Multi-filling stations can be the way to increased hydrogen production

Future multi-filling stations that produce and/or sell hydrogen together with other fuels could facilitate the introduction of renewable hydrogen.

Hydrogen can play an important role in reducing the environmental impact of heavy road transport. The introduction can be facilitated if the hydrogen is sold at existing filling stations, which already have a functioning infrastructure and customers.

The project has evaluated the cost and climate performance of four different system solutions for production, distribution and storage of hydrogen. Two are centralized large-scale hydrogen production via water electrolysis or steam reforming of biomethane (SMR) requiring distribution through dedicated distribution channels, and two are on-site hydrogen production via electrolysis and SMR (decentralized production).

The analysis indicates that the most cost-effective alternative is to produce hydrogen with electrolysis on site at a slightly larger filling station, with the capacity to annually provide 10 GWh of hydrogen. This corresponds to approximately 800 kg of hydrogen/day. The production price per kg of hydrogen will then be 75 SEK, with an electricity price of 1 SEK/kWh. However, a competitive cost for hydrogen should be around 50 SEK per kg with respect to the purchase price of a hydrogen vehicle, which today is still higher than that for a corresponding diesel vehicle.

In general, the analysis shows that the systems with the larger capacity present a lower price per kg of hydrogen. It also shows that that electrolysis of water is cheaper than reforming biomethane when the electricity price is 1 SEK/kWh, and the price for biomethane is 0,7 SEK/kWh in central production and 0.9 SEK/kWh at the pump.

However, reforming of biomethane results in lower net emissions of greenhouse gases compared with electrolysis, as the Swedish mix of biomethane contains fertilizer, which results in negative emissions when fertilizer is used in a biogas plant instead of conventional handling in agriculture.

Results from the project were presented (in Swedish) in a webinar on 29 March, 2022:


Anders Hjort and Anton Fagerström, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute


Karl Jivén, Johan Rootzén, Adam Lewrén, Theo Nyberg, Mirjam Särnbratt and Sofia Poulikidou, IVL // Pontus Bokinge and Stefan Heyne, CIT Industrial Energy

Time plan
15 June 2020 - 31 December 2021

Total project cost
2 800 000 SEK

The Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners organisations, AB Borlänge Energi. E.on Biofor Sverige AB, Gasum AB, IVL, Metacon AB, Neste AB, Nilsson Energy, Powercell Sweden AB, Sandviken municipality, Trollhättan Energi and Volvo Technology AB.

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program

The projects has a reference group consisting of representatives of fuel producers, filling stations, technology providers and users. These are E.on, Volvo, Borlänge Energi, Powercell, Metacon and Sandviken
Pure Power.