city’s transports led to reduced direct environmental impacts of greenhouse gases, particulate matter and nitrogen oxide, and resulted in significant socio-economic savings thanks to reduced exposure to these emissions. However, the effect of reduced noise was not as substantial as highlighted in the discourse.

The modelling also includes a scenario where the displaced biogas finds new markets, for example to replace fossil fuels in heavy-duty vehicles and ships.

The discourse emphasizes that the shift is necessary to avoid undermining the transition to a bio-based and circular economy, and to avoid societal losses in the form of unusable biogas infrastructure and reduced capacity to dispose of biological waste.

The report also shows possible incentives and barriers to changing the application of biogas. These conclusions have been developed by industry players and stakeholders to influence and facilitate the viability of biogas in different markets and can be found in a policy brief with eight recommendations to decision-makers.

A recording from a webinar presenting the project (in English) is available here:

Facts

Manager
Michael Martin, IVL

Contact
michael.martin@ivl.se

Participants
Sjoerd Herlaar, Tomas Lönnqvist, Sara Anderson, Åsa Romson and Anders Hjort, IVL // Philip Peck, Lund University

Time plan
September 2019 - March 2021 (extended)

Total project cost
1 809 942 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, IVL, Biogas Öst AB, Energigas Sverige Service, Gasum AB, Innovatum AB, KTH, Linköping University, Power Circle AB, Ragn-Sells AB, Scania AB, Storstockholms lokaltrafik and Vattenfall AB.

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
48367-1

The project group also includes representatives from industry, the user side, researchers and decision makers.

Project Manager: Michael Martin

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2021-06-21

EU sustainability criteria for biofuels

The EU Renewable Energy Directive (RED II) establishes that a minimum of 14% biofuels or other renewable fuels for transport…

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The EU Renewable Energy Directive (RED II) establishes that a minimum of 14% biofuels or other renewable fuels for transport shall be used in every Member State by 2030. The Fuel Quality Directive (FQD) is aimed towards fuel suppliers, obliging them to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with 6% by 2020. Only biofuels meeting the sustainability criteria regarding net GHG savings, biodiversity and land use can be counted towards the targets. In RED II, the Indirect Land Use Change (ILUC) is considered, which amongst other strives to reduce indirect GHG emissions from biofuel production.

The EU Directives

The Renewable Energy Directive, RED I, (Directive 2009/28/EC), was adopted by the EU in 2009. It mandated that all Member States (MS) shall have 10% (on energy basis) biofuels in the transport sector by 2020. A revised version, RED II, (Directive 2018/2001/EU) entered into force in December 2018 moving the legal framework from 2020 to 2030. In RED II, a union target stating that the total share of energy from renewable energy sources shall be 32% of the final energy use in the EU by 2030. A national target is defined in RED II where MS shall establish an obligation for fuel suppliers to ensure that the share of renewable energy in the transport sector is at least 14% of the total energy used in the EU by 2030. This 14% target may become stricter after 2023 to align with the 55% emission reduction target by 2030 and the 2050 target of climate neutrality.

RED II describes several sustainability and GHG emission criteria that MS need to meet for a biofuel to be considered contributing to the RED II targets. Biofuels must also meet the sustainability criteria to receive financial support, such as tax exemptions.

The Fuel Quality Directive, FQD, (Directive 2009/30/EC) was adopted as an amendment to Fuel Quality Directive 98/70/EC in 2009. It sets requirements on fuel specifications, but also obliges fuel suppliers to reduce GHG emissions. By 2020 every sold unit of energy must reduce life cycle GHG emissions by at least 6%, compared to the EU-average fossil fuel in 2010. FQD gives the fuel suppliers a number of options to obtain this 6% reduction, e.g. via reductions in oil refineries, or use of biofuels and alternative fuels. The biofuels must meet the same sustainability criteria as in RED II. In 2021, discussions are ongoing regarding an increased reduction value and to move the sustainability criteria from FQD to RED II.

In 2015, amendments to RED I and FQD were introduced with the Directive on Indirect Land Use Change, ILUC, (Directive (EU) 2015/1513). It introduced ILUC values for biofuels, and stricter sustainability criteria compared to RED and FQD. The ILUC rules are now included in RED II along with the criteria for determining high ILUC-risk feedstocks for biofuels.

Integration of renewable energy in the transport sector

As stated above, each MS shall establish an obligation for the fuel suppliers to ensure that the final energy use within the transport sector is at least 14% in 2030. To reduce the incentives to support less sustainable biofuels, RED II introduces calculation rules for the 14% target.

Biofuels based on food or feed crops can only represent 7% of the 14% target, and there is a restriction for the amount that can be high-ILUC risk fuels (i.e. palm oil, as defined in the delegated act 2019/2055). The amount of high-ILUC risk fuels is not allowed to increase and should decrease to 0% in 2030.

RED II promotes so-called advanced biofuels, e.g. biofuels based on algae, waste, manure, sewage sludge, ligno-cellulosic and non-food cellulosic material (defined in Annex IX part A). MS should introduce a binding sub-target for advanced biofuels of at least 0.2% in 2022, 1% in 2025 and 3.5% in 2030. The rest of the fuels that can be accounted to the 14% target are fuels produced from used cooking oil and animal fats (category 1 and 2, defined in Annex IX part B). Renewable electricity and recycled carbon fuels can also be included in this group.

Based on sustainability criteria (see next section) for different biofuels, RED II allows the advanced biofuels to be counted twice towards the 14% target. For fuels produced from used cooking oil or animal fats, 1.7% can be counted twice towards the 14% target or the 3.5% target for advanced biofuels. The reason for allowing only 1.7% to be double-counted is to align with the limited availability of the feedstocks. Moreover, renewable electricity for road transport shall be counted four times and in rail-bound transport, it can be counted 1.5 times towards the target.

Charts showing the target value for the transport sector (14%) of which the maximum limit of biofuel from food or feed crops is 7% and the minimum limit for advanced biofuels is 3.5%.

The sustainability criteria

To be counted as sustainable, RED II states that raw material for biofuel production cannot be taken from primary forest, nature protection areas, highly biodiverse grassland or land with high carbon stocks such as wetland or peatland. If the raw material for biofuel production is forest biomass, RED II defines different criteria to be fulfilled to minimize the risk of using raw material received from an unsustainable production.

RED I required a 35% GHG emission saving from the use of biofuels. From 1 January 2018, GHG emission savings from the use of biofuels produced in old production units (starting prior to 5 October 2015) must be at least 50%, according to the ILUC Directive. For units where biofuel production started after 5 October 2015, the threshold is 60%. For units where biofuel production started from 1 January 2021, the threshold is 65%. The biofuel values are compared to a baseline of 94.1g CO2 eq/MJ for fossil fuels.

Compliance of sustainable criteria

The sustainability criteria in RED I applied to biofuels and bioliquids [1]. In RED II, the sustainability criteria also apply to solid biomass fuel used for electricity and heating, and gaseous biomass fuel used for electricity and transport.

The economic operators, in most MS identified as the companies that pay fuel tax, are responsible for showing that the sustainability criteria have been fulfilled. They are obliged to have a control system that keeps track of the different batches of biofuels, where the raw material is taken from, and the sustainability properties of each batch. Independent auditors inspect and approve the quality of the control systems.

Implementation of RED II in Sweden

In Sweden, the integration of renewable fuels in the transport sector is mandated by the reduction mandate (Reduktionsplikten) that entered into force on 1 July 2018. Updates, including, e.g, rules for which fuels that can be used to meet the reduction mandate and regulation of high ILUC biofuels are suggested to enter into force on 1 August 2021.

Implementation of the sustainability criteria is conducted by a revision of the legislation 2010:598 (sustainability criteria for biofuels and liquid biofuels) entering into force 1 July 2021.

GHG Calculations

RED II includes a list of default GHG values for segments of the biofuel production chain: cultivation, process, transport and distribution. The economic operators can choose to use the default values (if the biofuel chain corresponds to those listed in the directive), their own calculated actual values, or a combination of default and actual values. Calculation of actual values is made according to life cycle assessment methodology and rules described in the Directives annexes.

If there are by-products from the production process of the fuel, these can share the GHG emissions in relation to their energy content. There is also several negative emissions that can reduce the total GHG emission value. These are, e.g., improved agricultural management methods allowing more carbon to be bound in soil, excess electricity produced in the biofuel plant, CO2 that is separated and geologically stored, and CO2 that is separated and replaced. There is also a GHG bonus if raw material is cultivated on severely degraded land. One example of a feedstock that gives negative CO2 emissions is manure.

The figures below show some examples of default values for ethanol, biodiesel and HVO from different feedstocks and for biomethane, respectively. For biomethane, negative emissions for biomethane produced from wet manure, received from manure credits, is illustrated.

Example of default values for a number of ethanol, biodiesel and HVO production pathways, with the reduction targets marked (reduction compared to fossil fuel emissions of 94,1g CO2 eq/MJ).

Example of default values for a number of biomethane production pathways, with the reduction targets marked (reduction compared to fossil fuel emissions of 94,1g CO2 eq/MJ). For biomethane produced from wet manure, the total g CO2 eq./MJ is marked with the dashed line taking the negative emissions from manure credits into account.

 

[1] Bioliquids are liquids produced from biomass that are used for purposes other than fuel, e.g. electricity generation or heating.

Fact sheet  | 

SunAlfa – System-oriented analysis of processes for renewable fuels form forest raw material

In this project, a new method for conversion of biomass to renewable jetfuel has been assessed. Parts of the technology…

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In this project, a new method for conversion of biomass to renewable jetfuel has been assessed. Parts of the technology is being verified in experiments in a parallell project.

Bringing a national production of biofuels of scale closer, the results can lead to reduced greenhouse gas emissions from aviation.

An important incentive for the transision is the obligation imposed on biofuel producers to to gradually increase the mix of biofuels into jetfuel. In 2030, the biofuel share has to reach 30 percent.
Normally, the biomass used in termochemical conversion via gasification needs to be dried, which can present difficulties when feeding it into a pressurized biomass gasifier. The researchers in this project have found a way to hydrothermally pre-treat the biomass, turning it into a liquid slurry that can be pumped into the gasifier. This changes the sensitivity of the conversion to moist material, making it possible to use both wet and mixed residues from forestry and agriculture.

Calculations on the whole process chain, from biomass to Fischer Tropsch wax – the raw material for fuel production have been performed, and the results have also been used in a life cycle analysis.

Energy, mass and coal efficiency rates were 34.5, 20.2, and 32.3 percent, respectively, well in line with other biofuel production technologies.

Compared to fossil jetfuel, the LCA analysis shows that greenhouse gas emissions are reduced by about 90 percent with the suggested technology. This presupposes using Swedish forest raw materials and Swedish electricity mix in the production process.

The project’s system calculations are experimentally verified in a parallel project led by RISE. The aim is to ensure the practical implementation of the technology, a possible upscale and subsequent commercialization.

Facts

Manager
Christer Gustavsson, Kiram AB

Contact
christer.gustavsson@kiram.se

Participants
Christian Stigsson, Pål Börjesson, Ola Wallberg and Christian Hulteberg, Lund University // Erik Furusjö, RISE

Time plan
September 2018 - December 2020

Total project cost
3 600 000 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, Kiram AB, Lund University and RISE

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
46969-1

Project Manager: Christer Gustavsson

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2021-05-19

Electric Road Systems, ERS

Electric Road Systems (ERS) allow vehicles to charge whilst driving, with electricity provided from the road infrastructure either in the…

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Electric Road Systems (ERS) allow vehicles to charge whilst driving, with electricity provided from the road infrastructure either in the roadside area or within the road construction. There are three major concepts of ERS: conductive overhead lines/catenary technology, conductive rails, and wireless induction technologies. Currently, several ERS technologies are in different stages of demonstration, in Sweden as well as abroad.

The ERS concept builds upon five subsystems: electricity supply (including transmission and distribution), the road itself, a power transfer system, a road operation system, and the vehicles. The systems include control components for these corresponding services. For instance, the power transfer system consists of equipment that detects the vehicle, transfers power from the road, and controls safe activation and operation of a power receiver in the vehicle. The electric road operation subsystem controls the energy management of the overall system and identifies vehicles to handle access and lane control. The vehicle subsystem converts the power from the power transfer subsystem into either propulsion of the vehicle or to energy storage.

Applications of ERS technologies are tested at several locations around the world, from test sites in Italy, France, Israel and Japan, through inductive charging of city buses in South Korea, to fully operating demonstrations on regional roads and highways in Sweden and Germany. To this date, no long-term tests have been performed but the ERS concept development is progressing, with some examples given for the three major concepts below.

ERS technology concepts

  • Conductive overhead lines/catenary technology

This concept builds on the same idea as the railway, with roadside support masts to hold contact cables about 5 meters above the road. Trucks or buses with pantographs mounted on the roof will be able to connect to the overhead lines and charge conductively while driving. The difference from trolley buses is that vehicles can connect to the lines while in motion and likewise disconnect if for instance having to change lanes. Passenger vehicles will not be able to use such a system. Conductive overhead lines have no direct impact on the road construction, but the need for extra infrastructure, such as the support masts, visually impacts the landscape.

The first electric road opened on a road with regular traffic was built for the catenary ERS concept. It was successfully implemented during 2016-2020 along 2 km of the E16 road close to Sandviken, Sweden, and demonstrated the use of power lines above the road to electrify heavy-duty vehicles. In Germany, conductive overhead lines placed above a 10 km stretch of the autobahn A5 between Darmstadt and Frankfurt were implemented in 2019 as part of a three-stage project called ELISA. Currently, the project is in phase two, testing the eHighway system regarding vehicles and infrastructure.

  • Conductive rails

Conductive rails can be installed in the road surface, bolted upon the surface, or installed at the side of the road. An electric current collector or pick-up mounted under the vehicle will either attach itself to the rail construction or slide along the contact material, conductively transferring energy to the vehicle. This technology can be used for heavy-duty trucks, distribution trucks as well as passenger vehicles. Compared to the catenary concept, conductive rails will not visually impact the landscape.

Two demonstration projects on regular roads in Sweden are using the conductive rail concepts; eRoadArlanda and EVolutionRoad. In the first, 2 km of conductive rail were installed in the road surface between a logistics terminal and the Arlanda airport freight terminal. In the second, an electric road with a ground-level feeding system is being tested for a city bus in Lund. The concept can be used both for trucks, buses and passenger vehicles. There re also other technology concepts being tested in Sweden and abroad, e.g. by Alstom and Honda.

  • Wireless induction

For this technology concept, copper coils are installed underneath a surface layer of asphalt. An electric current is magnetically induced between the copper coils in the road and a receiver in the vehicle. Wireless induction is totally embedded within the road construction, with the visible impact being electrical distribution boxes/boards that are regularly placed along the roadside. Because of the embedded copper coils, regular road maintenance and operations such as snow ploughing, or preventive anti-icing will not be affected by or harm the technology itself.

Wireless induction is currently tested in Visby, Sweden, where the installation of a 1.6 km long electric road was finished in December of 2020 for the purposes of a demonstration project called SmartRoad Gotland. This electric road can be used both by trucks and cars.

ERS adaptation

The impact on the road infrastructure and roadside areas from the implementation of ERS varies between concepts. The catenary concept is not expected to affect the road surface, whereas the rail and inductive technologies will affect the road structure during the installation procedure and the roads service life, for example when the road needs resurfacing. However, the catenary concept may influence maintenance operations by complicating verge maintenance and snow ploughing activities. The embedded inductive technology will probably not affect winter operations. It is crucial to recognize that implementation of ERS may affect not only road users, but also road maintenance operators, emergency personnel, energy grid suppliers, road authorities and vehicle manufacturers.

ERS potential

ERS technology is not intended to be installed on all roads or along the whole road stretch, but rather work as a range extender between charging points. Vehicles using the ERS therefore need to be able to drive outside the electrified road network. This can be achieved either by using a rechargeable battery or a hybrid solution where the vehicle uses some other kind of fuel or energy carrier. The combination of battery and vehicle size along with availability of additional charging possibilities determines the driving range outside the ERS.

Focus for ERS has so far been on the heavy goods transport sector, but in-ground installed ERS could be an alternative suitable for passenger cars as well. It could also potentially offer stationary charging of distribution trucks while loading or unloading goods at depot.

When it comes to costs of the ERS, the installation costs vary between concepts and assessments remain uncertain until a large-scale implementation has been performed. Estimates range between 1.7 and 3.1 Million EUR/km, including costs for installation, infrastructure, connection with the electricity grid, etc. The high costs for the system could become a potential barrier towards a large-scale implementation of ERS.

Another difficulty associated with ERS technologies concerns standardization. There are many interfaces of the system where standards are needed but not always applied. The interface between vehicles and infrastructure is one and the payment system another. Some standards have already been agreed upon at a European level while decisions on others remain.

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KNOGA – Cost and risk distribution among key actors for defossilized long-haulage freight transports on road

Electric driven long-distance freight transport is a surprisingly good alternative for fossil free transition, both from a…

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Electric driven long-distance freight transport is a surprisingly good alternative for fossil free transition, both from a climate and economic point of view. But access to fossil free electricity is crucial.

Costs and climate benefits from different technology alternatives for fossil free propulsion for heavy long-haulage freight transport by road are presented in this report: biofuels (liquid and gaseous), battery electric vehicles (BEV), electric road systems (ERS), hydrogen-powered fuel cell vehicles (H2-FCEV) and electrofuels.

The researchers have compared costs based on what they call a “relative mobility cost”, to visualize costs for stakeholders related to vehicle investment, service and repairs, fuel production and distribution as well as costs for investments and distribution infrastructure maintenance.

No single technology could be identified as a clear winner, but one result stands out. From a cost perspective, the battery electric vehicles seem to have best performance already 2030.

Electric powerlines also show the best climate performance, given that the electricity mix used has a low CO2 intensity and batteries can be produced with a low climate impact.

If a more CO2 intense electricity mix is used, battery electric vehicles have higher greenhouse gas emissions than biogas and all the studied biofuels.

The researchers also show how costs vary if there is a fee or climate impact equivalent to the current CO2 tax added to the studied alternatives. In that case, many of the alternatives perform better, i.e. have a lower cost, than diesel. This shows that policy plays an important role for future cost developments for the different alternatives.

Facts

Manager
Kristina Holmgren, earlier at VTI

Contact
kristina.holmgren@ri.se

Participants
Inge Vierth and Johanna Takman, VTI // Stefan Heyne, CIT Industriell Energi // Ingemar Magnusson and Monica Johansson, Volvo // Magnus Fröberg, Scania // Olov Petrén, E.on // Per-Arne Karlsson, St1

Time plan
August 2019 - February 2021

Total project cost
1 800 000 SEK

Funding
The Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, Volvo Technology, St1, Scania and E.on.

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
48353-1

The project has a reference group with members from relevant authorities and industry and commerce.

Project Manager: Kristina Holmgren

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2021-05-03

Electrofuels

Electrofuels is a way to produce renewable energy carriers from renewable electricity that can be used in segments of the…

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Electrofuels is a way to produce renewable energy carriers from renewable electricity that can be used in segments of the transport sector where direct electrification is more challenging to implement. Some electrofuels can be used directly in vehicles, ships and airplanes today, without further demands on distribution and tank infrastructure. The biggest challenges connected to electrofuels are associated with low energy efficiency and high costs for production.

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Elektrobränslen

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Electrolysis assisted biomass gasification for transportation fuels

Combining gasification with electrolysis can make biofuel production 30 percent more efficient. To optimize the conversion of forest biomass to…

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Combining gasification with electrolysis can make biofuel production 30 percent more efficient.

To optimize the conversion of forest biomass to biofuel, the group of researchers have evaluated a hybrid process that combines gasification with electrolysis.

Results show that the hybrid process enhances the product throughput by 15 to 31 percent, depending on gasification pathway.

Gasification is the most promising technology for production of forest-based biofuels, and it has been utilized in the demonstration plants Gobigas and LTU Green Fuels.

Up until today, the main barriers for commercialization of the technology has been high investment costs and difficulties reaching economic profitability on a larger scale. But the hybrid process studied here could change that and boost Swedish production of biofuels.

The integrated MCEC technology (Molten carbonate electrolysis cell) improves the process in more than one way. It not only offers a higher product throughput but also flexible conversion of electricity to fuel and vice versa. The technology also removes limits to capacity associated to the gasifier which could be an economic advantage. MCEC replaces several process steps: O2 production, hydrocarbon cracking, water-gas-shift and separation of CO2.

Initial costs for investing in the hybrid process are substantial, but are being compensated for by the enhanced efficiency. Production costs are calculated at 1 400-1 500 SEK per MWh, which is in the middle of the cost interval for different types of processes for biofuel production.

The project results were presented (in English) in a webinar. A recording is available here:

Facts

Manager
Sennai Asmelash Mesfun, RISE

Contact
sennai.asmelash.mesfun@ri.se

Participants
Andrea Toffolo, Bio4Energy (LTU) // Klas Engvall and Carina Lagergren, KTH

Time plan
July 2019 - December 2020

Total project cost
1 240 000 SEK

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
48371-1

Project Manager: Sennai Asmelash Mesfun

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2021-04-12

Förnybar bensin – En kunskapssammanställning

I december 2019 tillsatte Regeringen utredningen Utfasning av fossila drivmedel och förbud mot försäljning av nya bensin- och dieseldrivna bilar,…

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I december 2019 tillsatte Regeringen utredningen Utfasning av fossila drivmedel och förbud mot försäljning av nya bensin- och dieseldrivna bilar, som också kallas för Utfasningsutredningen. Den ska föreslå ett årtal för när fossila drivmedel ska vara utfasade i Sverige och vilka långsiktiga åtgärder som kan vidtas för att genomföra detta på ett så kostnadseffektivt sätt som möjligt.

Som en del av underlaget till utredningen har RISE, som är part i f3, tagit fram ett kunskapsunderlag gällande kända teknikmöjligheter och potentialuppskattningar för området förnybar bensin. Sammanställningen för ett resonemang kring marknads- och kostnadsuppskattningar över tid, samt kring hinder och drivkrafter för en storskalig produktion av förnybar bensin under 2030- och 2040-talen.

Syftet med rapporten är att presentera en kunskapssyntes och i förekommande fall ge ett vetenskapligt underbyggt beslutsunderlag för fortsatt dialog och arbete inom utredningen. Rapporten ger inga rekommendationer.

Arbetet med rapporten har i sin helhet finansierats genom Utfasningsutredningen. För att bidra till ökad spridning av dess innehåll har f3 givits möjlighet att publicera den i sin rapportserie.

Facts

Manager
Erik Furusjö och Johanna Mossberg, RISE

Contact
johanna.mossberg@ri.se

Funding
Regeringskansliet genom Utfasningsutredningen M 2019:04

Project Manager: Erik Furusjö och Johanna Mossberg

f3 Project  | Slutfört | 2021-04-08

BioFlex – Bio-based flexible production of transportation fuels in a combined pyrolysis and gasification plant

A new combination of thermo-chemical processes can contribute to reducing GHG emissions from the transport sector. In the Bioflex project,…

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A new combination of thermo-chemical processes can contribute to reducing GHG emissions from the transport sector.

In the Bioflex project, two well-known technologies for biofuel production, pyrolysis and gasification, have been combined. The integrated process is more efficient, offering possibilities to produce more biofuel from the same amount of biomass.

The process makes it possible to achieve nearly 40% of carbon conversion. That is a considerably larger number than what can be reached through direct pyrolysis or gasification, where corresponding results are between 30 and 35 percent.

Combining the two therm-ochemical processes allows for producing more of light olefins, an intermediate product that is the key for the good results. Olefins can then be used in fuel conversion.

The integrated process also offers a high level of flexibility. The olefin production kan be adjusted in order to meet demands in fuel mix variations over time.

Parts of the technology is already commercially available in Sweden. Production costs are expected to be 10 SEK/liter biofuel, double the cost for fossil fuels. To stimulate investing the the technology, implementation of policy instruments is vital.

The project results were presented (in English) in a webinar. A recording is available here:

Facts

Manager
Efthymios Kantarelis, KTH

Contact
ekan@kth.se

Participants
Klas Engvall, KTH // Andrea Toffolo, Bio4Energy (LTU) // Rolf Ljunggren, Cortus Energy

Time plan
July 2019 - December 2020

Total project cost
1 117 036 SEK

Funding
The Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, KTH, LTU and Cortus Energy AB.

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
48369-1

Project Manager: Efthymios Kantarelis

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2021-04-06

The use of forest biomass for climate change mitigation: dispelling some misconceptions

Recent articles and statements in the media [1, 2] raise concerns over the climate effects of using forest biomass for…

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Recent articles and statements in the media [1, 2] raise concerns over the climate effects of using forest biomass for bioenergy. As some statements seem to reflect misconceptions about forest bioenergy, IEA Bioenergy here provides a brief overview of key facts about the use of forest biomass for climate change mitigation. [3]


This fact sheet reproduces a text developed by Göran Berndes, Annette Cowie, Luc Pelkmans and members of IEA Bioenergy Task 45, the IEA Bioenergy Technology Collaboration Programme
(TCP). f3 publishes the text as a whole with permission from IEA Bioenergy.

The IEA Bioenergy TCP is organised under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA) but is functionally and legally autonomous. Views, findings and publications of the IEA Bioenergy TCP do not necessarily represent the views or policies of the IEA Secretariat or its individual member countries.

In summary

Energy from woody biomass can contribute to climate change mitigation, as a renewable fuel. It should be used efficiently, and when harvested from forests, it must come from sustainably managed forests, where carbon stocks are maintained or enhanced on a regional or national basis. Forest bioenergy can support rapid transformation of the energy sector. Furthermore, bioenergy linked with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) is one of the options that can deliver negative emissions, likely to be required to meet the temperature targets of the Paris Agreement. Forest management that maintains or increases carbon stocks, while also producing timber, fibre and energy, contributes to climate change mitigation by storing carbon on land and replacing carbon-intensive materials and fossil fuels.

 

1. Forest bioenergy is not by definition carbon neutral; emissions in the supply chain and impacts on forest carbon stock must be included.

Bioenergy is sometimes said to be “carbon neutral” in the sense that the carbon that is released during combustion (biogenic carbon emissions) has previously been sequestered from the atmosphere and will be sequestered again as the plants regrow.

But “carbon neutrality” is an unhelpful term because it is ambiguous and used differently in different contexts. As is further elaborated below, biogenic carbon needs to be considered in assessments in order to fully reflect how bioenergy will affect atmospheric GHG concentrations. If extraction of biomass for energy leads to a decline in the forest carbon stock or carbon sink strength, this needs to be accounted for. Furthermore, assessments need to consider all emissions associated with the production, processing, transport and use of bioenergy. Finally, the bioenergy scenario should be compared with a counterfactual scenario, in which energy is provided by another source, to quantify the net effect on GHG emissions.

2. Forest biomass is not treated as carbon neutral in national greenhouse gas inventories.

The treatment of bioenergy in greenhouse gas inventories has been criticized for containing a loophole because bioenergy is “counted as carbon neutral”. This is incorrect. Under the agreed approach for preparation of national greenhouse gas inventories, countries report harvest of forests for any purpose, including bioenergy, as a CO2 emission in the land use sector. [4] CO2 emissions from combustion of biomass for energy are not counted in the energy sector to avoid double counting with the land use sector. Thus, there is no accounting error that requires correction, or emission that is overlooked in reporting, and bioenergy is not assumed to be carbon neutral: if bioenergy leads to a reduction (or slower growth) in forest carbon stock this is reflected in national inventories. [5] Fuel use in the supply chain is counted in the energy sector of the country where the fuel is consumed, as for all other traded materials including energy carriers.

Where biomass for bioenergy is traded, the importing country reports no emissions, while the exporting country reports the emissions in the land sector. This convention could be criticised as supporting “outsourcing” of emissions by the importing country. This issue applies also to off-shore manufacturing. For instance, a large share of emissions associated with production of goods consumed in Europe is reported by China, where manufacturing occurs. [6] The case of biomass imports for bioenergy is an example where policymakers have recognized and taken action to address this challenge. [7] The EU RED II requires that forest biomass is sourced only from locations where legislation at national/subnational level, or management systems at the forest sourcing area, ensure that forests are regenerated and that carbon stocks and sink levels in the forest are maintained or strengthened over the long term. [8] Specifically concerning EU pellet importation from the United States, data show that forest carbon stocks in the south-eastern United States (SE US) where biomass is sourced, are steadily increasing, [9 ] and biomass harvests for wood pellets represent only a small fraction of harvest removals from forests in the SE US. [10]

3. Climate effects of using woody biomass cannot be determined at stand level; assessments need to be made at the landscape (estate) level.

A forest estate is generally managed as a series of stands of different ages, harvested at different times, to produce a constant supply of wood products. When considered at stand level, much of the carbon that has been sequestered into the stand as the trees grow is abruptly lost from the stand at the time of harvest, and is not fully sequestered again until the stand has reached harvest age. Stand-level assessments that start the accounting when the stand is harvested will, therefore, show upfront emissions and a delay before forest bioenergy contributes to net reductions in atmospheric CO2, particularly in long-rotation forests.

However, across the whole forest estate (landscape), i.e., at the scale that forests are managed, carbon losses in harvested stands are balanced by carbon gains (growth) in other stands, so the carbon stock of production forests is roughly stable. The magnitude of the carbon stocks in forest landscapes depends on biophysical factors such as soil and climate conditions, historic and current management regimes, and events such as storms, fires and insect outbreaks. To quantify the climate effects of harvesting woody biomass for energy and other products, the effect of this harvesting on the development of carbon stocks at the landscape level needs to be determined.

Landscape-scale assessment can provide a more complete representation of the dynamics of forest systems, as it integrates the effects of all changes in forest management and harvesting that take place in response to – experienced or anticipated – bioenergy demand. The landscape approach therefore helps to identify how total forest carbon stocks are affected by specific changes in forest management. For instance, if a new management regime with more residues and/or trees extracted, or a shorter rotation length, leads to a long-term decline in the carbon stock and carbon sink capacity of the forest estate, this would reduce the climate benefit. On the other hand, an increase in demand for bioenergy and other forest products could also incentivise changes in forest management (e.g., improved site preparation, use of nurse trees, advanced genetics, measures to reduce risks for forest fires or pests/diseases) that enhance forest sink strength and carbon stocks.

4. Forest biomass is a renewable energy source if forest productivity is maintained.

Forest biomass is renewable if it is harvested from forests that are managed such that there is no loss of productive capacity – i.e., so that growth rate and therefore capacity to sequester carbon are maintained over successive rotations. Sustainable forest management is key to maintaining healthy and productive forests. Biomass derived from deforestation should not be recognized as renewable.

5. The climate change effect of using biomass for energy cannot be determined by comparing GHG emissions at the point of combustion.

It is sometimes stated that CO2 stack emissions per MWh inevitably increase when biomass replaces coal. However, at the point of combustion, wood and coal have similar CO2 emission factors, as the ratio of heating values between the two fuels is similar to the ratio of carbon content. Furthermore, biomass fuel characteristics (moisture content, grindability, heating value) affect the energy efficiency of co-firing systems. In large coal power plants, there can be a derating of a few percent, as there is more flue gas generated per GJ of fuel, which leaves the stack at a temperature above the ambient temperature resulting in so-called stack losses. However, when the co-firing ratio is low (<10%) there is usually no significant efficiency penalty. Fuel type (both coal and biomass) also matters. For low rank coal, biomass co-firing (especially torrefied biomass) can increase the boiler efficiency and net power plant efficiency. The outcome also depends on modifications made when power plants are adapted to using biomass (e.g., investments in steam turbine upgrades and internal waste heat utilization to dry biomass fuel).

More importantly, comparing emissions at the point of combustion does not show the effect on atmospheric GHG concentrations of switching from fossil fuels to biomass. There is a fundamental difference between fossil fuels and biomass: burning fossil fuels releases carbon that has been locked up in the ground for millions of years, while burning biomass emits carbon that is part of the biogenic carbon cycle. In other words, fossil fuel use increases the total amount of carbon in the biosphere-atmosphere system, while bioenergy systems operate within this system; if the forest carbon stock is constant there is no net transfer of carbon to the atmosphere.

Instead of comparing GHG emissions at the point of combustion, the biogenic carbon flows and fossil GHG emissions associated with the complete life cycle of the bioenergy system need to be compared with the GHG emissions in a realistic reference situation (counterfactual scenario) where energy sources other than bioenergy are used. Also, indirect impacts (positive or negative) on land use, wood products and fossil fuel use need to be considered.

6. Long-distance transport does not negate the climate benefits of woody biomass as a renewable energy source.

Fossil energy used in the biomass supply chain is generally small compared to the energy content of the bioenergy product, even when transported internationally. For example, the fossil fuel use related to cultivation and processing of wood pellets corresponds to between 2.5 and 15 g CO2/MJ. [11] Transporting pellets between North America and Europe increases supply chain emissions by up to 5 g CO2/MJ [12] (for comparison: the life cycle GHG emissions of hard coal (supply & combustion) is around 112 g CO2/MJ). Thus, long-distance transport does not negate the climate benefits of forest-based bioenergy; these supply chains still offer substantial climate benefit when sourced from sustainable biomass.

7. Switching from coal to woody biomass reduces atmospheric CO2 over time scales relevant to climate stabilisation.

Some articles point to the fact that forest-based bioenergy systems can cause a short-term increase in emissions, although delivering mitigation in the longer term, and claim that bioenergy is not compatible with climate change goals if it has a payback period of more than a decade, due to the urgent need to address climate change.

First, there remains disagreement about the appropriate methodological approach for calculating payback time. Stand-level assessments are in our view not appropriate since they represent the assessed system as a strict sequence of events (e.g., site preparation, planting or natural regeneration, thinning and other silvicultural operations, final felling) that in reality occur simultaneously0 across the forest landscape (see point 3). The outcome for stand-level assessments will vary dramatically for the same system, depending on which starting point is chosen (time of replanting or time of harvest). Moreover, defining a realistic counterfactual for the calculation of payback times is critical, but challenging, considering the dynamics of forestry systems. Some studies use unrealistic assumptions for counterfactuals, e.g. assuming that forests planted for commercial use are left unharvested when there is no demand for bioenergy, and ignoring that most forest biomass used for bioenergy is a by-product of high value timber.

Second, the relationship between net emissions, global warming and climate stabilisation is complex. The IPCC 1.5 report [13] shows many alternative trajectories towards stabilization temperatures of 1.5 and 2°C. The IPCC emphasizes the need for transformation of all the major sectors of society to achieve net zero CO2 emissions, and finds a requirement for carbon dioxide removal in many scenarios. The IPCC’s assessment of current scientific understanding does not conclude that individual measures towards achieving transformation need to meet specific “payback periods”.

The most important climate change mitigation measure is to transform energy and transport systems so that we can leave fossil carbon in the ground. Using bioenergy now, in conjunction with other renewables, is an important measure to achieve this. Biomass is a storable, dispatchable energy source that can support the rapid expansion of intermittent renewables, providing grid stability and balancing. In the longer term, biomass is likely to be primarily used in applications where the substitution of carbon-based fuels is particularly difficult, such as in aviation and long-distance marine transportation. Biomass may also be increasingly used in applications that deliver net negative GHG emissions. For the mid – to longer term, the IPCC 1.5 report found most scenarios that deliver climate stabilisation at 1.5 or 2°C require substantial deployment of negative emissions technologies. Bioenergy linked with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) is one of the major available options for achieving negative emissions. The further transformation of existing power systems will depend on how biobased and other technologies develop to meet future demands, including the development of technologies for providing negative emissions that are not based on biomass.

Concern about near-term emissions is not a strong argument for stopping investments that contribute to net emissions reduction beyond 2030, be it the scaling-up of battery manufacturing to support electrification of car fleets, the development of rail infrastructure, or the development of biomass supply systems and innovation to provide biobased products displacing fossil fuels, cement and other GHG-intensive products. We assert that it is critical to focus on the global emissions trajectory required to achieve climate stabilization, acknowledging possible trade-offs between short- and long-term emissions reduction objectives. A strong focus on short-term carbon balances may result in decisions that make long-term climate objectives more difficult to meet.

8. Sustainability governance is required to ensure that woody biomass used for energy makes a positive contribution to addressing climate change and other societal goals.

Scientific studies have shown that forest-based bioenergy can make a substantial contribution to climate stabilisation. Sustainability governance is needed to support achievement of this potential and minimise the risk of negative outcomes. Many countries have rigorous forest management regulations requiring implementation of sustainable forest management practices. [14] Sustainable forest management, such as defined by FSC- or PEFC-endorsed schemes, is used to manage hundreds of millions of hectares of forest worldwide, and these practices should be deployed more broadly. Sustainability requirements have been developed to govern the eligibility of forest biomass for renewable energy in several countries as well as under the updated European Renewable Energy Directive. Regulations governing eligibility for bioenergy subsidies in the Netherlands, for example, stipulate that natural forests cannot be converted, that biodiversity and forest vitality are at least maintained, that forests must be regrown, and that forest carbon stock must be maintained or increased in the long term. To secure sustainability compliance and oversight throughout the chain, all economic operators are supervised by public authorities and the certification schemes involved.

9. Managed forests can provide greater climate benefits than conservation forests.

The cessation of harvesting from forests, to allow them to sequester carbon, has been proposed as a climate change mitigation option that also can provide other benefits such as biodiversity protection. There are indeed many good reasons for protecting natural forests. With respect to climate, the IPCC has pointed out that forests managed for producing sawn timber, bioenergy and other wood products can make a greater contribution to climate change mitigation than forests managed for conservation alone. This is for three reasons. First, the sink strength diminishes as conservation forests approach maturity; production forests maintained in an actively growing state have high sink strength. Second, wood products displace GHG-intensive materials and fossil fuels. Third, carbon in forests is vulnerable to loss through natural events such as insect infestations or wildfires, as recently seen in many parts of the world including Australia and north America. Managing forests can help to increase the total amount of carbon sequestered in the forest and wood products carbon pools, reduce the risk of loss of sequestered forest carbon, and reduce fossil fuel use.

10. Managed forests produce wood for multiple products, not just bioenergy.

The picture, which is often presented, that whole forest stands are cut for bioenergy alone, is misleading. Forest biomass for bioenergy is typically obtained from forests managed for multiple purposes, including production of pulp and saw logs, and provision of other ecosystem services (e.g., air quality improvement, water purification, soil stabilization, biodiversity conservation). Bioenergy systems are components in value chains or processes that aim to produce forest products such as sawnwood, paper and chemicals. Stems that meet quality requirements are used to produce high value products such as sawnwood and wood panels, displacing carbon-intensive building materials such as concrete, steel and aluminium, while residues from forestry operations (tops, branches, thinnings, wood that is unsuitable for lumber) and wood processing residues are used for bioenergy. (e.g. [15]). When bioenergy from forest biomass displaces fossil fuels, this adds to the climate benefits of managed forestry.

Footnotes

  1. For example: BBC News 23.02.2017 “Most energy schemes are a ‘disaster’ for climate change”; EASAC press release 10.09.2019 “EASAC’s Environmental Experts call for international action to restrict climate-damaging forest bioenergy schemes”; The Guardian 16.12.2019 “Converting coal plants to biomass could fuel climate crisis, scientists warn”; EASAC press release 26.08.2020 “Emissions Trading System: Stop Perverse Climate Impact of Biomass by Radically Reforming CO2 Accounting Rules”
  2. For example: Brack, D., 2017. Woody biomass for power and heat: Impacts on the global climate. Environment, Energy and Resources Department, Chatham House.; Searchinger, T.D., Beringer, T., Holtsmark, B., Kammen, D.M., Lambin, E.F., Lucht, W., Raven, P. and van Ypersele, J.P., 2018. Europe’s renewable energy directive poised to harm global forests. Nature communications, 9(1), pp.1-4.; Sterman, J.D., et al., 2018. Does replacing coal with wood lower CO2 emissions? Dynamic lifecycle analysis of wood bioenergy. Environmental Research Letters, 13(1), p.015007.; Norton, M.et al., 2019. Serious mismatches continue between science and policy in forest bioenergy. GCB Bioenergy, 11(11), pp.1256-1263.
  3. IEA Bioenergy, 2020. The use of forest biomass for climate change mitigation: dispelling some misconceptions. https://www.ieabioenergy.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/08/The-use-of-biomass-for-climate-change-mitigation-dispelling-some-misconceptions-August-2020-Rev1.pdf
  4. UNFCCC reporting sectors Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU), formerly Land use, Land-use change and Forestry (LULUCF) sector.
  5. However, there is incomplete coverage under the Kyoto Protocol because only some countries account for their GHG emissions in the second (2013- 2020) commitment period. Under the Paris Agreement, commencing 2020, all parties will include the land sector in their national accounting.
  6. E.g. Chen, Q., Löschel, A., Pei, J., Peters, G.P., Xue, J. and Zhao, Z., 2019. Processing trade, foreign outsourcing and carbon emissions in China. Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, 49, pp.1-12.
  7. see EU Renewable Energy Directive II, L 328/97 (point 102), ‘… harvesting in forests is carried out in a sustainable manner in forests where regeneration is ensured …’
  8. EU Renewable Energy Directive II, L 328/131-132, Article 29, par. 6-9
  9. Woodall, C. et al. (2015). The U.S. Forest Carbon Accounting Framework: Stocks and Stock Change, 1990-2016. USDA Forest Service, Newtown Square, PA. https://www.fs.fed.us/nrs/pubs/gtr/gtr_nrs154.pdf [November 28, 2019].
  10. Dale, V. et al. (2017). Status and prospects for renewable energy using wood pellets from the southeastern United States. GCB Bioenergy (2017)
  11. or up to 25 g CO2/MJ when fossil fuel is used for drying, which is uncommon in modern pellet plants.
  12. J. Giuntoli, A. Agostini, R. Edwards, L. Marelli, 2015. Solid and gaseous bioenergy pathways: input values and GHG emissions. JRC Report EUR 27215 EN.; Jonker, J.G.G., Junginger, M. and Faaij, A., 2014. Carbon payback period and carbon offset parity point of wood pellet production in the South-eastern United States. Global Change Biology Bioenergy, 6(4), pp.371-389.
  13. IPCC, 2018: Summary for Policymakers. In: Global Warming of 1.5°C. An IPCC Special Report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways, in the context of strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change, sustainable development, and efforts to eradicate poverty [Masson-Delmotte, V., P. Zhai, H.-O. Pörtner, D. Roberts, J. Skea, P.R. Shukla, A. Pirani, W. Moufouma-Okia, C. Péan, R. Pidcock, S. Connors, J.B.R. Matthews, Y. Chen, X. Zhou, M.I. Gomis, E. Lonnoy, T. Maycock, M. Tignor, and T. Waterfield (eds.)]. World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 32 pp. https://www.ipcc.ch/sr15/chapter/spm/
  14. For example, the Montréal Process (https://www.montrealprocess.org/) countries contain 90% of the world’s temperate and boreal forests and produce 49% of the world’s roundwood.
  15. Enviva’s website identifies that 17% of feedstock is mill residues, with the remainder being forest biomass. This forest biomass is not high-value timber, but rather a mix of thinnings, limbs and low-quality stems, consistent with the biomass sources identified by Matthews et al. (2018) as having low risk, and leading to low GHG emissions.

Fact sheet  | 

Drop-in fuels from black liquor part streams – bridging the gap between short and long-term technology tracks

Strategically important drop-in biofuels can be produced from pulp industry by-products in a costeffective way, creating profits for economy and…

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Strategically important drop-in biofuels can be produced from pulp industry by-products in a costeffective way, creating profits for economy and climate.

As a result of the introduction of the reduction obligation for petrol and diesel fuels in 2018, demanding an increase in the share of biofuels in fossil vehicle fuels, the demand for renewable drop-in biofuels is expected to grow. This is an important measure in order to reach the Swedish climate targets stating that GHG emissions from road transports need to be reduced by 70 percent between the years 2010-2030.

For the first time, researchers have tested and compared the economic competetiveness of drop-in fuels produced from black liqour, a by-product from pulp production. Two technology pathways have been investigated: lignin separation and black liquor gasification. The results show that drop-in biofuels can be produced from BL part-streams with production costs of around 80 EUR/MWh (ca. 7-8 SEK/l), thereby equalling or bettering the economic performance of comparable forest residue-based fuels.

The techonology has great potential to increase the supply of high-GHG performance fuels in a cost-effective way, and to reduce the emissions from the existing vehicle fleet. The technology is also beneficial from a business point of view. Pulp mills looking to broaden their product portfolios can increase pulp capacity and at the same time lower their total costs.

The fuel production costs can be reduced by up to 23 percent using the synergy effect. It it is allocated to the pulp production instead, a gross margin of 35-70 percent for the increased production volume can be achieved.

In a webinar on 11 November 2020, project manager Elisabeth Wetterlund presented results from the project (in Swedish). The webinar was recorded and can be seen here:

Facts

Manager
Elisabeth Wetterlund, Bio4Energy (LTU)

Contact
elisabeth.wetterlund@ltu.se

Participants
Yawer Jafri and Fredrik Granberg, Bio4Energy (LTU) // Erik Furusjö, Johanna Mossberg and Sennai Mesfun, RISE // Christian Hulteberg and Linnea Kollberg, SunCarbon AB // Klaas va der Vlist, Smurfit Kappa Kraftliner // Henrik Rådberg, Preem // Roland Mårtensson, Södra

Time plan
September 2018 - June 2020

Total project cost
2 034 427 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, Bio4Energy (LTU), Preem AB, Smurfit Kappa, SunCarbon and Södra skogsägarna ekonomisk förening

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
46982-1

Project Manager: Elisabeth Wetterlund

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2020-10-09

How can alcohols contribute to a fossil-independent non-road machinery fleet?

If diesel fuel in work vehicles such as tractors and wheel loaders was replaced or complemented with renewable alcohols, CO2…

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If diesel fuel in work vehicles such as tractors and wheel loaders was replaced or complemented with renewable alcohols, CO2 emissions could at least be reduced by 50 percent. The fuel alternatives and the technology is already in place, but business conditions need to improve.

Alcohol fuels such as ethanol and methanol have low CO2 emissions and they can be used with a high degree of efficiency. They are already produced in large quantities in Sweden and engine researchers consider alcohols of future interest for work vehicles in used in agriculture, forestry, and construction.

This study has investigated the conditions for using alcohols to replace fossil fuels with respect to practical handling, business conditions, environmental benefits and future technology solutions. The results have been compared to those of fossil diesel and biodiesel (HVO).

Environmental benefits

Climate impact from alcohol fuels depends to a large extent on the production of the fuel and the use of it in a vehicle. Compared to HVO, CO2 emissions from production of alcohol fuels are roughly the same or lower. In user phase, the reduction could be up to 60 percent. Compared to diesel, the CO2 emissions could be reduced by 60 to 85 percent using alcohol fuels, depending on technology. The highest efficiency and thus the greatest environmental benefit can be reached with partially premixed combustion and solid oxide fuel cells, motor concepts that are not yet commercialized.

Business conditions

Shifting to HVO doubles todays fuel costs, and the costs of shifting to alcohol fuels are approximately 2,5 times higher. This is a large expense for the individual user in the short term, which is why economic policy measures on a societal level are needed.

Practical handling

Alcohol fuels display different properties than those of diesel meaning that the handling of the fuel demands knowledge and certain investments in materials and technology.

Facts

Manager
Gunnar Larsson, SLU

Contact
gunnar.larsson@slu.se

Participants
Per-Ove Persson, Per-Ove Persson F.N.B.

Time plan
January - December 2019

Total project cost
973 135 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, SLU and Per-Ove Persson F.N.B.

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
46986-1

Project Manager: Gunnar Larsson

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2020-06-26

Bio-electro-fuels – Technology that can offer improved resource efficiency

A hybrid technology that integrates electricity into the biofuel process opens up possibilities to produce two to three times as…

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A hybrid technology that integrates electricity into the biofuel process opens up possibilities to produce two to three times as much biofuel from limited biomass resource.

The project has studied ten different production routes with gasification, pyrolysis and fermentation of residual products from agriculture and forestry. Biofuel production technologies for lignocellulosic feedstock typically demonstrate carbon efficiencies in the range of 25-50%.

A theoretical analysis shows that carbon efficiency can increase to over 90 percent if the energy and hydrogen for the process are taken from electricity instead of from the biomass raw material. The products are called bio-electro fuels.

The hybrid technology with electricity provides approximately the same production cost for drop-in fuels as conventional production. However, the process requires renewable electricity in significant quantities.

A scenario analysis shows that a large-scale implementation of the most efficient hybrid technology has the potential to make Sweden self-sufficient in biofuels for domestic and as well as international transport, in time perspectives 2030 and 2045.

Other conclusions:

  • The most important electrification techniques that can lead to this efficiency improvement are water electrolysis, direct heating and heat pumps.
  • Gasification-based biofuel production from lignocellulosic biomass, e.g. bark or sawdust, has the greatest potential for integrated electrification. Other lignocellulose-based production techniques also show potential for integrated electrification with good efficiency improvements.
  • The overall energy efficiency of the process is generally not affected by the electrification.
  • The production cost for the hybrid fuels with integrated electricity is similar to or slightly higher than the corresponding production costs for biofuels, but lower than for the corresponding electro fuels.
  • Greenhouse gas performance for all investigated alternatives is generally good as long as the greenhouse gas emissions for the electricity used in the process are low.

Results were presented (in Swedish) in a webinar om 17 May 2022:

Facts

Manager
Erik Furusjö, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden

Contact
erik.furusjo@ri.se

Participants
Sennai Asmelash Mesfun, RISE // Mahrokh Samavati, KTH Royal Institute of Technology // Anton Larsson and Gabriel Gustafsson, BioShare AB

Time plan
October 2020 - April 2022

Total project cost
2 210 000 SEK

Funding
The Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partner organisations, BioShare AB, KTH, St1, Södra and Vattenfall.

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
50452-1

The project consortium contains commercial representatives from the full value chain.

Project Manager: Erik Furusjö

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2020-06-15

A review of the synthetic step in the production of advanced biofuels

One of the most important routes for the future production of synthetic transport fuels is the gasification of biomass. A…

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One of the most important routes for the future production of synthetic transport fuels is the gasification of biomass. A lot of different gasification processes exists (direct, indirect, entrained flow) with different types of gasifiers (down draft, fluidised bed, circulating bed). However, all of the gasification processes have in common that the generated gas, the producer gas, must be upgraded or at least purified before the biofuel synthesis steps.

The aim of the project is to establish the state-of-art concerning the purification and upgrading of the producer gas to synthesis gas and the subsequent different fuel synthesis processes. The focus is on the technique, theory and thermodynamics and energy efficiency for the different sub-systems/processes.

Facts

Manager
Henrik Kusar, KTH

Contact
hkusar@kth.se

Participants
Jan Brandin, Linnaeus University // Christian Hulteberg, Lund University

Time plan
February - August 2015

Total project cost
435 000 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, KTH, Linnaeus University and Lund University

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
39585-1

Project Manager: Henrik Kusar

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2020-05-25

Thermochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass

Lignocellulosic biomass can be converted into fuels and chemicals using thermochemical or biochemical process pathways. Thermochemical technologies apply heat and…

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Lignocellulosic biomass can be converted into fuels and chemicals using thermochemical or biochemical process pathways. Thermochemical technologies apply heat and chemical processes in order to produce bioenergy from biomass. There are four main thermochemical conversion processes: direct combustion, gasification, pyrolysis and liquefaction. Direct combustion produces heat while the three latter can produce various types of energy carriers that can be converted into fuels.

Direct combustion

Direct combustion is the burning of biomass in open air, or, in the presence of excess air, converting the chemical energy stored in biomass into heat, mechanical power or electricity. Direct combustion is carried out using stoves, furnaces, steam turbines, or boilers at a temperature range starting at 800°C. All types of biomass can be burned, but in practice, direct combustion is only performed for biomass that has low moisture content (less than 50%). Biomass containing higher levels of moisture needs to be dried prior to combustion, or it may be better suited to biochemical conversion.

Gasification

Gasification is the partial oxidation of biomass at high temperatures (over 700°C) in the presence of a gasification agent, which can be steam, oxygen, air or a combination of these. The resulting gas mixture is called syngas or producer gas, and can be used in various processes to produce liquid fuels such as methanol, ethanol and Fischer-Tropsch diesel, and gaseous fuels, such as hydrogen and methane.

Syngas is comprised mainly of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, but could also contain methane, carbon dioxide, light hydrocarbons (e.g. ethane and propane) and heavy hydrocarbons (e.g. tars). Undesirable gases, such as hydrogen sulfide may also be present. The composition of the syngas depends on the type of biomass, the gasifier, the gasification agent, and on the temperature used in the process. Generally, when the biomass has high content of carbon and oxygen, the syngas produced via gasification is rich in carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide.

The most common biomass feedstocks used in the gasification process to produce biofuels are different kinds of wood, forestry wastes and agricultural residues. The heat for the high temperature gasification process can be supplied either directly by oxidation of part of the biomass in the gasifier, or indirectly by transferring energy to the gasifier externally.

 

Pyrolysis

Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of biomass to liquid, solid and gaseous fractions at high temperatures in the absence of oxygen in order to avoid significant levels of combustion. The liquid fraction is called bio-oil or bio-crude; a dark brown, viscous liquid with a high density, composed by a mixture of oxygen-containing organic compounds. Due to its high oxygen content, bio-oil is not suitable for direct use as a drop-in transportation fuel. However, it can be easily transported and stored, and after upgrading it has the potential to substitute crude oil, which makes it the most interesting product of pyrolysis. The solid fraction obtained from pyrolysis is called biochar, i.e. charcoal made from biomass, and the gasous fraction is syngas. The relative proportions of these fractions depend on the type of reactor employed and the feedstock used. It is controlled by varying the temperature, the heating rate and the residence time of the material in the reactor.

Depending on the heating rate employed, there are three main types of pyrolysis processes: slow, fast and flash pyrolysis. Slow pyrolysis has been used for thousands of years for the production of solid fuel. It is a decomposition process at relatively low temperatures (up to 500°C) and low heating rates (below 10°C/min), which takes several hours to complete, and results in solid biochar as the main product.

Fast pyrolysis is currently the most widely used process. It occurs at controlled temperature of around 500°C employing relatively high heating rates and only takes a few seconds to complete. The key product from fast pyrolysis is bio-oil (60-75%). In addition, biochar (15-25%) and syngas (10-20%) are also produced.

When heating rates and reaction temperatures are even higher, and the reaction time is shorter than that of fast pyrolysis, the process can be described as flash pyrolysis. Flash pyrolysis can result in a high yield of bio-oil and high conversion efficiencies (up to 70-75%).

Liquefaction

Hydrothermal liquefaction is the conversion of biomass to bio-oil in the presence of water, with or without a catalyst. During hydrothermal liquefaction, large compounds in the biomass are broken down into unstable shorter molecules that in turn reattach to each other and form bio-oil. In contrast to pyrolysis and gasification, the liquefaction process does not require the use of dry biomass, which reduces the cost of drying. The resulting bio-oil has lower oxygen content than the bio-oil obtained from pyrolysis, and therefore, it requires less upgrading prior to utilization as a transportation fuel.

Fact sheet  | 

Biochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass

Lignocellulosic biomass can be converted into fuels and chemicals using thermochemical or biochemical process pathways. Biochemical processes involve biocatalysts. They…

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Lignocellulosic biomass can be converted into fuels and chemicals using thermochemical or biochemical process pathways. Biochemical processes involve biocatalysts. They can be enzymes that degrade biomass to a mixture of sugars, which can be fermented by microorganisms to produce a wide range of valuable compounds such as fuels, organic acids, alcohols, etc. When the aim is to produce liquid and gaseous biofuels, mainly two biochemical conversion processes are used: fermentation for ethanol production and anaerobic digestion for biogas production.

Fermentation process for ethanol

A typical process to convert biomass to ethanol consists of four main steps: pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation, and product recovery (Figure 1).

Pretreatment

Lignocellulose is a very resistant material. It consists of an intertwined network of cellulose (30-50%), hemicellulose (20-30%) and lignin (20-30%) that provides strength and resistance to the plant structure. Converting lignocellulose to sugar molecules requires pretreatment to open its structure and make it easier to break down the cellulose fibers consisting of glucose linked together in long chains. The pretreatment step can separate the cellulose from hemicellulose and lignin.

Several pretreatment methods, including biological, physical, and chemical pretreatments, have been studied. In a biomass-to-ethanol process at commercial scale, steam pretreatment has so far been the main choice. During steam pretreatment high-pressure steam is used to increase the temperature of the biomass to 160-240°C for a certain time, after which the pressure is released causing most of the hemicellulose and part of the lignin to solubilize. The cellulose remains undissolved but becomes more available for the enzymes.

Enzymatic hydrolysis

During enzymatic hydrolysis, the cellulose fibers and hemicellulose which were not degraded in the pretreatment are decomposed into simple sugar molecules. Cellulases, a mixture of several types of enzymes acting in synergy, are used to attack the bonds between glucose molecules in different regions of the cellulose. As hemicellulose mainly consists of other types of sugars than glucose, and has a different structure compared to cellulose, its hydrolysis requires different enzymes (hemicellulases). In the end of the enzymatic hydrolysis a solution that is rich in various kinds of sugars is obtained and can be fermented.

Fermentation

The sugars produced can be fermented to ethanol by yeast or bacteria. Due to it generally being recognized as safe, robust, and presenting high ethanol tolerance, ordinary baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is the most preferred microorganism. But ordinary baker’s yeast can only ferment sugars that contain six carbon atoms, such as glucose. To convert sugars from hemicellulose containing five carbons (e.g. xylose and arabinose), the yeast needs to be genetically modified or replaced with other microorganisms, e.g. bacteria. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation can be carried out in two main configurations: consecutively, known as separate hydrolysis and fermentation, or at the same time in one vessel, known as simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (see Figure 1).

Product recovery

To obtain a high-purity product that can be used for fuel production, ethanol needs to be recovered from the fermentation by distillation and dehydration. Residues from distillation are separated into solids and liquids. The solid residue, which is rich in lignin, can either be burnt to produce steam, heat, and electricity, or converted to various coproducts. The liquid residue is sent to an anaerobic digestion plant to produce biogas. Ethanol obtained by this process is blended with gasoline at different ratios (E5-E85) or can even be used as a pure ethanol fuel (E100).

Anaerobic digestion for biogas production

Anaerobic digestion (AD) is the microbial decomposition of biomass into biogas without the presence of oxygen. Biogas is mainly composed of 55-65% methane and 35-45% carbon dioxide, but it can also contain small amounts of e.g. nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen, hydrogen sulfide, and ammonia. The composition of the resulting biogas depends on the type of biomass used.

It is possible to break down biomass by means of AD without pretreatment. However, higher biogas yields can be achieved in shorter time if pretreatment is applied. The four main steps of AD are hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis, and methanogenesis (Figure 2). In each step, different groups of microorganisms are used.

In the hydrolysis step, large macromolecules such as carbohydrates, lipids and proteins are broken down by enzymes to smaller compounds, such as simple sugars, amino acids, fatty acids. These are further degraded in the acidogenesis to organic acids and alcohols, which are in turn converted to acetate, as well as to carbon dioxide and hydrogen in the acetogenesis. In the final step, methanogenesis, biogas, i.e. a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide, is produced by two different types of bacteria. One converts acetate and the other type utilizes carbon dioxide and hydrogen to produce biogas.

Biogas obtained from AD can be burnt and the energy released can be used for heating purposes. Alternatively, after removal of carbon dioxide, biogas can be compressed the same way as natural gas and used as a vehicle fuel.

 

 

Fact sheet  | 

Annual reports from f3

Read and download annual reports from f3 describing the work within the centre on a yearly basis. From 2018 and…

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Read and download annual reports from f3 describing the work within the centre on a yearly basis. From 2018 and onwards, the annual report is written in Swedish. Contact the f3 office if you wish to have more information on any certain content.

Miscellaneous  | 

Aviation biofuel, Biojet

The fact sheet is currently only available in Swedish. Jet A1, också benämnt som flygfotogen eller jetbränsle, är det drivmedel…

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The fact sheet is currently only available in Swedish.

Jet A1, också benämnt som flygfotogen eller jetbränsle, är det drivmedel som används i flygplan och helikoptrar drivna med jetmotorer. När biobaserade bränslen blandas i flygbränsle brukar det kallas biojet. Det är i dagsläget bränsle från fyra olika biobaserade produktionsvägar som är certifierat som tillsats (upp till 50%) i konventionell Jet A1 enligt standarden för flygbränsle: hydrerade estrar och fettsyror (HEFA), Alcohol-to-Jet (AtJ), Fischer-Tropsch (FT) och direktfermentering av socker (DSHC).

För att ge biojet bra klimatprestanda är det viktigt att vätgasproduktionen som processteg görs hållbar. I svenska bioflygbränsleprojekt är det främst tre av de biobaserade produktionsvägarna som är intressanta att utveckla, HEFA, AtJ och FT, vilka presenteras närmare i detta faktablad. Längs värdekedjan för respektive teknik finns olika faktorer som påverkar status för bioflygbränslena, och därmed också hur de kan bidra till luftfartssektorns klimatmål.

De fyra produktionsvägarna för biobaserade drop in-bränslen certifierade för inblandning i flygbränsle enligt standard ASTM 7566-18. Med inblandning av dessa kallas flygbränslet för Biojet.

HEFA – hydrerade estrar och fettsyror

Hydrerade (vätebehandlade) estrar och fettsyror, HEFA, produceras ur vegetabiliska och animaliska oljor och fetter, också avfallsoljor som använd matolja. Råvaran vätebehandlats för att reducera syreinnehåll och konvertera fetter och oljor till kolväten. En förbehandling krävs för att använda förorenade råvaror.

HEFA är ASTM-certifierad för en inblandning i flygbränsle på upp till 50%.

HEFA-processen är den enda produktionsprocess som idag har kommersiell produktion av bioflygbränsle. Eftersom tillverkningsprocessen till stor del är densamma som för HVO (hydrerad vegetabilisk olja) som finns på marknaden för vägtransporter, kan anläggningar ha en flexibel produktmix, dvs fördelning mellan olika produkter (t ex mellan flygbränsle, andra fordonsbränslen och kemikalier). Men det betyder också att en konkurrenssituation om vissa råvaror kan uppstå mellan drivmedelsproduktion för flyget respektive vägtransporter. En ökad efterfrågan på vegetabiliska oljor kan orsaka tryck på ändrad markanvändning i vissa fall. Lignocellulosaråvaror har mycket högre tillgänglighet och lägre indirekta miljöeffekter men kan med dagens teknik inte användas för HEFA-produktion.

Investeringskostnader har i exempel beräknats ligga kring 8 000 SEK/årston för storskaliga anläggningar vilket ger ett uppskattat lägsta försäljningspris för HEFA på i storleksordningen 8-12 SEK/l beroende på råvara. [1, 2] De relativt låga produktionskostnaderna är delvis beroende av synergier med annan kolväteproduktion. Andra uppskattningar av produktionskostnader är högre, t ex 15-17 SEK/l för använd matolja som råvara. [3]

Omvandlingsprocessen från biomassa till bioflygbränsle har vätgas som viktigaste insatsvara i tillägg till olja/fett-råvaran. Tillverkat av förnybara och hållbara råvaror kan bioflygbränsle med HEFA minska utsläppen av växthusgaser med 70-80% jämfört med konventionellt jetbränsle. [2, 3]

AtJ – Alcohol to Jet

Alcohol to Jet (AtJ) innebär att biojetbränsle framställs katalytiskt ur någon av alkoholerna butanol eller etanol. Dessa alkoholer kan ha framställts ur många olika biogena råvaror och en mängd olika biologiska processer. Det innebär att det finns många varianter av AtJ som produktionsväg.

För s k första generationens etanol används främst socker från sockerrör och stärkelse från sädesslag som råvara. Men användningen av grödor för drivmedelsproduktion är omdebatterad och EU har satt ett tak för den. För att bredda råvarubasen har teknik för att producera såväl etanol som butanol från lignocellulosa, t ex trä och halm, tagits fram. Restströmmar från befintlig industri kan också vara ett viktigt komplement till råvarubasen.

Att omvandla biomassa till AtJ-baserat bioflygbränsle kan ske med låg miljöpåverkan. Den övergripande miljöprestandan är en kombination av val och metod för insamling av råvara och den specifika produktionsvägen. I allmänhet betraktas rest- och biprodukter från skogsbruk och jordbruk samt biogena avfall som de viktigaste framtida råvarorna. De är enligt reglerna för växthusgasberäkning som tillämpas i förnybarhetsdirektivet [4, 5] associerade med låga utsläpp av klimatpåverkande gaser. Jämfört med fossila bränslen ger bioflygbränsle producerat från någon av dessa råvaror enligt AtJ en signifikant växthusgasreduktion. I typfallet är minskningen större än 80%. [2]

Som process är AtJ relativt mogen och ett flertal aktörer bedriver aktivt utvecklingsarbete. Tekniken är dock ännu inte demonstrerad i kommersiell storskalig produktion. Detta innebär att den ekonomiska prestandan för AtJ-processen är osäker. [6] Det är dock tydligt att produktionsekonomin skiljer sig beroende på vilken råvara som används. Priser på 25-35 SEK/l har t ex angivits för de första anläggningarna som producerar AtJ-bränsle från lignocellulosa. Med mogen teknik förväntas de sjunka till 15-25 SEK/l. [2, 7, 8]

ASTM-certifiering som tillåter upp till 50% inblandning i fossilt jetbränsle finns för produktion både via butanol och etanol.

FT – Fischer Tropsch

Fischer Tropsch (FT) är en serie kemiska reaktioner som kan användas för att uppgradera syntesgas (H2 och CO) till vätskeformiga bränslen. Råvaran för framställning av syntesgasen kan vara av både fossilt ursprung eller biomassa och avgör alltså om slutprodukten är bioflygbränsle. Det finns i dagsläget ingen storskalig produktion av flygbränsle från biomassa baserat på FT-teknik, men snarlik teknik, baserad på fossila råvaror, har sedan länge använts för kommersiell produktion av flygbränsle. Två kommersiella produktionsanläggningar är 2019 under uppförande i USA med planerad start 2020.

Det är inte möjligt att producera enbart bioflygbränsle i en FT-process, men 50-70% av produkten kan bli bioflygbränsle med förnybar diesel som den viktigaste andra produkten. Effektiviteten beror mycket på processkonfiguration och råvara men typiskt kan 35-50% av energin i råvaran bli till drivmedel. Dessutom bildas en stor mängd värme som kan vara värdefull om produktionen integreras med andra processer eller i ett fjärrvärmenät.

Det är svårt att generalisera produktionskostnader för FT-baserade bioflygbränslen. Skälet är att de i hög grad beror på lokalisering, råvaruval, anläggningens storlek och vald produktmix. Generellt präglas kostnadsprofilen av höga investeringskostnader men låga råvarukostnader jämfört med de flesta andra produktionstekniker. För FT-baserade bioflygbränslen anges ofta produktionskostnader i ett intervall om 10-20 SEK/l. [2, 3, 8, 9] Kostnader i den lägre delen av intervallet kan sannolikt nås för kommande anläggningar som byggs integrerade med befintlig industri, exempelvis svensk skogsindustri.

Att omvandla biomassa till FT-baserat bioflygbränsle har potential att göras med mycket liten miljöpåverkan från själva omvandlingsprocessen eftersom få ytterligare insatsvaror används och endast lite avfall bildas. Det innebär att så länge hållbart producerade och insamlade råvaror används, kan totalt sett god miljöprestanda nås med denna produktionsväg. Med de regler för växthusgasberäkning som tillämpas i förnybarhetsdirektivet [4, 5] är dessa associerade med låga klimatgasutsläpp och ger växthusgasreduktion för producerat bioflygbränsle med >90% jämfört med fossila bränslen. [7]

Fact sheet  | 

Research-based conclusions on renewable fuels

The transition towards an energy-efficient society with energy-efficient vehicles poses a lot of complex questions. We need a systems perspective…

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The transition towards an energy-efficient society with energy-efficient vehicles poses a lot of complex questions. We need a systems perspective both to adequately phrase the questions, and to visualise the conditions of renewable transition options for the transport sector. f3 presents six conclusions based on the knowledge of researchers and experts active in our network:

  1. We need renewable transportation fuels to reach climate targets
  2. Sustainable feedstock for large-scale production of rebewable fuels is available
  3. Renewable transportation fuels reduces greenhouse gas emissions
  4. A variety of renewable transportation fuels and production technologies are needed
  5. Powerful efforts within both policy and R&D are needed
  6. Swedish technology and knowledge export plays an important part in the global climate challange

Each of these conclusions refer to research that has been performed within f3 and the collaborative research program Renewable transportation fuels and systems.

Currently, the folder that elaborates on the conclusions is available in Swedish only. It can be downloaded as PDF and ordered in printed copies from the f3 office.

Miscellaneous  | 

Actor networks, local policy instruments, and public procurement that support biogas development

Cities and regions can play an important role in supporting an increased use of biogas in the transport sector. The…

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Cities and regions can play an important role in supporting an increased use of biogas in the transport sector. The tools thay can use are public procurement, local policy measures and broad stakeholder networks.

What does it take to eliminate barriers and create incentives for biogas development, thereby contributing to the transition to a fossil free vehicle fleet? The purpose of this project has been to give local decisionmakers efficient tools in their work. Conclusions derive from case studies in three Swedish Regions, and have been verified through stakeholders active in local biogas development projects.

The researchers have identified five factors for success:

  1. By chosing biogas themselves, cities and regions can set an important example and pave to the way for private stakeholders.
  2. Public procurement in favour of vehicles that run on gas and/or services carried out by gas vehicles is a powerful driver for biogas development.
  3. Following up on targets and demands ensures policy compliance.
  4. Collaborative stakeholder networks that share information and knowledge facilitate working in a common direction.
  5. Addressing parts of the biogas system that are lagging behind allows is a prerequisite for identifying proper measures in these areas.

Results are mainly avalable in Swedish. Both the final report and executive summary however include summaries in English.

Facts

Manager
Tomas Lönnqvist, IVL

Contact
tomas.lonnqvist@ivl.se

Participants
Sara Anderson, Julia Hansson, Anders Hjort and Sven-Olof Ryding, IVL // Robert Lundmark and Patrik Söderholm, Bio4Energy (LTU)

Time plan
September 2018 - December 2019

Total project cost
1 600 000 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, IVL, Bio4Energy (LTU), Luleå Municipality, Dalsland Environment and Energy Federation, Energigas Sverige AB, Biogas Öst AB, Energy Agency for Southeast Sweden, Västra Götaland County Council, Region Gotland and Fyrbodals Municipal Association

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
46979-1

Project Manager: Tomas Lönnqvist

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2020-02-01

Indirect Land Use Change – ILUC

The fact sheet is at this point only available in Swedish. Förhållanden mellan markanvändning och biodrivmedel diskuteras i många sammanhang.

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The fact sheet is at this point only available in Swedish.

Förhållanden mellan markanvändning och biodrivmedel diskuteras i många sammanhang. Att uppta mark för biodrivmedelsproduktion kan potentiellt leda till att matproduktion flyttar till andra platser, och att ny odlingsmark behöver tas i anspråk. Detta kan påverka både livsmedelspriser och utsläpp av växthusgaser. Men vad säger den senaste forskningen?

Vad är ILUC?

I debatten används ofta uttrycken direkt och indirekt förändrad markanvändning. De brukar förkortas DLUC (eng. Direct Land Use Change) och ILUC (eng. Indirect Land Use Change).

DLUC innebär att mark byter användning, från exempelvis skog till åkermark, för att möjliggöra odling av grödor till biodrivmedel. Det är viktigt att ta med i beräkning av klimatprestanda för biodrivmedel från länder där det sker avskogning. DLUC kan beräknas via mätningar av mängden kol i mark och biomassa innan och efter den ändrade markanvändningen, eller via modeller. Även om det finns stora osäkerheter i bedömningen finns en direkt koppling mellan grödan och den ändrade markanvändningen.

Samband mellan efterfrågan på grödor och direkta och indirekta effekter på markanvändning.

ILUC är ett mer komplicerat begrepp, grundat i ekonomiska resonemang. Om vi inom EU upptar stora arealer för odling av grödor till biodrivmedel, kan det bli en påverkan på livsmedelspriserna. Vår matproduktion kan då flyttas till andra områden inom EU, eller till andra delar av världen där maten är billigare att producera. Det kan leda till att ny odlingsmark tas i anspråk, mark som tidigare kanske varit i träda, skog eller extensiv betesmark. Det behöver inte vara negativt; om mark i träda som inte används kommer i bruk, kan vi producera mat och biodrivmedel och samtidigt binda in mer kol i marken.

Högre livsmedelspriser kan innebära att bönderna ser möjlighet till investeringar i jordbruket och kan intensifiera sin odling, vilket ofta är klimatsmart. Högre livsmedelspriser kan även påverka konsumtionsmönster. ILUC-teorin uttrycks alltså i flera steg och är svår att härleda till biodrivmedel då det finns många andra faktorer som påverkar bönders och konsumenters val. ILUC brukar därför uppskattas med hjälp av ekonomiska jämviktsmodeller.

Hur stor klimatpåverkan ger ILUC?

Det finns en stor mängd litteratur som försöker uppskatta ILUC. Resultaten varierar mycket och beror på val av modelleringsverktyg, systemgränser, indata och så vidare. Spannet varierar mellan -75 och 55 g koldioxidekvivalenter (CO2-ekv) per megajoule (MJ) biodrivmedel enligt senaste IPCC-rapporten om markanvändning. Det kan jämföras med utsläpp från ett fossilt bränsle på ca 94 g CO2-ekv per MJ. Ofta får grödbaserade drivmedel högre ILUC än lignocellulosabaserade drivmedel. Notera att ILUC i vissa fall kan bli negativt, det vill säga en besparing av utsläpp. Det kan hända i de fall där biprodukter ersätter andra mer resurskrävande produkter, till exempel när drank ersätter soja.

Bör vi ta hänsyn till ILUC?

På grund av de stora osäkerheterna gällande metoder för att uppskatta ILUC, rekommenderar de flesta handböcker i livscykelanalys att inte inkludera ILUC i klimatberäkningar av enskilda produkter.

I ett globalt perspektiv går det att ifrågasätta relevansen av ILUC. När en ändring i markanvändning sker, räknas den som DLUC för den gröda som odlas på platsen. Att samma markanvändning sedan även ska bokföras som ILUC för en annan gröda blir en dubbelräkning. ILUC är alltså ett högst teoretiskt sätt att beräkna markanvändning, i verkligheten finns bara DLUC.

Men att beräkna ILUC kan vara relevant i vissa sammanhang, till exempel inom explorativ forskning, där effekterna på markanvändning vid införande av en policy undersöks. Vissa forskare, som Timothy D Searchinger, anser även att all markanvändning som inte producerar enligt sin maxkapacitet, leder till ILUC-effekter och bör tas med i utvärdering av markanvändning.

Oavsett diskussionen, är det extremt viktigt att värna om mark som en resurs både i Sverige och internationellt. Vi måste upprätthålla god markhälsa och minska skövling av värdefull skog. I störst möjliga mån bör bioenergi integreras i existerande system, utan att äventyra produktion av livsmedel. Det bör emellertid nämnas att biodrivmedelsgrödor utgör ett fåtal procent av den globala jordbruksmarken; vi behöver också fokusera på övriga drivkrafter till ändrad markanvändning, till exempel den globalt ökande köttkonsumtionen.

Hur hanteras ILUC i lagstiftningen?

Det är mycket svårt att lagstifta bort indirekta effekter som kan ske på andra sidan jordklotet. Men att ignorera att all markanvändning idag sammanlänkas genom ett globalt nät av förflyttningar av grödor, livsmedel och biodrivmedel är inte heller en framkomlig väg.

I EU har frågan om ILUC diskuterats länge. I det senaste direktivet om förnybar energi (2018:2001) har ILUC-risk för jordbruksråvaror delats upp i två nivåer, låg och hög. Lågrisk-ILUC tillskrivs grödor där man undviker omflyttningseffekter av foder- och livsmedelsgrödor, grödor producerade genom förbättrade jordbruksmetoder samt grödor från områden som tidigare inte användes för odling av grödor. Grödor som inte återfinns i dessa kategorier anses vara högrisk-ILUC; dessa får inte räknas in i EU:s ramverk efter 2030.

Fact sheet  | 

Well-to-wheel LCI data for HVO fuels on the Swedish market

The objective of this project is improved data for LCA of fuels. The project is an update and addition to…

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The objective of this project is improved data for LCA of fuels. The project is an update and addition to earlier projects within f3, Well-to-wheel LCI data for fossil and renewable fuels on the Swedish market and Beyond LCI: Towards EPD-conforming LCAs for vehicle fuels.

The purpose of this third project has been to complement the life cycle inventory data presented in the previous projects with data on HVO, hydrogenated vegetable oil, with the goal to better reflect the current conditions on the Swedish fuel market. The project also highlights the importance of the method used in calculations for life cycle analysis, and how results can vary significantly depending on factors such as location of feedstock production and the properties of the production facility (technology, age etc.)

Facts

Manager
Albin Källmén, IVL

Contact
albin.kallmen@ivl.se

Participants
Simon Andersson, Tomas Rydberg, Felipe Oliveira and Mia Romare , IVL

Time plan
June 2017 - April 2019

Total project cost
250 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners, IVL and NTM (Network for Transport Measures)

Project Manager: Albin Källmén

f3 Project  | Finished | 2019-05-31

Sustainable transportation fuels – a techno-economic Well-to-Wheel analysis

Increased use of wood-based biofuels and electricity for transportation is singled out as a key part of the transition towards…

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Increased use of wood-based biofuels and electricity for transportation is singled out as a key part of the transition towards a fossil-free society and a fossil-independent transport sector. This study compares different biofuels, including electricity, as an energy carrier from a techno-economic WtW-perspective. Also key figures in the form of GHG emissions and energy efficiency  are included. The goal has been to produce results that show the transport efficiency for each biofuel in the form of SEK/km, kWh/km and CO2eq/km, and compare them with fossil alternatives. The project also adopts a producer perspective to show the conditions for profitable biofuel production.

Emphasis is placed on comparisons made with consistent assumptions for the studied value chains and on studying how changes in the different parameters affect the transport efficiency of the various alternatives. What limits the potential of the different options is also discussed.

Facts

Manager
Karin Pettersson, RISE

Contact
karin.pettersson@ri.se

Participants
Henrik Gåverud and Martin Gjörling, Sweco // Mårten Larsson, Lantmännen (earlier at Sweco) // Rickard Fornell, RISE // Peter Berglund Odhner, Skåne County Administrative Board (earlier at Sweco) // Eric Zinn, Göteborg Energi AB

Time plan
September 2016 - April 2019

Total project cost
1 429 856 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, RISE, Sweco Energiguide and Göteborg Energi AB

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
42404-1

A reference group has been connected to the project, consisting of members from E.on, Volvo and Svebio.

Project Manager: Karin Pettersson

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2019-04-29

f3 Annual reports

Here you can read and download annual reports, summarizing the acitivities within f3 during specific years. From 2018, the annual…

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Here you can read and download annual reports, summarizing the acitivities within f3 during specific years. From 2018, the annual report is written in Swedish. Contact the f3 office if you want to find out more about any content.

f3 Project  | 

Biogas in the transport sector – An actor and policy analysis

Biogas vehicles have been used for decades but nevertheless the biogas market is small. The aim of this project has…

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Biogas vehicles have been used for decades but nevertheless the biogas market is small. The aim of this project has been, firstly, to increase the knowledge about how to get actors to increase the transformation of their feedstock to biogas, and increase the use of biogas vehicles. Secondly, the project has aimed at investigating how to design policy instruments to foster such development. The basic question is: What can be done and by whom to foster a more rapid development of supply and use of biogas in the transport sector? Actors, i.e. present and potential feedstock suppliers, biogas producers and users of biogas vehicles, is the first main focus. The second focus is policy instruments, where biogas is one of many biofuels that can/should be supported.

The project is a case study of the Stockholm region and designed in a way that the results should be relevant also on the national level. The biogas market is viewed as a socio-technical system and the approach includes intensive contacts with the actors.

The results are published in a project report and two articles.

Facts

Manager
Stefan Grönkvist, KTH

Contact
stefangr@kth.se

Participants
Tomas Lönnqvist and Thomas Sandberg, KTH // Jonas Ammenberg och Stefan Anderberg, Linköping University // Jürgen Jacoby, Stockholm Gas

Time plan
July 2015 - December 2016

Total project cost
1 927 625 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, KTH and Stockholm Gas

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
39595-1

Project Manager: Stefan Grönkvist

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2019-03-05

Techno-economics of long and short term technology pathways for renewable transportation fuel production

Sweden has the ambition to have a fossil-free vehicle fleet by 2030. From a short-term perspective, biofuels are needed that…

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Sweden has the ambition to have a fossil-free vehicle fleet by 2030. From a short-term perspective, biofuels are needed that can be used in existing vehicles and infrastructure (identical to gasoline or diesel; drop-in fuels). The Swedish Energy Agency has in particular highlighted lignin based biofuels as a strategically prioritized area. From a longer time perspective focus is on high-blend or pure biofuels, due to energy and resource availability reasons. Examples are cellulose-based ethanol, or methane, methanol and DME produced via biomass gasification.

In this project, short and long-term technology tracks for integrated biofuel production are evaluated regarding techno-economic performance and technology readiness level. The analysis is made based on existing knowledge and on targets for production costs under given scenarios, from which acceptable investment costs and yields will be calculated. The results can be used to guide future R&D efforts.

The project has delivered two scientific publications and a detailed report, including analysis from all project scenarios. A concluding report in Swedish has also been produced.

Facts

Manager
Erik Furusjö, IVL

Contact
erik.furusjo@ivl.se

Participants
Elisabeth Wetterlund and Yawer Jafri, Bio4Energy (LTU) // Marie Anheden, Ida Kulander och Johan Wallinder, RISE Bioeconomy

Time plan
August 2016 - December 2017

Total project cost
1 488 868 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, IVL, LTU, RISE and Preem

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
42406-1

Project Manager: Erik Furusjö

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2019-02-22

Synthesizing LCA reports on transport fuels for heavy duty trucks

Road freight vehicles are key economy enablers, they are employed for the movements of goods, such as food, electronics or…

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Road freight vehicles are key economy enablers, they are employed for the movements of goods, such as food, electronics or raw material. Today’s road freight vehicles are mainly fuelled with die­sel and use a significant fraction of the global fossil oil production. Without further policy efforts, oil demand from road freight vehicles is projected to increase considerably. Measures to lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from road freight vehicles include the use of renewable fuels, electrifica­tion and the use of fuel cells. All of these alternatives seem viable for medium size distribution trucks, but for heavy duty long-haul trucks the possible alternatives to diesel are less clear.

Life cycle assessment (LCA) can be an important tool to guide policymakers and the direction of technology development. However, from the studies examined in this work, it was recognized that available LCA studies on road freight vehicles do not sufficiently support decision making. Most studies are limited, and therefore, results from different studies are difficult to compare and lead to different recommendations. Problems identified in present studies are the following:

  1. there is only a limited number of available reports on trucks
  2. the definition of the vehicle is unclear
  3. different ap­proaches and system boundaries are applied
  4. studies are focusing on the present situation and do not include future considerations.

Furthermore, available studies are typically limited by not includ­ing equipment life cycle, end of life, analysis of resource depletion and cost.

Since there is no simple solution to lower GHG emissions from heavy duty transport it seems obvious that more LCA studies should focus on this sector. Such studies should be complete and well-defined LCAs also including equipment life cycle and end of life. In addition, it is suggested that the analysis include availability of resources as well as incorporate costs. Finally, to bet­ter support decision making, also future developments of technologies and society needs to be con­sidered. Building long-term scenarios with zero net GHG emissions and where all material is recycled is particularly important to obtain fully sustainable heavy duty transport solutions.

Facts

Manager
Ingemar Magnusson, Volvo GTT

Contact
ingemar.magnusson@volvo.com

Participants
Isabel Cañete Vela and Henrik Thunman, Chalmers // Per Hanarp, Volvo GTT

Time plan
May - November 2017

Total project cost
250 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners and Volvo

Project Manager: Ingemar Magnusson

f3 Project  | Finished | 2018-09-29

Sustainable biofuels – critical review of current views and case studies using extended systems analysis providing new perspectives and positive examples

The project is a further development of ongoing research on sustainable bioenergy systems at the departments of Fysisk Resursteori (FRT,…

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The project is a further development of ongoing research on sustainable bioenergy systems at the departments of Fysisk Resursteori (FRT, Physical Resource Theory) and Miljö- och Energisystem (AMES, Environment and Energy Systems). The aim is to broaden and further develop systems research on biofuels and add new perspectives, as well as to critically examine and propose alternatives to the approaches, analyses and policy instruments that have shaped the bioenergy development in recent years. The focus is on sustainable land use and efficient use of primary biomass as well as waste and residue streams used as feedstock for biofuels and other high-value bioproducts.

The project also focuses on the increased integration of energy systems with other systems. Case studies are carried out in order to clarify positive opportunities associated with biofuels development, as well as to demonstrate how the conclusions of the systems studies may depend on choices of method and parameter assumptions that may be disputed.

The project has high ambitions regarding scientific publishing and also regarding communication with the business community and the political system, where the IEA Bioenergy and other networks are used for effective dissemination.

Facts

Manager
Göran Berndes, Chalmers

Contact
goran.berndes@chalmers.se

Participants
Pål Börjesson, Lund University // Oskar Englund and Olivia Cintas, Chalmers // , IEA Bioenergy Task 43 - Biomass Feedstocks for Energy Markets

Time plan
September 2015 - November 2017

Total project cost
1 903 133 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, Chalmers and Lund University

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
40774-1

Project Manager: Göran Berndes

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2018-09-27

Long-term sustainability evaluation of fossil free fuels production concepts

The development of fossil free fuels will take place in a situation with successively, probably radical, changing conditions regarding surrounding…

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The development of fossil free fuels will take place in a situation with successively, probably radical, changing conditions regarding surrounding energy system, energy prices and policy instruments. This means that the conditions economically and environmentally for fossil free fuel concepts will not be the same as today. There is therefore a strong need for methods dealing with economic and environmental consequences for new bio-based fuel concepts in different future scenarios.

In this project, ongoing developments generally in this area and especially in three Swedish research groups from LTU, LU and Chalmers are analyzed and compared and possible combinations of methods identified. In addition to the project report, the project will result in a review paper with the aim to be an important contribution to the need for a firm knowledge base for decision-making about biofuel developments in industry as well as in policy-making.

Facts

Manager
Simon Harvey, Chalmers

Contact
simon.harvey@chalmers.se

Participants
Åsa Kastensson and Joakim Lundgren, Bio4Energy (LTU) // Pål Börjesson, Lund University // Matty Janssen, Chalmers

Time plan
September 2016 - March 2018

Total project cost
1 200 923 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, Chalmers, Luleå University of Technology and Lund University

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
42402-1

Project Manager: Simon Harvey

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2018-08-21

Prospects for renewable marine fuels

In order to reduce the environmental and climate impact of shipping, in the short and long term, the introduction of…

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In order to reduce the environmental and climate impact of shipping, in the short and long term, the introduction of alternative fuels is required. The International Maritime Organization, IMO, state that GHG emissions should be reduced with 50 % until 2050, compared to 2008. Since other measures are not enough increasing the use of alternative fuels with low emission rates is necessary. However, more knowledge is needed on potential alternative marine fuels. The overall aim of this project has been to assess the role of renewable fuels in the shipping sector and to contribute with scientifically based decision support for the choice of renewable fuels to industry, policy makers and other actors.

The project consists of three parts: a synthesis of knowledge on alternative marine fuels and the current activities by different actors, an assessment of factors influencing the choice of marine fuel, and a multi-criteria analysis of selected alternative marine fuels that consider technical, environmental and economic aspects. Results are presented in a summary report and a scientific article.

Facts

Manager
Julia Hansson, IVL

Contact
julia.hansson@ivl.se

Participants
Stina Månsson and Erik Fridell, IVL // Selma Brynolf, Karin Andersson and Maria Grahn, Chalmers

Time plan
September 2016 - December 2017

Total project cost
1 385 000 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, IVL and Chalmers

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
42403-1

A reference group has supported the project, inclulding members from Stena Line, Preem, Wallenius Marine, Energigas Sverige, Wärtsilä, Swedish Transport Administration, Swedish Maritime Administration, The Maritime Cluster of West Sweden, Swedish Energy Agency and SSPA.

Project Manager: Julia Hansson

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2018-06-18

Prospects for renewable LBG in Sweden in 2030

The interest for renewable liquid methane as a fuel for heavy duty road and marine transports has risen in Sweden…

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The interest for renewable liquid methane as a fuel for heavy duty road and marine transports has risen in Sweden as well as in the EU as a whole, referring to its’ tehnology readiness level, and the relatively large climate benefits and high energy density. One example of this is the discussion on possibilities of replacing liquid natural gas (LNG) with liquid biogas (LBG) in a longer time perspective.

This project aims at studying the possibilities with LBG in Sweden, focusing on the year 2030. The project will map the possibilities for LBG production in Sweden and compare them with scenarios regarding the predicted demand. Creating a better understanding of the conditions for LBG as an alternative fuel for heavy duty vehicles and ships, the project aims to answer the quesion of what a realistic level of contribution of LBG in Sweden in 2030 is.

The project complements an earlier project that broadly studied the prospects for renewable transportation fuels in Sweden, but without any specific focus on LBG, whish is the focis of this new project. There are also connections to three projects within the f3 and Swedish Energy Agency collaborative research program Renewable transportion fuels and systems and one f3 project:

  • Methane as vehicle fuel – a gate-to-wheel study (METDRIV)
  • Prospects for renewable marine fuels
  • Biogas in the transport sector – An actor and policy analysis
  • How can forest-derived methane complement biogas from anaerobic digestion in the Swedish transport sector? (f3 project)

The project report is written in Swedish with a short summary in English.

Facts

Manager
Anders Hjort, IVL

Contact
anders.hjort@ivl.se

Participants
Julia Hansson and Tomas Lönnqvist, IVL

Time plan
June 2018 - May 2019

Total project cost
250 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners and IVL

Project Manager: Anders Hjort

f3 Project  | Finished | 2018-06-01

An innovation policy framework and policy options for the development of biorefineries

This project investigates how different policy instruments contribute to the commercialization of future biorefineries and the production of renewable transport…

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This project investigates how different policy instruments contribute to the commercialization of future biorefineries and the production of renewable transport fuels in combination with other products. The project goals include: (i) a synthesis of existing international knowledge on policy instruments targeting innovation, up-scaling and deployment of new technology with a focus on biorefinery technologies and renewable transport fuels; (ii) the development of an innovation policy framework that can be used to analyze how different types of policy instruments contribute to R&D, up-scaling and the diffusion of mature technologies; and (iii) an assessment of potential policy options from a Swedish perspective. To promote innovation and industrial capacity all three above-mentioned phases of technological development need to be stimulated. In Sweden, there is a lack of policy instruments for scaling up innovative technology and for the further diffusion of more mature technology.

Facts

Manager
Hans Hellsmark, Chalmers

Contact
hans.hellsmark@chalmers.se

Participants
Julia Hansson and Tomas Lönnqvist, IVL // Patrik Söderholm, Bio4Energy (LTU)

Time plan
September 2016 - December 2017

Total project cost
1 529 350 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, IVL, LTU, Perstorp, Preem, Göteborg Energi AB and Lantmännen

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
42394-1

Project Manager: Hans Hellsmark

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2018-05-14

Methanol production via black liquor gasification with expanded raw material base

Effective utilization of by-products of biochemical fuel production is crucial for its development and there is a need to expand…

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Effective utilization of by-products of biochemical fuel production is crucial for its development and there is a need to expand the raw material base for black liquor gasification. These are the reasons for this projects’ aims to environmentally and techno-economically evaluate co-gasification of black liquor and by-products of biochemical fuel production (glycerol and fermentation residues) and pyrolysis of forest residues for the production of bio-methanol. The Swedish technical production potential of two different grades of methanol (crude methanol and grade AA) via the production chains will also be assessed.

The project complements two currently ongoing research projects at Luleå University of Technology where experimental studies regarding blending of the above materials in black liquor are carried out.

Facts

Manager
Joakim Lundgren, Bio4Energy (LTU)

Contact
joakim.lundgren@ltu.se

Participants
Lara Carvalho and Elisabeth Wetterlund, Bio4Energy (LTU) // Erik Furusjö, IVL and Bio4Energy (LTU) // Johanna Olofsson and Pål Börjesson, Lund University // Golnar Azimi, Perstorp Bioproducts AB

Time plan
August 2015 - October 2017

Total project cost
1 387 000 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, Bio4Energy, Lund University and Perstorp

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
40759-1

Project Manager: Joakim Lundgren

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2018-05-09

Electrolysis and electro-fuels in the Swedish chemical and biofuel industry: a comparison of costs and climate benefits

To reach the national goals of a fossil-independent vehicle fleet by 2030, a 100 % renewable power production by 2040…

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To reach the national goals of a fossil-independent vehicle fleet by 2030, a 100 % renewable power production by 2040 and a climate neutral society by 2045, it is essential that the production of renewa­ble fuels, the de-fossilisation of Swedish industry at large scale and the development of a more flexible electrical system including large-scale storage now gain momentum. One way that could contribute partly to an electrical system in balance and partly to an increased production of renewable substances, is to utilise the increasing access of renewable, low cost electricity for electrolysing water into hydrogen – so-called electro-hydrogen – and oxygen.

Renewable electro-hydrogen can be used as energy storage or as fuel in for example fuel cell vehicles, but may have its outmost potential in processes that replace fossil feedstock and/or energy carriers in various industrial processes such as steel, chemical and biofuel production. Furthermore, the electro-hydrogen can be used to bind larger CO2 emissions from e.g. biogas plants, steel or cement industry and via so-called electro-fuel processes (sometimes also called power-to-gas or power-to-fuel) generate valuable products such as methane and methanol in a circular economy. The different applications have different degrees of maturity, but are generally still far from a broad commercial penetration.

The aim of this project has been to provide a public, easily accessible summary of the conditions re­quired for electro-hydrogen to be considered as a viable alternative for de-fossilising various industrial sectors in Sweden. The analysis is based on a number of case studies focused on the Swe­dish chemical and biofuel industry and having the Swedish cement and steel industry as references for comparison of the demand for electro-hydrogen.

Facts

Manager
Anna-Karin Jannasch, RISE

Contact
anna-karin.jannasch@ri.se

Participants
Maria Grahn, Chalmers // Mattias Backmark and Linda Werner, Preem // Anna Berggren, Perstorp // Charlotte Lorentzen, Ecobränsle // Magnus Lundqvist, Swerea Mefos // Mikael Nordlander, Vattenfall // Mathias Thorén and Jonas Larsson, SSAB // Bodil Wilhelmsson, Cementa

Time plan
May - November 2017

Total project cost
250 000 SEK

Funding
RISE and Chalmers. The project has received external funding from the Chalmers and Preem Industrial Collaboration.

Project Manager: Anna-Karin Jannasch

f3 Project  | Finished | 2018-05-08

Transportation fuels from lignocellulose in a process combination

The continuous evaluation of business opportunities for Agroetanol has identified a patented pro­cess combination for the production of second-generation transportation…

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The continuous evaluation of business opportunities for Agroetanol has identified a patented pro­cess combination for the production of second-generation transportation fuels. According to previ­ous evaluations, this combination could produce such fuels from wood and straw at cost levels comparable to the present costs for first-generation fuels.

The overall process combines existing techniques and no basic R&D is required. Together with the dedicated production of transportation fuels without by-products and a minimum of waste product handling, this has prompted a joint study with the patent holder. The objective of the study is to evaluate the possibilities for the establishment of a demonstration unit at Agroetanol’s ethanol plant at Händelö.

Facts

Manager
Anders Holmbom, Lantmännen

Contact
anders.holmbom@lantmannen.com

Participants
Anders Östman, Cellolose Fuels

Time plan
June - September 2017

Total project cost
247 500 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners, Lantmännen and Cellulose Fuels

Project Manager: Anders Holmbom

f3 Project  | Finished | 2018-05-07

Gasification-based biofuels – Greenhouse gas emissions and profitability analysis with general and sector-specific policy instruments

Gasification-based biofuel production systems have a large potential to contribute to climate change mitigation in the transport sector. The commercial…

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Gasification-based biofuel production systems have a large potential to contribute to climate change mitigation in the transport sector. The commercial feasibility of renewable energy technol­ogies is affected by fossil fuel prices, the price of biomass and policy instruments, for example a cost for carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e).

The aim of this project has been to analyze and quantify the level of a sector specific greenhouse gas (GHG) emission cost (per CO2e) in transport required for making gasification-based biofuel pro­duction systems profitable under different future energy market scenarios. The analysis of the gasification-based systems builds upon the earlier work by the project participants and includes production systems of synthetic natural gas (SNG), methanol and Fischer-Tropsch fuels. The future energy market scenarios are based on the fossil fuel prices in the ”New Policy Scenario” and ”450 ppmv Scenario” presented in World Energy Outlook 2016. The project analysis also includes a comparison of the profitability and GHG emission re­duction potential from the gasification-based systems to systems where the same amount of bio­mass is used in conventional conversion technologies to produce electricity and where the electrici­ty is used in battery electric vehicles.

The results show that the level of the sector specific CO2e cost required to make the gasification-based systems profitable is not higher than the current level of CO2 tax in Swedish transport sector. Also, the results show that the systems where the biomass is used for electricity production and in BEV have higher profitability than the gasification-based systems. However, the electricity-based systems have a stronger dependency on heat sinks and a high price for delivered heat.

Facts

Manager
Kristina Holmgren, earlier at IVL

Contact
kristina.holmgren@vti.se

Participants
Tomas Lönnqvist, IVL // Thore Berntsson, Chalmers

Time plan
May 2016 - November 2017

Total project cost
250 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners and IVL. Additional funding has been provided by Göteborg Energi foundation for research and development.

Project Manager: Kristina Holmgren

f3 Project  | Finished | 2018-04-19

Integrated assessment of vehicle fuels with sustainability LCA – Social and environmental impacts in a life cycle perspective

The sustainability of biofuels for transport is often expressed as their possibility to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions compared to…

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The sustainability of biofuels for transport is often expressed as their possibility to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions compared to conventional fossil fuels. But the production and use of transport fuel s also result in other environmental impact and social/socioeconomic consequences.

This project has aimed at a Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA) for transport fuels based on different life cycle methods. An LCSA integrates environmental, social and economic aspects in one analysis. The project is a continuation of a previous project.

The targets of this new project have been to

  • deepen the analysis of social impact for the 3-4 fuel chains with high risks in the earlier project
  • try to integrate positive and negative social aspects
  • further develop the LCSA methodology and apply this on transport fuels
  • discuss the importance for policy development in the area.

Facts

Manager
Elisabeth Ekener, KTH

Contact
elisabeth.ekener@abe.kth.se

Participants
Julia Hansson, Mathias Gustavsson, Jacob Lindberg, Felipe Oliveira and Jonathan Wranne, IVL // Philip Peck, Lund University (IIIEE) // Aron Larsson, Stockholm University

Time plan
September 2014 - September 2016

Total project cost
1 997 500 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, KTH, IVL and Lund University

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
39120-1

Project Manager: Elisabeth Ekener

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2018-03-14

Vehicles and infrastructure for heavy long-haul transports fueled by electricity and hydrogen

A lot of research, development and demonstration efforts are directed towards electric roads and fuel cell vehicles and two of…

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A lot of research, development and demonstration efforts are directed towards electric roads and fuel cell vehicles and two of the major demonstration projects worldwide are situated in Sweden: Sandviken and Arlanda. This projects provides an updated view of the technical and economic devel­opment for long-haul road transports fuelled by electricity and hydrogen in a Swedish context. Several main actors involved in the electric road system technologies in the Swedish projects have been interviewed, as well as heavy vehicle manufacturers and hydrogen fuel suppliers.

Three different types of electric road systems – overhead conductive, rail conductive and dynamic inductive – have been studied together with fuel cells. Estimates for the present and future energy, vehicle and infrastructure costs have been derived from literature sources. Some adaptations and assumptions have been made for possible comparisons to the costs of conventional long-haul diesel lorries.

In the beginning of the considered time period (2017 to 2030), the vehicle costs of the new technol­ogies, especially for the fuel cell vehicles, were found to be much higher than for conventional diesel vehicles. Towards the end of this period, the differences were not as significant according to the cost projections. The infrastructure costs of the electric road systems were found to be high and the costs of the dynamic inductive solutions were the highest.

Facts

Manager
Stefan Grönkvist, KTH

Contact
stefangr@kth.se

Participants
Francesca Sartini, University of Pisa // Magnus Fröberg, Scania

Time plan
May 2016 - November 2017

Total project cost
233 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners, KTH and Scania

Project Manager: Stefan Grönkvist

f3 Project  | Finished | 2018-03-12

Knowledge synthesis on new value chains by thermochemical conversion of digestate for increased biofuel production in Sweden

To be able to replace fossil fuels with second-generation biofuels and reach the goal of a fossil-fuel independent vehicle fleet…

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To be able to replace fossil fuels with second-generation biofuels and reach the goal of a fossil-fuel independent vehicle fleet in 2030, it is important to utilize the raw material that today is digested more efficiently. The purpose of this project has been to investigate if residuals from biochemical conversion can be used as raw material, in a techno-economical way, for gasification for the production of biofuels, and if there are gaps in knowledge on this issue.

The value chain covered by the project includes the sub-steps digestate-digestate treatment-gasification-handling of ashes. The project’s aim has been to provide Swedish industry and government with a basis for evaluating if digestate from biogas production can be gasified and which values the suggested value chain can result in, compared to how the digestate and its corresponding value chain looks like today.

Photo: freeimages.com/Mihai Caliseriu

Facts

Manager
Anna-Karin Jannasch, RISE

Contact
anna-karin.jannasch@ri.se

Participants
Kent Davidsson and Sudhansu Pawar, RISE // Mikael Lantz, Lund University

Time plan
January - December 2017

Total project cost
500 000 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, RISE and Lund University

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
43682-1

Project Manager: Anna-Karin Jannasch

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2018-02-27

Marine feedstock based biofuels and ecosystem services

Climate change mitigation is prioritized in numerous national and international policy decisions and action plans, particularly in relation to the…

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Climate change mitigation is prioritized in numerous national and international policy decisions and action plans, particularly in relation to the transportation sector. Renewable energy sources are considered sustainable alternatives to the use of fossil fuels. Marine feedstocks like algae and sea squirts are depicted as interesting alternatives to more traditional biofuels produced from forest residues or agricultural crops; not competing with food and requiring less land area. However, prior to full-scale production, an all-embracing sustainability assessment is needed, screening possible impacts of marine-based biofuel production. For this, there is a need to identify the different ecosystem services affected.

This project has aimed at identifying and describing ecosystem services and appropriate indicators that are affected by production of marine feedstock based biofuels in Sweden.

Facts

Manager
Karin Hansen, earlier at IVL

Contact
karin.hansen@naturvardsverket.se

Participants
Karin Hansen, Roman Hackl, Anna-Sara Krång and Julia Hansson, IVL // Susanne Ekendahl och Johan Engelbrektsson, RISE

Time plan
January - December 2017

Total project cost
517 975 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, f3 partners, IVL and RISE

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
43679-1

Project Manager: Karin Hansen

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2018-02-15

Phosphorus recovery in algae-based biofuels

Replacing fossil fuels with sustainable fuel from biomass requires both innovative technological solutions and a feedstock that does not put…

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Replacing fossil fuels with sustainable fuel from biomass requires both innovative technological solutions and a feedstock that does not put too much strain on food production and land use. Hy­drothermal liquefaction, HTL, is a technology for producing biofuels that has been gathering increasing interest, and by using seaweed (macroalgae) as a feedstock it is a promising option that fulfils both previously mentioned criteria. Using macroalgae has the added benefit of remediating eutrophic coastal waters since the macroalgae during marine cultivation absorb some of the excess nutrients from the surroundings.

The main culprit in eutrophication is phosphorus, which is primarily used in fertilizers and ends up in the environment from agricultural runoff. After the HTL of the macroalgae, the phosphorus can be recovered and used to produce struvite, a natural fertilizer that can replace the conventional mineral fertilizer.

The purpose of this study has been iden­tify profitable and environmentally friendly technological solutions connecting phosphorous recov­ery with macroalgae processed with HTL and at the same time diver­sify the products outcome of biofuel production.

The project consisted of a comprehensive analysis of available phosphorus recovery technologies through a literature review and citation network analysis as well as modelling of one phosphorus recovery technology. Three different options of the chosen phosphorus recovery were assessed where the economic performance was evaluated by comparing the operating cost for the different options and the environmental im­pact was evaluated by comparing cumulative energy demand (CED), global warming potential (GWP) and eco-indicator99 (EI99).

Facts

Manager
Stavros Papadokonstantakis, Chalmers

Contact
stavros.papakonstantakis@chalmers.se

Participants
Andrea Gambardella, Johan Askmar and Yiyu Ding, Chalmers

Time plan
May - November 2017

Total project cost
250 000 SEK

Funding
The f3 partners and Chalmers

Project Manager: Stavros Papadokonstantakis

f3 Project  | Finished | 2018-02-05

Determination of potential improvements in bio-oil production (ImprOil)

An important route for renewable transportation fuels is to produce bio-oil from forest raw material through e.g. fast pyrolysis, which…

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An important route for renewable transportation fuels is to produce bio-oil from forest raw material through e.g. fast pyrolysis, which is then upgraded to fuel at an existing refinery. The oxygen content of the produced crude bio-oil determins the hydrogen demand to reduce the oxygen content to the required level from a refinery perspective and for use in engines. The H2 demand affects, in turn, the cost and the associated CO2 emissions of the bio-oil, as they are, to a large degree a result of the production route for hydrogen. This has been shown in an earlier project, Value chains for production of renewable transportation fuels using intermediates.

The purpose of this project has been to investigate alternative technologies that result in a lower oxygen content of the produced crude bio-oil, and alternative routes for production of hydrogen with a lower climate impact than hydrogen from natural gas. The different combined production routes is compared with respect to total cost, CO2-footprint, conversion yield and energy efficiency.

Facts

Manager
Marie Anheden, Formerly RISE

Contact
ida.kulander@ri.se

Participants
Ida Kulander, Karin Pettersson and Johan Wallinder, RISE // Lennart Wamling, Chalmers // Carl-Johan Hjerpe and Malin Fugelsang, ÅF Industri AB // Åsa Håkansson, Preem AB

Time plan
September 2016 - December 2017

Total project cost
1 405 000

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, Åf Industri AB and Preem

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
39587-2

Project Manager: Marie Anheden

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2018-01-26

Biofuels and ecosystem services

Climate change mitigation is high on the agenda in numerous national and international policy decisions and action plans, particularly in…

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Climate change mitigation is high on the agenda in numerous national and international policy decisions and action plans, particularly in relation to the transportation sector. Renewable energy sources are pointed out as sustainable alternatives to the use of fossil fuels. However, an all-embracing assessment of different environmental and social aspects related to fuel production is required in order to draw conclusions about the sustainability of different fuel options. In this context, an in-depth knowledge of the different ecosystem services affected is needed.

This project aims at fulfilling knowledge gaps by identifying and describing ecosystem services and their appropriate indicators which affect and are affected by biofuel production in Sweden. The aim has furthermore been to propose a conceptual framework to include ecosystem services in decision-making, in close collaboration with biofuel sector stakeholders.

Facts

Manager
Karin Hansen, earlier at IVL

Contact
julia.hansson@ivl.se

Participants
Julia Hansson, IVL // Danielle Maia de Souza, SLU // Gabriela Russo Lopes, Stockholm University

Time plan
August 2015 - September 2016

Total project cost
900 275 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, IVL and SLU

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
40770-1

Project Manager: Karin Hansen

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2018-01-17

Biofuels from biomass from agricultural land – land use change from a Swedish perspective

An international debate is taking place on indirect land use change (iLUC) triggered by biofuels, which could lead to large…

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An international debate is taking place on indirect land use change (iLUC) triggered by biofuels, which could lead to large emissions of greenhouse gases. The EU is expected to shortly decide about future subsidies and restrictions on the use of crops that, according to EU, can cause iLUC. Studies of iLUC caused by Swedish biofuel production are, however, lacking.

The purpose of this project has been to investigate how Swedish biofuels affect the use of land and also to study measures to minimize the risk of iLUC and trade-offs to sustainability in biomass production. The project was implemented in five parts:

  1. Literature review of iLUC models
  2. Analysis of land use statistics in Sweden
  3. Development of future scenarios for biofuels with a low risk of iLUC
  4. Case studies for the production of biofuels
  5. Development of advice to decision makers.

A summary in Swedish of background facts and conclusions based on two scientific articles (one published, the other forthcoming) has been published by Lund University in October 2017.

Facts

Manager
Serina Ahlgren, earlier at SLU

Contact
serina.ahlgren@ri.se

Participants
Lovisa Björnsson and Mikael Lantz, Lund University // Thomas Prade, SLU

Time plan
September 2015 - August 2017

Total project cost
2 619 607 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, SLU, Lund University, E.on, Lantmännen, Swedish Biogas International, Energigas Sverige, Partnership Alnarp and LRF (The Federation of Swedish Farmers)

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
40584-1

Project Manager: Serina Ahlgren

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2018-01-17

Comparison of diesel and gas distribution trucks – a life cycle assessment case study

This work presents a life cycle assessment (LCA) of a distribution truck for urban applications, with either a diesel or…

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This work presents a life cycle assessment (LCA) of a distribution truck for urban applications, with either a diesel or otto engine using different fossil and bio-based fuels. Impact of electrifica­tion is also briefly discussed. The impact assessment is done with both CO2-equivalent emissions and envi­ronmental damage cost assessment, using the Environmental Priority Strategy methodology (EPS) to provide impact on different perspectives and times when it comes to sustainability evaluation. This somewhat broader perspective, compared to conventional well-to-wheel analyses, can give better understanding of different environmental risks in technology development choices.

Facts

Manager
Per Hanarp, Volvo GTT

Contact
per.hanarp@volvo.com

Participants
Mia Romare, Volvo GTT

Time plan
September - December 2017

Total project cost
174 000 SEK

Funding
Volvo GTT

Project Manager: Per Hanarp

f3 Project  | Finished | 2018-01-10

Evaluation of biofuel production costs in relation to the new reduction obligation quota system

In the year 2017, the Swedish government proposed to introduce a reduction obligation for trans­portation fuel distributors. This would imply…

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In the year 2017, the Swedish government proposed to introduce a reduction obligation for trans­portation fuel distributors. This would imply an obligation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from fossil petrol and diesel through a gradual increased share of biofuels. The aim is to create im­proved conditions for phasing out fossil fuels through an increased proportion of biofuels with good greenhouse gas performance in a lifecycle perspective. The reduction obligation also means that not only production cost determines the overall economic performance of a biofuel production route, but also the greenhouse gas emissions. This is due to that biofuels with low greenhouse gas emissions can be blended in lower volumes than biofuels with worse greenhouse gas performance.

The main objectives of this work were partly to illustrate how the greenhouse gas performance of different biofuels relates to their economic value in the new reduction obligation system and partly to compare the resulting cost of greenhouse gas reduction for different types of biofuels.

The results show that of the biofuels available on the market today, the lowest reduction costs were obtained for biogas produced via digestion of waste as well as for sugarcane-based ethanol. Bio­diesel based on rapeseed oil results in the highest reduction costs. Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO) is currently produced from a large variety of feedstocks and thus results in a large reduction cost range, mainly due to the cost and greenhouse gas performance of the feedstock.

Emerging biofuels, so-called advanced biofuels, have the potential to achieve lower reduction costs than many of them produced via today’s production chains. This applies primarily to biofuels pro­duced by thermochemical conversion such as pyrolysis followed by refinery-integrated upgrading and gasification-based technology. However, in the cases where hydrogen is required for upgrading of liquids from pyrolysis or lignin polymerization, there are major cost reduction uncertainties, largely due to the origin of the hydrogen.

The project report is written in Swedish.

Project Manager: Erik Furusjö

f3 Project  | Finished | 2017-12-20

BeWhere – Stake-holder analysis of biofuel production in Sweden

Sweden has set ambitious targets for conversion to a fossil-free transportation sector. Advanced, so-called second generation, biofuels are an important…

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Sweden has set ambitious targets for conversion to a fossil-free transportation sector. Advanced, so-called second generation, biofuels are an important factor in order to achieve this. Large-scale production of biofuels from, for example, forest biomass involves a number of challenges related to geographical aspects, transportation, and integration with existing industries and energy systems.

In this project, which is a continuation of two previous projects (Optimal localisation of second generation biofuel production in Sweden part I and part II, the geographical location model BeWhere Sweden is used. The objective of the project has been to demonstrate and validate the model’s usefulness for relevant stakeholders, and to use the model to examine barriers and drivers for the implementation of new large-scale biofuel production in Sweden. To provide a more comprehensive representation of the prospects for biofuel production, the model is also complemented with agriculture-based biofuels.

Facts

Manager
Elisabeth Wetterlund, Bio4Energy (LTU)

Contact
elisabeth.wetterlund@ltu.se

Participants
Robert Lundmark och Joakim Lundgren, Bio4Energy (LTU) // Magdalena Fallde, Linköping University // Karin Pettersson and Johan Torén, SP (RISE) // Johanna Olofsson and Pål Börjesson, Lund University // Marie Anheden and Valeria Lundberg, Innventia (RISE) // Dimitris Athanassiadis, Bio4Energy (SLU) // Erik Dotzauer, Fortum // Björn Fredriksson-Möller, E.on // Lars Lind, Perstorp // Marlene Mörtsell, SEKAB

Time plan
September 2014 - October 2017

Total project cost
2 205 000 SEK

Funding
Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, Bio4Energy (LTU + SLU), Linköping University, Lunds University, Chalmers, SP, Innventia, Chemrec, Sekab, Perstorp and E.on

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program
39118-1

Project Manager: Elisabeth Wetterlund

Collaborative research program  | Finished | 2017-11-08

FOCUS ON: Renewable transportation fuels – from technologic potential to practical use in society

It is beyond doubt that human activity affects the climate. Emissions of greenhouse gases have increased since the beginning of…

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It is beyond doubt that human activity affects the climate. Emissions of greenhouse gases have increased since the beginning of industrialization, and the atmospheric levels of the most important greenhouse gases, carbon dioxode, methane and nitrous oxide, are higher than ever. In order to halt, and, in the long run, turn the development towards a warmer climate around, greenhouse gas emissions need to decrease drastically. Both a decreased use of energy as well as a transition to renewable energy will be needed.

Focus On  | 

Barriers to an increased utilisation of high biofuel blends in the Swedish vehicle fleet

The aim of the Swedish government is a fossil fuel-free vehicle fleet to 2030. In order to meet future environmental…

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The aim of the Swedish government is a fossil fuel-free vehicle fleet to 2030. In order to meet future environmental goals and reduce the dependence on fossil fuels, high biofuel blends, such as ethanol and biogas, will likely be a substantial part of the fleet.

The aim of this project has been to develop a better understanding of the barriers that currently exists for an increased use of high blend ethanol (especially E85) and ethanol vehicles and by ex­tension other similar vehicle using high biofuel blends. This knowledge is important to provide decision makers with data and recommendations for which incentives and regulations must be created to be able to increase the use of high biofuel blends in Sweden.

Results