Potential for increased Swedish HVO raw material - but cannot cover the entire need

Several domestic raw materials are suitable to produce HVO fuels. The outtake could increase, but the potential is not sufficient to fully cover the current demand.

Hydrogen-treated vegetable oil (HVO) is the single largest biofuel in Sweden, but only seven percent of the HVO used in Sweden is based on Swedish raw materials.

The project has identified twelve raw materials that can be produced under Nordic conditions and estimated the raw material potential for a possible HVO production in Sweden.

Two of the raw materials, the oilseed crop Camelina and GROT (branches and tops from forestry), were selected for analysis of climate performance and techno-economic conditions. The results show that fatty acids from these raw materials can be extracted at a competitive price and with relatively low climate emissions from cultivation, harvesting and conversion to HVO.

When grown as a cover crop, winter Camelina has a relatively low potential. However, it could increase production from agricultural land, reduce erosion and benefit pollinators. Experimental cultivation can be the next step in further exploring the possibility of increasing the production of fatty acids in Swedish agriculture.

GROT has high potential and is a relatively cheap raw material. To utilize it, the technology for converting lignocellulose into fatty acids must become commercially mature.

The project report also states that an increased outtake of GROT risks reducing the amount of stored carbon, which is crucial for the climate performance of the fuel produced. The project therefore recommends a further analysis of the entire forest system.

A recording of a webinar were the project results are presented (in Swedish) is available here:


Hanna Karlsson, SLU


Torun Hammar and Kajsa Henryson, SLU // Sofia Poulikidou, IVL // , Neste // , Preem AB

Time plan
January 2019 - December 2021

Total project cost
1 303 628 SEK

Swedish Energy Agency, the f3 partners, SLU, IVL, Neste and Preem AB

Swedish Energy Agency's project number within the collaborative research program